Terms in this set (197)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are as follows, starting from the bottom: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Physiology means breath, food, water, sex, homeostasis, excretion, sleep. Safety means security of body, employment, resources, morality, family health, property.
Love and belonging means friendship, family, sexual intimacy. Esteem means self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.
Self-actualization means morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
Carl Rogers is best known for unconditional positive regard.
Alfred Adler was the first to break away from the Freud school of thought. He founded the Society for Individual Psychology. Adler's theory suggested that every person has a sense of inferiority.
Adler believed that people strive toward overcoming their insecurity by asserting superiority over others. This is referred to as striving for superiority.
Alfred Adler believed we had one basic goal, and that goal is to belong and feel significant.
Adler's theory is a humanistic theory. Adler also stressed the need to understand individuals within their social context.
Jay Haley helped develop Strategic Family Therapy. He was also apart of the Bateson Project, where he helped to write one of the most influential pieces of literature on family therapy.
Jay Haley pioneered family therapy, and emphasized the role of the family unit in therapy. He focused on the family in therapy not just on individuals. Haley was also critical in the founding of brief therapy and strategic therapy.
According to Piaget, a schema is a way of organizing information. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed.
Piaget had four stages of child development. Those were sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
sensorimotor is between 0 and 2 years of age and the key feature is object performance Preoperational stage is between 2 and 7 years of age and the key feature is egocentrism. =
Concrete operational stage is between 7 and 11 years of age and the key feature is conservation. And the formal operational stage is greater than 11 years of age and the key feature is abstract thinking.
Mimesis is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
A baby is most vulnerable during the embryonic stage.
Iván Böszörményi-Nagy is the founder of contextual therapy.
The goal of contextual therapy is to help the family work through avoided emotional conflicts and to develop a sense of fairness among family members.
Relational ethics is a part of contextual therapy. Relational ethics focuses in particular on the nature and roles of connectedness, caring, reciprocity, loyalty, legacy, guilt, fairness, accountability, and trustworthiness - within and between generations
Multi-directed partiality is a part of contextual therapy. Its aim is to evoke a dialogue of mutual position-taking among family members.
Object relations theory suggests that past residue of relationships affect the relationships in the present.
Object relations has roots in the mother child dyad. And it is based on the theory that human relationships are utmost importance and motivating factor in life.
Melanie Klein and Ronald Fairbairn are most associated with founding object relations.
When a person is left and decides to pursue, what is the result? It is a reactive pursuer and withdrawer scenario.
In EFT there are four patterns of interaction. There is pursue, withdraw. There is withdraw, withdraw. There is attack, attack. There is reactive pursue, withdraw.
Catching the bullet is when someone says something that is going to do damage and you need to bring it back to the emotion.
An interactional landmark are stories or events that people cannot get past.
Reflection is to reflect the client's experience on a superficial note.
Validation is saying you see them and hear them.
Structural therapy views the couple as relationship even if empty chair. It views the couple as whole, looking at patterns and dynamics, views couples boundaries, and view the couples hierarchies and power distribution.
Balance is important. Views rules/roles/patterns of behavior.
A secure base is what you create with someone.
A safe haven is what you create in the environment.
Empathetic attunement means "I see you, I understand you that makes sense."
There are three types of emotions: Instrumental, primary, and secondary. The instrumental emotion is what they use to get someone engaged (yell or cry).
Ethics and clinical records require the following:
• Keep adequate and accurate records
• Financial records are kept separate
10 years is safe to keep records
• Must have evaluation and treatment plan
• Must have progress notes on every client
• Must have a termination summary
In an assessment the therapist will look at family of origin issues, relationship history, and power and hierarchy in the relationship.
Accent is when a therapist emphasizes a word.
Probing is when the therapist asks questions to expand the content. The therapist uses open-ended questions.
Mimesis is when the therapist accommodates to the couple/individual's style as well as when the therapist finds common ground and experience with the client(s).
Clarifying is when the therapist as questions that dispel confusion and make issues clearly understood.
Tracking is following the content of the couple/individual's communication. The therapist shows that they are interested and following what the client is saying
Maintenance is "maintaining as is" or accepting the couple for who they are and focusing on their strengths and encouraging them individually or as a couple
Joining is establishing the relationship, become family, build trust with client(s)
Process is what is actually being communicated and it can include: body language, voice inflection, tone, loudness, use of words, emotion, where couple sits in session, gestures, how they look at each other, if they are looking for approval.
