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Academic Decathlon - Social Science 2019-2020
Terms in this set (62)
Africa has a wide variety of traditional healing cultures that employ a range of spiritual, shamanistic, and herbal therapies that all operate according to their own internal rationale. From colonial encounters with African peoples, Western scientists learned about and later appropriated hundreds of prized medical commodities that are widely used today.
a term coined by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, to denote (and deride) regular or orthodox medicine's philosophy of "cure by opposites"
Alternative or complementary therapies
healing practices that do not traditionally fall under the scope of Western medicine that are offered either instead of or in addition to regular care; the therapies themselves may be spiritual, occult, part
of an indigenous healing culture, or something else entirely.
medical practitioners who primarily combined medicinal substances (herbs, spices, spirits, elixirs, or other industrial chemicals) to produce therapeutic compounds on demand; were also known to diagnose and prescribe remedies over-the-counter without the aid of a physician.
an occult practice that assigned terrestrial
meaning to the positions and movements of
celestial objects (like the stars or the planets);
astrology held that planets (from the Greek for
"wanderer") emanated special qualities or forces
that could impact peoples' lives, depending on
the planets' locations relative to the Earth, each
other, and the stars. Some of these qualities we
would now consider natural—like heat, light,
and changes to the tides—while others we would consider supernatural—like war or good fortune.
The actual practice of astrology proved important
for the foundation of secular astronomy because
of its sophisticated use of mathematics to calculate
the trajectories of celestial objects.
A lower class of medical practitioner popular especially during the Renaissance, were apprenticed rather than academically trained, and their practice (as their name suggests) included haircuts as well as basic superficial surgery, including tooth extractions and bloodletting.
the name for the class of medicaments
that was derived from living natural sources,
rather than having been constructed in a
laboratory setting or having been derived from a
One of the four elemental humors, it was associated with the earth element, and as such, was responsible for dry and cold properties in the
body. People with an excess were said to be melancholic.
One of the four elemental humors, it was
associated with the air element, and as such, was
responsible for hot and wet properties in the body.
People with an excess of blood were said to be
An important therapeutic intervention in the humoralist tradition, sought to rebalance the humors in the body if a patient was thought to have an excess of blood (pleurisy).
The practitioner would use a lancet to make an incision in a vein in the patient's arm or leg to release blood into a basin, where the blood itself could be examined for its physical properties.
a widely used mercury-based purgative
popular in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; it was evidently an incredibly effective evacuant; when Benjamin Rush outfitted Lewis and Clark's expedition with calomel pills, the pair of explorers nicknamed them "thunder clappers" for their dramatic bodily effects.
microscopic vessels that connect the
terminating point of arteries to the origin point of
veins, facilitating the passage of oxygenated blood
to the cells before returning the deoxygenated
blood back to the heart
One of the worst epidemic diseases of the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it spread
and killed rapidly, inflicting patients with watery
diarrhea to the point of dehydration.
In medicine, refers to the physical makeup and the character, especially the strength or resilience, of a body.
the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships
disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.
a model of remuneration employed by physicians before the twentieth century in which practitioners received payment directly from patients for services performed; this model often complicated the work of a physician by requiring physicians to keep their own accounts of who had paid, and they were thus responsible for collecting their own debts as well. This model was eventually replaced by more indirect forms of payment mediated by employers, hospitals, or insurance companies.
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
Golden age of medicine
a period lasting from the 1890s to the 1960s, during which medicine and medical institutions enjoyed unprecedented public enthusiasm and support; also describes the flood of impressive scientific achievements from vaccines, vitamins, antibiotics, and pharmaceuticals to new diagnostic technologies and surgical procedures.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
an approach to therapy pioneered by the American physician Benjamin Rush that took common medical remedies, like purging, puking, and bloodletting, but applied them much more intensely than had been typical to bring about extreme responses in the sick patient; the style was controversial at the time for risking patients' lives and potentially doing great harm.
pictures and other written symbols that stand for ideas, things, or sounds
a set of promises about patient care that new doctors make when they start practicing medicine
treatment of disease with minute doses of a remedy that, if given in massive doses to healthy persons, would produce effects like those of the disease
the procedure by which a healthy person is injected or otherwise infected with a mild form of a disease to prevent the contraction of a more severe form later; the first successful inoculation was for smallpox, also called variolation, which infected healthy patients with live smallpox but contained the infection to a small area of the body. Later forms of inoculation, called vaccines, used pathogens that had been killed or attenuated
(weakened) to provoke the body's immune response with less danger of contracting the disease itself.
A hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics
the trend, over the course of the nineteenth century, for natural philosophers or scientists and physicians to transition their work from observational field research or clinical practice to a dedicated laboratory space that emphasized controlled experimentation; the laboratory revolution went hand in hand with the advent of specialized laboratory tools like microscopes, Petri dishes, and chemical glassware, and the laboratory quickly became the center of scientific research.
