Pathology Ch 9,10,11 Review
chest, lungs, and conducting airways
The respiratory system consists of?
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
nose, mouth, sinuses, pharynx, larynx
The upper respiratory system consists of which parts?
trachea, lungs, bronchi, and bronchioles
The lower respiratory system consists of which parts?
What is the respiratory control center of the brain?
infection, inflammation, allergic reaction
When would you see nasal discharge?
ABG's, bronchoscopy, auscultation, chest X-ray's, sputum culture, PFT's
What are some common diagnostic tests for respiratory disorders?
The most common respiratory infection is called?
sinus pressure, headache, tiredness, night cough, runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat
What are symptoms of a sinus infection?
salt water gargles, throat lozenges, analgesics
How is non-bacterial pharyngitis treated?
hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, throat pain and fever
Symptoms of laryngitis include?
inhaling fumes, smoke, dust, cold air
Bronchitis is not bacterial, so what causes it?
increase fluids, rest, cough syrup, analgesics, antipyretics
How is bronchitis treated?
aches, fever, chills, back pain, muscle aches
Characteristics of influenza are?
What is the most common COPD?
symptomatically with bronchodilators
How is emphysema treated?
pursed lip breathing, leaning over a chair to use accessory muscles to blow out trapped air
Individuals with COPD can exhibit what physical behavioral symptoms that you can see?
pneumococcal & tuberculous bacterial
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli due to infection by?
symptomatically with rest, analgesics, increase fluids, high calorie diet, oxygen therapy
Treatment for viral pneumonia is ?
immobility, smoking, not exercising lungs after surgery
How does a person get pneumonia?
transportation of lymph, filters bacterial and non-bacterial products, prevents wastes from entering the circulatory system
What are the functions of the lymph vessels?
swelling of lymph gland, lymph node, or both
Characteristics of lymphadenitis include?
Streptococcal bacteria following trauma
What causes lymphangitis?
red streak at the bacterial entry site leading to lymph node, fever, chills, malaise, cellulitis
Symptoms of Lymphangitis are
antibiotics, warm moist packs, and elevation of affected area
Treatment for lymphangitis include?
lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and lymph fluid
Lymphoma refers to several types of neoplasms that affect these lymphoid tissues?
The most common type of blood cancer is?
reddened lips, tongue, and mucous membranes, rash, edema of the hands and feet, fever, dry skin
Symptoms of Kawasaki disease include?
elevating affected area when at rest, avoiding heat, avoiding tight clothing, keeping the extremity clean to avoid infection
Preventative measures for lymphedema are?
endoscopy, EGD, GI series, occult blood, ova & parasites
Diagnostic tests for the digestive system include?
the upper GI tract (swallowing barium) and the lower GI tract (barium enema)
Barium is used to visualize what in a GI series?
peristalsis (peristaltic contraction)
What moves food from the pharynx down the esophagus and into the stomach?
The thick ring of smooth muscle that connects the esophagus to the stomach is?
The opening at the end of the stomach where it meets the small intestine is called?
Another name for the large intestine is?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Name the three parts of the small intestine?
What is hematemesis?
black tarry stools
What is melena?
What is diarrhea?
disease that affects the gums (supporting structures of the teeth)
What is periodontal disease?
frequent brushing and flossing, plaque removal, and adequate diet
Prevention of periodontal disease includes?
scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and glomerulonephritis
Bacterial infection from strep throat can spread to the bloodstream and cause?
The most common symptom of reflux is?
dietary changes, avoid caffeine, antacids, elevate the head of the bed
Treatment of reflux consists of ?
A hiatal hernia is part of the stomach sliding up into what?
Esophageal varices are indicative of problems with what organ?
H pylori bacteria, tobacco, alcohol, coffee
Causes of gastritis include?