Listening to "how" they say it is the process
Listening to "what" they say is the content
A reframe is when you change a negative to a positive.
Personality is an enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations.
Images of personality: Free will vs. Determinism, Nature vs. Nurture, Past vs. Present, Uniqueness vs. Universality, Equilibrium vs. Growth, Optimism vs. Pessimism
Sigmund Freud developed The 1st complete theory of personality which is Psychoanalytic Theory
His Key Concept is that Unconscious motivation causes conflict and compromise.
Freud considered Motivation to be basic elements of personality that drive our behavior
Freud believed we are motivated by instincts,libido, and aggression.
freud's levels of awareness are the conscious, the subconscious, and the preconcious.
Freud's three parts to the psychic are the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unconscious and our instincts, the ego is the rational part, and the superego is the morality piece.
Freud developed 5 psychosexual stages of development. Stage one is the Oral stage, stage two is the anal stage, stage three is phallic stage, stage four is the latency stage, stage five is the genital stage.
Oral stage has a conflict around the mouth and is between 0 and two years old. Anal stage is between 2 and 4 years and has conflict around toilet training. Phallic stage is between 4 and 5 and has conflict around exploring genitals.
Latency stage is a quiet period where they learn to socialize and is between ages 5 and 12. The genital stage is 12 and older and has conflict around puberty.
Carl Jung developed the Neo-psychoanalytic Theory, Deemphasized the role of sexuality, person shaped by past and future
Carl Jung's key concept was Primitive Psychological past. lives are in the collective conscious
Jung's components of personality are the ego, the personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. The ego is where we think, feel, perceive. the personal unconscious is where we repress feelings. The collective unconscious is the deepest part and hardest to reach - accumulation of inherited experiences.
Jung's attitudes and functions of the psyche are introversion, extroversion, thinking, feeling, sensing, intuitive.
Myers-Brigs Type Indicator test is based on Jung's attitudes of introversion and extraversion.
Jung developed 5 archetypes of the collective unconscious. They are the persona archetype where you present a mask to the world to protect yourself.
There is the anima archetype where there are feminine aspects in the persona. There is the anime archetype where there are male aspects in the persona. There is the shadow archetype where there is evil, immorality in the persona. This is the most powerful.
there is the self-archetype, where there is unity and integration between the archetypes.
Freud had two conflict of purposes principles. He created the pleasure principle, which means the id causes to sin. He created the reality principle, which means the ego causes to sin.
Freud had two conflict of modes of thought. He had the primary process and the secondary process. The primary process was the Id principle and the secondary process was the ego principle.
With Freud's theories, the ultimate goal of life is to reduce tension. Defense mechanisms are designed to reduce anxiety from the demands of the Id,ego, and superego.
In therapy Freud used free associations, which were cathartic, talk therapy. He also used dream analysis and analysis of resistance.
Some of Freud's contributions are the unconscious motivation, defense mechanisms hold us, shaped child development and self observation and insight.
Some of Freud's criticisms are the unscientific, based on case studies, hard to validate, lacked reliability and validity, very subjective, pessimistic
Jung's theory of motivations are the libido concept, the principle of polar opposite, principle of equivalence, principle of entropy.
Jung's libido concept means that there is broader life energy, psychic energy fuels one's soul.
Jung's principle of polar opposite is the primary motivation of all behavior.
Jung's principle of equivalence means continual energy redistribution between the personality.
Jung's principle of entropy means equalization of energy differences.
Alfred Adler developed Individual Psychology, greater emphasis on consciousness, social forces and the uniqueness of the individual than Freud did.
Alfred Adler's key concept was that we struggle to create goals that will make us stronger and better
Adler's childhood causes of faulty life styles are as follows: physical inferiority, spoiling or pampering, or neglecting a child.
Adler worked with birth order and the SIS, the social interest scale.
Karen Horney had a feminist viewpoint of psychoanalysis, theory lies in her childhood experiences
Karen Horney's key concept was Repressing hostility leads to basic anxiety-defined as a feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world-Childhood dominated by safety need. Fear of abandonment. Emphasis on social rather than biological forcers as shapers of personality. 10 Neurotic Needs. Tyranny of the Shoulds.
