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provides a description of the data characteristics and the set of relationships that link the data found within the database.

Database Management System

The ______________________ serves as the intermediary between the user and the database.

Data inconsistency

exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places.


An _____________ database is used by an organization and supports many users across many departments.


A _____________ database supports data distributed across several different sites.

Data warehouse

The _______ ____________ structure is quite different from that of an operational or transactional database.


_____________ data exists in a format that does not lend itself to processing that yields information.


A __________ is a logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing.

Single user

A desktop database is a _______ ________ database.


An _________ is anything about which data are to be collected and stored.


An _____________ is the equivalent of a field in a file system.


__________ are important because they help to ensure data integrity.


Students and classes have a ____-___- ____ relationship.

a detailed description of an organizations operations.

Business rules are derived from _________________________________________.

Used to define entities, attributes, relationships, and constraints

Which is true of business rules?


A noun in a business rule translates an _______ in the data model.


A verb associating two nouns in a business rule translates to a _____________ in the data model.

Entity relationship (ER)

The _________ ______________ model was developed to allow designers to use a graphical tool to examine structures rather than describing them with text.


A _____________ model represents a global view of the database as viewed by the entire organization.


The order of the rows and columns is important to the DBMS.


Numeric data are data on which you can perform meaningful arithmetic procedures.


A data dictionary contains metadata - data about data.


In the relational model, ______ are important because they are used to ensure that each row in a table is uniquely identifiable.


In the context of a database table, the statement "A __________ B" indicates that if you know the value of attribute A, you can look up the value of attribute B.

Key attribute

Any attribute that is part of a key is known as a _____ __________.


No data entry at all is known as a ______.


Controlled ___________ makes a relational database work.


Referential __________ means that if the foreign key contains a value, that value refers to an existing valid tuple (row) in another relation.


A ____________ key is defined as a key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes.


A primary key entries are unique, and no part of a primary key may be _____.

Intersect operator

The ________ _________ yields only the row that appear in both tables.


The ____ relationship should be rare in any relational database design.


Since it is used to link the tables that originally were related in a M:N relationship, the composite entity structure includes -as foreign keys - at least the __________ keys of the tables that are to be linked.


An _________ is an ordered arrangement of keys and pointers.


A ___________ identifier is composed of more than one attribute.


A __________ attribute can be further subdivided to yield additional attributes.


When the PK of one entity does not contain the PK of a related entity, the relationship is ______.


The Crow's foot symbol with two parallel lines indicates _________ cardinality.


A _________ relationship exists when two entities are associated.


A _________ relationship exists when three entities are associated.


__________ relationships are most common.


If an employee within an EMPLOYEE entity has a relationship with itself, that relationship is known as a ________ relationship.


An ______________ entity is composed of the primary keys of each of the entities to be connected.

Specialization hierarchy

The relationships depicted within the _____________ ______________ are sometimes described in terms of "is-a" relationships.


______________ is the bottom-up process of identifying a higher-level, more generic entity super type from lower-level entity subtypes.


The most important characteristic of an entity is its ______________ key, used to uniquely identify each entity instance.

Natural key or Natural identifier

A _______________ ( or ___________) key is a real-world, generally accepted identifier used to uniquely identify real-world objects.


____________ relationships occur when there are multiple relationship paths between related entities.


Normalization works through a series of stages called normal forms. For most purposes in business database design, _____ stages are as high as you need to go in the normalization process.

First three stages of normalization

1NF, 2NF, and 3NF are _______________________________.


Some very specialized applications may require normalization beyond the ______.


Attribute A ___________ attribute B if all of the rows in the table that agree in value for attribute A also agree in value for attribute B.

Repeating groups

A relational table must not contain a _____________ ________.


Dependencies based on only a part of a composite primary keys are called ________ dependencies.


A table that is in 1NF and includes no partial dependencies is said to be in ______.


Before converting a table into 3NF, it is imperative that the table already be in ______.


A table that is in 2NF and contains no transitive dependencies is said to be in ______.


The most likely data type for a surrogate key is ___________.


In a real-world environment, we must strike a balance between design integrity and ___________.


For most business transactional databases, we should normalize relations into ______.


To generate a surrogate key, Microsoft Access uses an _____________ data type.

Make sure entities are in normal form

When designing a database, you should __________________________________________.

Compromises that may include denormalization

The conflicts between design efficiency, information requirements, and processing speed are often resolved through ___________________________________________.

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