In basic terms, it is the theory that the body is made of and therefore controlled by the same substances and forces as the universe as a whole. Just as each body operates like the universe, so too does the universe behave like a body.
ta wide array of practices (including alchemy, astrology, numerology, etc.) aimed at controlling= the natural world by manipulating immaterial action or forces; for much of medical history, magic had an ambiguous status linking what we would now categorize as science and religion.
a substance or therapy able to destroy pathogenic agents without damaging side effects
a formal certificate issued by the state or some other governing authority granting a physician or other medical practitioner the ability to sell their services to patients; throughout medical history, medical licenses have traditionally been granted to academically educated medical personnel to the exclusion of other kinds of apprenticed or nontraditional healers, who could be prosecuted legally for selling their services without a license.
the breadth of practitioners practicing any form of healing in a given place and time that would have been available for patients to choose for their care
formulas for compound medicines; many recipes had standard base formulas that had been established over generations of medical texts, to which other medical theorists would add extra ingredients to add their own stamp and justify a premium charge.
the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such
Before the theory of contagion, this term was used to describe noxious fumes or vapors thought to be responsible for disease.
device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye
A process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying
a broad term for types of knowledge or practices that seek to extend or go beyond knowledge of the natural world that is directly observable, including such practices as astrology, alchemy, and natural magic, though these practices may or may not have an underlying basis in spiritual or religious thought; occult practices are typically thought of as neither religion nor science, but somewhere in between.
a sometimes derogatory term that describes religions or spiritualities (and their practitioners) that observe more than one god (polytheism); the term is usually used to contrast these practices with the major monotheistic or Abrahamic religions.
As one of the four elemental humors, it was associated with the water element, and as such, was responsible for cold and wet properties in the body. People with an excess of phlegm were said to be phlegmatic.
the general name for the disease responsible for the Black Death, or the bubonic plague, which is now known to be caused by Yersinia pestis; in wider culture, plague can also be used as a shorthand or informal descriptor for any epidemic disease.
the fluid or current of air thought to transmit psychic impulses from the brain throughout the body, like the physical embodiment of the soul
A highly contagious infectious disease of the spinal cord caused by a filterable virus.
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
the name given to the period from roughly the 1890s to the 1920s for being dense with social activism and political reform; some of the major social movements included women's
the humoral term for applying therapeutic emetics to encourage a patient to vomit, which was important for ridding the body of bile
The rhythmic expansion and recoil of arteries resulting from heart contraction; can be felt from the outside of the body.
an unqualified or fake doctor, charlatan
a nineteenth-century term for a person who espoused a commitment to public health interventions to curb filth and immoral behaviors that were thought to contribute to the spread of
a style of academic scholarship directed at reconciling the historical teachings of Christian dogma by Church leaders with ancient Greco-Roman philosophy; the emphasis was not on producing new knowledge per se, but on analyzing arguments through careful dialectical reasoning to harmonize the truth from both sources.
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
the system by which things (in our case, are classified and organized
the idea that phenomena (objects, historical events, etc.) can or should be explained by their function or purpose rather than by the actions or events that led to their existence
Theory and practice of medicine
the two central halves of medicine; medical theory includes research into the causes of disease, the functions of the body, and even the ethical standards medicine should employ. Medical practice, on the other hand, deals specifically with the investigation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. Ideally, better medical practices follow advances in medical theory, though this does not always happen.
Theory of the four humors
the idea that the body is composed of and controlled by four primary fluids—blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile—which, though each individual had their own specific inner harmony and bodily composition, needed to stay in good condition (not be corrupted) and in balance with each other to ensure proper health; each of the humors corresponded to one of the four elements (forces/substances) thought to make up the natural world.
the moniker given to an Irish immigrant cook who was identified and tested positively for typhoid and was later exiled to North Brother Island for her (unintentional) role in causing a typhoid outbreak among her clients
subjecting the urine of a patient to examination (via sight, smell, or taste) for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis
surgery on living animals; medical research that involves cutting into living animals to study organs, tissues, or diseases
a range of electromagnetic radiation discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1898; became an important discovery for medicine because of their ability to pass through soft tissue and reflect off dense tissue like bones, such that when a special film is developed, scientists can see the skeleton and other dense internal structures without cutting the body open.
As one of the four elemental humors, it was associated with the fire element and as such was responsible for hot and dry properties in the body. People with an excess of yellow bile were said to be choleric.
Western medical tradition
the rational, secular, empirical style of medicine that over the course of centuries came to define standard medical care in Europe and North America; this term does not encompass rational, secular, or empirical styles of healing from other parts of the world, nor does it typically include religious or magical kinds of healing developed in the West.
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