How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

53 terms

Ch: 10. The play years: psychosocial development

Ch 10: the play years: psychosocial development
STUDY
PLAY
(emotional regulation)

learning when and how to express your emotions- the most important psychosocial development to occur between ages ___
2-6
children begin new activities and feel guilty when they fail
initiative versus guilt
erik erikson's psychosocial theory, 3rd developmental stage.
positive enthusiasm, effort, and self-evaluation characterize ages 3-6**
initiative versus guilt
belief in one's own ability, a persona; estimate of success and worthiness
self-esteem
understanding of themselves, includes self-esteem and facts like gender and size
self-concept
-optimistic about themselves
-longer attention span
-discovering purpose for what they do
-self-esteem and concentration are connected to motivation, cognition, and experience, all of which correlate with maturation but not caused by it.
-not afraid to try new things
pride
guilt a more mature emotion than shame
-guilt is internalized- originates from within
-shame depends on other people (blame, ctiticism)
-shame at 2 and guilt at 5 signifies maturation during these years
guilt and shame
shame at age __
2
guilt at age ___
5
from the inside, for enjoyment


(motivation)
intrinsic
from outside, for rewards or someone else's approval


(motivation)
extrinsic
preschool children are mostly ____ motivated
intrinsically
cross-cultural research showed differences in emotional regulation
-US- overcome fears
-Puerto Rico- modify anger
-China- temper pride
-Japan- control aggression
emotional regulation and culture
psycho
mind
pathology
illness or disorder
-first signs when emotions appear to overwhelm a child
-emotional regulation begins with impulse control (anger issues)
psychopathology
lash out
attach people
"undercontrolled":

(enotional balance)
externalizing problems
fearful
withdrawn
turning emotions inward
"overcontrolled"

(emotional balance"
internalizing problem
patly neurologtical- brainfunctioning
-thinking before acting
-using prefrontal cortex, limbic system, amygdala
-emotional differences between girls/ boys
emotional regulation
girls better at regulating _____ emotions
externalizing
boys better at _____ emotions
internalizing
neurological damage
prenatally
infancy
preschoolers- maltreated- __% emotionally disregulated
80%
many influences affect each child
nature and nurture interact
increasing social awareness and decreasing egocentrism
empathy and antipathy
an understanding of the feelings and concerns of others- not "sympathy". which is feeling sorry for someone
empathy
a dislike or even hatred of other people-more like disagreeing with someone
antipathy
as they move from egocentrism and theory of mind, developing empathy, they do not always read emotions accurately
-takes maturity to correctly read tone, expression, body language
they sometimes have "too much" empathy- become too distressed to help
developing empathy
empathy leads to ____

-offering help, kindness, concern
prosocial
antipathy leads to ____ deliberately injuring others or destroying property of others-- verbal insults, social exclusion
antisocial behavior
prosocial behavior increases from age ___

-toddler hits mom, different from 5 year old hitting mom. at 5, signal of a disturbed relationship that may carry over to others.
3-6
____ vary acceptance levels on levels of prosocial and antisocial behavior
cultures
vary on whether certain behaviors are good/ bad.
culture and behavior
most young children are not prejudiced against groups of people based on background characteristics (gender, ethnicity) learned as they grown older
culture and behavior
instrumental
reactive
relational
bullying
4 forms of aggression
egocentric- aimed at gaining something someone else has
instrumental
impulsive retaliation, can be verbal or physical, should stop by about age 5
reactive
nonphysical acts- insults, social rejection- more common as children become socially aware
relational
unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attacks, esp. on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
adults should intervene before school years
bullying
follows a developmental patter: becomes less common, more harmful with time
aggression
aggressive
infants
almost all are aggressive
2 year olds
if aggression has not diminished, the child more likely to continue this patters throughout childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.. unless, successful intervention takes place
by age 3
need regulation, not repression
emotions
______ and _____ can be problematic- leading to psychological problems.
overcontrol
undercontrol
the most influential research done (1967, 1971who studied 100 preschool children, all from cali, almost all middle-class european americans
Diana Baumrind
expression of ____-affectionate or cold/ critical
warmth
strategies for _____- explaining, criticize, persuade, ignore, punish
discipline
listen patiently or demand silence
communication
expectation for _____= standards for responsibility and self-control
maturity
"authorities"
-strict, often physical, clear rules, high standards, discussions rare, aloof, affection rare
authoritarian
"friends"
-few demands, lax discipline, low expectations, nurturing and accepting, listening
permissive
"guides"
-set limits, enforce rules but listen, demand maturity but are forgiving-- flexible
authoritative