Karen Horney defined basic ways to protect against anxiety. Those ways are gaining affection, being submissive, attaining power, and withdrawing.
Horney developed three groups of protective style. Movement towards other people, movement against other people, and movement away from other people. Freeze, Fight, or flight.
Erich Fromm developed theory that personality shaped by social and cultural forces.The basic human dilemma:
Freedom or security equal More structure less freedom, more team oriented less competitive-caste society
Henry Murray was an American psychologist, developed Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Founder of Boston Psychoanalytic Society and personality theory based on "need" and "press". He obtained his data from empirical studies of normal persons.
HIs goal was not a tension-free state rather the satisfaction derived from acting to reduce the tension. Tension-free is itself a source of distress.
Murray developed the psychological test the TAT. The thematic appreciation test. This test used the picture interpretation technique. 30 pictures and the subject must tell a dramatic story.
Erik Ericson developed Ego Psychology, Pulitzer Prize winner, Personality develops through the lifespan, Emphasize ego more than ID, Emphasized the environment.
Eric Erickson's key concept was the strength of the ego is built step by step thru successfully meeting the tasks and resolving the crises presented by each stage of life.
Erickson developed 5 adolescent development stages. They are identity achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, identity diffusion, and alienated achievement.Identity achievement is committed to occupational and ideology choices. Moratorium is still undergoing their identity crisis.
Foreclosure is not having an identity crisis, but committed to an occupation and ideology. Identity diffusion is having not committed to an occupation and ideology and may have gone through identity crisis. Alienated achievement is having an identity crisis, but having no goals of occupation.
Erickson's developmental stages are as follows: trust versus mistrust. This is years 0 to 1. This is about infancy and hope. Autonomy versus doubt. Years 1 to 3. This is about shame and will. Initiative versus Guilt. Years 3 to 5. This is about purpose.
Industriousness versus inferiority. Years 6 to 11. This is about competence. Identity cohesion versus role confusion. Years 12-18. this is about fidelity. Intimacy versus Isolation. Years 18-35. This is about love.
Generativity versus stagnation. Years 35 to 55. this is about care. integrity versus despair. Years 55 and older. this is about wisdom.
Gordon allport believed Childhood experiences do not influence adult life
but Traits do -they are distinguishing characteristics that guides behavior
Gordon Allport believed that traits 1. Are real and exist within each of us 2. Determine or cause behavior 3. Can be demonstrated empirically through observation 4. Are interrelated - they may overlap 5. Vary with the situation
According to Gordon allport, Habits are specific, inflexible responses to specific stimuli, may combine to form a trait
according to Gordon allport, Attitudes have a specific objects of reference and involve negative or positive evaluations
Raymond catell believed 1/3 genetic and 2/3 environment, he did not believe childhood forces determine the personality permanently.
Raymond catell developed the 16PF test -measures specific aspects of a personality and for special purposes, marriage counseling, job performance, multiple dependent variables integrated into personal source traits
Raymond catell developed Factor analysis- a statistical technique based on correlations between a number of measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors.
Hans Eyesneck had three dimensions of personality Extraversion vs. Introversion
Neuroticism vs. Emotional stability
Psychticism vs. Impulse Control
Hans Eyesneck believed that 80% of intelligence is inherited.
Hans Eyseneck personality theory based on genetics, agreed with Cattrell that personality is composed of traits or factors derived by the factor-analytic method but a critic of factor analysis b/c of the potential subjectivity and difficulty replicating Cattell's findings
Abraham maslow developed Humanistic Psychology
His Key Concept was I've got to be free to be me
Maslow believed Self-actualization- The fullest development of self.
Maslow believed Metamotivation- the motivation of self actualizers which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for particular goal object
Carl Rogers created Person-centered Psychology or a Humanistic approach, Therapist role is facilitator, director, nurture over nature, free will of man
Roger's key concept was that Some humans are natural good when we are treated w/positive regard we have a great capacity of personal growth. Biological tendency toward personal growth like Maslow
All these concepts belong to rogers: phenomenal reality, positive regard, organismic valuing process, incongruency and unconditional positive regard.
