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Chapter 16 Vocabulary

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Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Ulysses Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Clement L. Vallandigham
Prominent Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the Confederacy
George McCellan
Ran against Lincoln, Union General who did not like fighting
Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
James Longstreet
Confederate General; led Pickett's Charge; tried to take Cemetary Ridge at Gettysburg
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Philip Sheridan
Union General that marched through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, destroying farms, livestock, crops, and anything else in his path.
Stonewall Jackson
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
"Total War"
The channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort.
Twenty Negro Law
draft exemption for white men with 20+ slaves
Elizabeth Blackwell
First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Andersonville Prison Camp
Georgia camp for captured Union soldiers
Massachusetts 54th
an infrantry regiment, first official black unit
Contraband
goods whose importation or exportation or possession is prohibited by law
Copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Chancellorsville
battle at which "Stonewall" Jackson was mistakenly killed by his own men
The Emancipation Proclamation
President Abraham Lincoln declared free all slaves residing in territory in rebellion against the federal government. This Emancipation Proclamation actually freed few people. It did not apply to slaves in border states fighting on the Union side; nor did it affect slaves in southern areas already under Union control. Naturally, the states in rebellion did not act on Lincoln's order. But the proclamation did show Americans - and the world - that the Civil War was now being fought to end slavery.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Morrill Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Vicksburg Campaign
Fell at exactly the same time at Gettysburg, Grant and Sherman have control of Mississippi River, split confederacy east and west. 1863 battle determined war.
Gettysburg Address
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Chickamauga
the Confederacy's only major victory in the Western Theater
Atlanta Campaign
General Sherman's attempt and success of Capturing Atlanta (to stop the import of supplies)
Sherman's March to the Sea
Union general Sherman's destructive march across Georgia
Appomattax
Place where Lee's surrendered (Civil War)
Assassination of Lincoln
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865.
13th Amendment
abolished slavery