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Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century
Series of military adventures initially launched by Western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and capturing Christian kingdoms; later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy
Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
Mystics within Islam; responsible for expansion of Islam to southeastern Asia and other regions
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian Kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid empire under title of Sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam
A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors has a cycle of three generations; strong, weak, dissolute
Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; relates history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests
one of the major Persian poets in the medieval period; known for depth of social thought as well as quality of writing
alchemist, physician, chemist, scholar, and philosopher. known for experimental medicine, pediatrics, neurosurgery and opthalmology
first Muslim scholar to study india and Brahman tradition; anthropologist and scientific method
pioneer of methods of doubt and skepticism; changed course of early Muslim philosophy to one based on cause and effect by God and intermediate angels, known today as occasionalism
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire
Indian emperor who ruled over Northern India for 40 years; established first diplomatic relations between China and India; BUDDHIST
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of the wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation of intolerance and aggressionN
Mahmud of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control
Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of india
Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
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