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Opium War

a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839 to 1842, over Britain's opium trade in China

Extraterritorial rights

an exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country

Taiping Rebellion

a mid-19th century rebellion against the Qing Dynasty in China, led by Hong Xiuquan


great peace

Dowager Empress Cixi

held the reins of power in China from 1862 to 1908; supported certain reforms; aimed to update China's educational systems, service, and military

Sphere of influence

a foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities

Open Door Policy

policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China

Boxer Rebellion

a 1900 revolt in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country

"Death to the foreign devils"

the Boxers surrounded the European section in the city and screamed this

Commodore Matthew Perry

took 4 ships on what is now the Tokyo Harbor; these ships were massive and steam powered; the ships canons all shocked them

President Millard Fillmore

a president who wrote a polite letter asking the shogun to allow free trade between the United States and Japan

Treaty of Kanagawa

an 1854 agreement between the United States and Japan, which opened two Japanese ports to U.S. ships and allowed the United States to set up an embassy in Japan


enlightened rule

Meiji Era

the period of Japanese history from 1867 to 1912, during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito


Emperor Meiji's personal name

Russo-Japanese War

1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea


the adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit

Woodblock printing

Japan evolved this from black and white prints created by Buddhists in the 700s. By the 1800's, people learned how to create multicolor prints


laborers with little control over their employment conditions


a military dictator of a Latin America country

Juan Vicente Gomez

a typical ruthless caudillo who ruled Venezuela for 30 years

President Domingo Sarmiento

reform-minded president that made strong commitments to improving education

James Monroe

the president that issued the Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine

policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Monroe in 1823

Jose Marti

a writer who had been exiled by Cuba by the Spanish, returned to launch a second war for Cuban independence

Spanish-American War

a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the United States supported Cubans' fight for independence

Yellow fever

A disease that mosquitoes carried and spread to people


A disease that mosquitoes carried and spread to people

Panama Canal

a human-made waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, built in Panama by the United States and opened in 1914

President Theodore Roosevelt

president that issued an extension to the Monroe Doctrine

Roosevelt Corollary

President Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, in which he declared that the United States had the right to exercise "police power" throughout the Western Hemisphere

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (He went by Santa Anna.)

played a leading role in Mexico's fight to independence, fought against Spain, and became Mexico's president; he was a clever politician

Steven Austin

a leading Anglo that encouraged a revolt against Mexico

Battle of San Jacinto

Santa Anna was defeated and captured; Sam Houston released him but as soon as he went back to Mexico, he was oused from power

Sam Houston

released Santa Anna from prison once he promised to respect the independence of Texas

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

the U.S. and Mexico signed this; the US received the northern third of what was Mexico

Benito Juarez

a liberal reformer that strongly influenced the politics of Mexico; he was the complete opposite of Santa Anna; he was very poor and orphaned at the age of 3; he worked primarily to serve his country

La Reforma

a liberal reform movement in 19th-century Mexico,led by Benito Juarez

Ponciano Arriaga

a lawyer and politician that pushed for equal rights

Porfirio Diaz

an Indian from Oaxaca, became a noted general in war, fought against the French; Diaz took control by ousting the president; Indians and small landholders supported him

Francisco Madero

a man that was educated in the US and in France; from a very rich family; believed in democracy; wanted to strengthen its hold in Mexico

"Pancho" Villa

immensely popular; had a bold Robin Hood policy of taking money from the rich and giving it to the poor

Emiliano Zapata

raised a powerful revolutionary army; came from a poor family; wanted laws reformed to protect the poor people's rights

"Tierra y Libertad"

means land and liberty; Zapata's battle cry

General Victoriano Huerta

unpopular with many people; took over presidency

Venustiano Carranza

took control of the government and then turned his army on his former revolutionary allies; began a revision in Mexico's constitution, did not support the final version of the constitution; overthrown by Alvaro Obregon

General Alvaro Obregon

supported the reforms of the constitution; particularly land reform; promoted public education; policies helped unite religions

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