Phenomenological reality - only reality that we are aware of
Positive regard - Acceptance, love, and approval from others
Organismic valuing process - person wants to grow, value thins that are self actualization. Meta needs valued and pursued. Disregard everything else. Judge experiences in terms of whether they help or hinder self-actualization.
Incongruency- abnormal psychology - meta pathology. Discrepancy between person's self concept and aspects of their experiential world
Unconditional positive regard - approval granted regardless of a person's behavior
the Q-sort technique according to Rogers is self report for assessing aspects of the self-concept pre and post-test
Rogers view of psychotherapy is Non Directive - counselor does not assume too much control. Client centered - validate client's reality. Experiential - emphasizes present. Person centered - total person
John Bowlby is the developer of attachment theory.
Superficial change in a system which itself stays invariant is termed first-order, while basic change in the structure of a system is called second order.
The concept of the family life cycle was introduced to the field by Jay Haley.
The differentiated individual can balance his or her needs for closeness and autonomy.
The strategic technique of providing a new label for a family's description of behavior, in order to make it more amenable to therapeutic change is called reframing.
Jackson's concept family homeostasis, that all families are units that resist change, became the defining metaphor of family therapy's first three decades.
The techniques of structural family therapy fall into two general categories, joining and restructuring techniques.
A paradoxical technique that forces a patient to either give up a symptom or admit that it is under voluntary control is known as prescribing the symptom.
The "boy kicks dog" metaphor demonstrates the following theoretical concept circular causality.
According to Bowen, the psychological isolation that results from overly rigid boundaries is disengagement.
Experiential family therapists believe unexpressed emotion is/are the primary cause of dysfunction in families.
A collection of beliefs based on a distortion of historical reality and shared by all family members, which help shape the rules governing family functioning are known as family myths.
A non-verbal experiential technique, in which family members position themselves in a tableau that reveals significant aspects of their perceptions and feelings, is known as family sculpting.
The idea that symptoms often distract or otherwise protect family members from threatening conflicts is called function of the symptom.
Unlike experiential therapist, Bowenians seek to decrease levels of anxiety in order to increase levels of differentiation, of self in the family.
In Bowen theory, when the projection of varying degrees of immaturity to different children in the same family occurs. The one who is most involved in the family emerges with the lowest level of differentiation, and passes on problems to succeeding generations. multigenerational transmission process
The family resilience model of assessing family dynamics includes all of the following except avoid focusing on family risks.
Family belief systems are important in the following approaches to family therapy all of the above structural, resilience-based, experiential
The "pick-up sticks" game demonstrates what concept of family systems theory - all of the above , the whole is more than the sum of the parts, everything affects everything else, families have several subsystems that are a part of the while but are also separate.
The most important aspect of a family's interaction is the process by which they interact.
Ed Friedman's fable "The Net" demonstrates the following system concept(s) complementary relationships.
What are the roles in the family with experiential therapy?
placatory, blamer, computer, distractor
What is postmodernism? Sees concepts/principles/truths as constructs of society
Solution-focused and narrative therapy are forms of postmodernism
What is narrative therapy with family therapy? Key names: Michael White, David Epston
Deconstruction of accepted stories, problems - people are not their problems
Externalize the problem - that becomes the enemy,
Reauthor the story - what is the new outcome
Key names for experiential therapy are Carl Whitaker and Virginia Satir
experiential therapy has an Emphasis on growth, experiencing and monitoring internal process, development of the self within the context of the family
There is also an Emphasis on expression of emotion during the session - spontaneity of affect. Symptoms are reframed to emphasize the mutual responsibility of all parties
First order change - changes the behavior
Second order change - changes the beliefs and underlying rules
What are interventions in solution focused therapy?
Use feedback loops
Paradoxical injuctions - prescribing the symptom, reframing
Quid pro quo - in marriage, roles developed by spouses do not stem from gender differences but emerge as a result of mutual exchanges
Schizophrenic symptoms stemmed from double bind communication - contradictory commands from which there is no escape
Cybernetics - symptoms function to keep the family in equilibrium
Behavioral redundancy - repetitive patterns of interaction
What is the MRI
Mental Research Institute
The miracle question - "Suppose one night, while you were asleep, there was a miracle and this problem was solved. How would you know the miracle had occurred?"
