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learning when and how to express your emotions- the most important psychosocial development to occur between ages ___
erik erikson's psychosocial theory, 3rd developmental stage.
positive enthusiasm, effort, and self-evaluation characterize ages 3-6**
initiative versus guilt
-optimistic about themselves
-longer attention span
-discovering purpose for what they do
-self-esteem and concentration are connected to motivation, cognition, and experience, all of which correlate with maturation but not caused by it.
-not afraid to try new things
guilt a more mature emotion than shame
-guilt is internalized- originates from within
-shame depends on other people (blame, ctiticism)
-shame at 2 and guilt at 5 signifies maturation during these years
guilt and shame
cross-cultural research showed differences in emotional regulation
-US- overcome fears
-Puerto Rico- modify anger
-China- temper pride
-Japan- control aggression
emotional regulation and culture
-first signs when emotions appear to overwhelm a child
-emotional regulation begins with impulse control (anger issues)
turning emotions inward
patly neurologtical- brainfunctioning
-thinking before acting
-using prefrontal cortex, limbic system, amygdala
-emotional differences between girls/ boys
an understanding of the feelings and concerns of others- not "sympathy". which is feeling sorry for someone
as they move from egocentrism and theory of mind, developing empathy, they do not always read emotions accurately
-takes maturity to correctly read tone, expression, body language
they sometimes have "too much" empathy- become too distressed to help
antipathy leads to ____ deliberately injuring others or destroying property of others-- verbal insults, social exclusion
prosocial behavior increases from age ___
-toddler hits mom, different from 5 year old hitting mom. at 5, signal of a disturbed relationship that may carry over to others.
most young children are not prejudiced against groups of people based on background characteristics (gender, ethnicity) learned as they grown older
culture and behavior
nonphysical acts- insults, social rejection- more common as children become socially aware
unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attacks, esp. on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
adults should intervene before school years
if aggression has not diminished, the child more likely to continue this patters throughout childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.. unless, successful intervention takes place
by age 3
the most influential research done (1967, 1971who studied 100 preschool children, all from cali, almost all middle-class european americans
-strict, often physical, clear rules, high standards, discussions rare, aloof, affection rare
-few demands, lax discipline, low expectations, nurturing and accepting, listening
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