Exception questions - "When was the problem not a problem?"
Scaling questions - "One a scale of 1 to 10, how do you feel right now (regarding the problem)"
What are assumptions in the solution-focused theory?
Clients want to change - resistance is simply demonstrating what does not work for the client. Language changes the way one talks, which changes the way one thinks, which changes the way one acts
What is the therapists role in solution focused? Therapist as a conductor: leads client in solution talk - client decides the answers (what is the problem / solution)
Role is to reinforce the client's solutions
Key names in solution focused therapy are Steve DeShazer, Insoo Kim Berg
What are Bowen's aspects of genograms?
Family structure, sibling constellation, pattern repetition across generations, life events and family functioning, relational patterns and triangles, family balance and imbalance
George Kelly developed the Personal construct theory, 11 Corollaries for anticipating life events.
Construct - a person's unique way of looking at life, an intellectual hypothesis devised to explain or interpret events.
George Kelly developed fixed-role construct therapy. Fixed Role Therapy - a psychotherapeutic technique in which the client acts out construct appropriate for a fictitious person. This show the client how the new construct can be more effective than the old ones he or she has been using.
Role Construct Repertory (REP) Test - it uncovers the constructs we apply to the important people in our lives
Cognitive Complexity - a cognitive style or way of construing the environment characterized by the ability to perceive differences among people
BF Skinner was the most influential psychologist of the 20th century
Skinner's Key concepts - Personality is merely an accumulation of learned responses to stimuli. Behavior can be controlled by its consequences. Whoever controls the reinforcers has the ability to control the human behavior.
Skinner's Behavior modification - a form of therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral changes.
Functional analysis is an approach to the study of behavior that involves assessing the frequency of a behavior, the situation in which it occurs and the reinforcers associated with it.
Punishment is the application of an aversive stimulus following a response in an effort to decrease the likelihood that the response will recur.
Negative reinforcement is the removal of something aversive to reinforce or increase desired behavior
Successive approximation - Shaping an explanation for the acquisition of complex behavior. Only reinforced as it reaches desired behavior.
Operant conditioning - the procedure by which a change in the consequences of a response will affect the rate at which the response occurs.
Albert Bandura internal cognitive variables, most behavior is learned by imitating others' behavior, Bobo doll experiment S---M---R
Bandura's Key concept - is a social learning theory that looks at behavior as it is formed and changed in asocial context. Learning takes place by reinforcement
Bandura's Observational Learning - learning new responses by observing the behavior of other people
Bandura's Modeling - a behavior modification technique that involves observing the behavior of others and participating with them in performing the desired behavior.
Bandura's Disinhibition - weakening of inhibitions if model is observed
Bandura's Self-efficacy - our feeling of adequacy, efficiency and competence in coping with life.
Bandura's Behavior modification - applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral change
Julian Rotter's developed the locus of control. Locus of control - some people believe that their reinforces depend on their own actions while others believe that their reinforcers are controlled by other people and outside forces.
Internal locus of control - a belief that reinforcement is brought about by our own behavior
External locus of control - a belief that reinforcement is under the control of other people, fate or luck
Marvin Zuckerman developed Sensation seeking - the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and willingness to take risks to achieve
Thrill and adventure seeking is to engage in physical activities involving speed, danger, noelty
Experience seeking is to search for novel experiences through travel, music, etc
Disinhibition is the need to seek release in uninhibited social activities
Boredom susceptibility is an aversion to repetitive experiences, routine work and predictable people and a reaction of restless discontent when exposed to such situations
Martin Seligman developed the theory of learned helplessness and attribution model.
Learned Helplessness - a condition resulting from the perception that we have no control over our environment. Doggie experiment (conditioning to uncomfortable stimuli with no escape, learned to not escape with opportunity).
Attribution Model is the idea that we attribute our lack of control or failure to some cause.
Seligman had developed an Explanatory style of life
Optimistic—prevent learned helplessness
Pessimistic—spreads learned helplessness to all facets of life
Seligman developed 3 types of life satisfaction. Three types of happiness or life satisfaction
Positive emotion—pleasant life—job satisfaction, contentment, serenity, and optimism
Engagement—engaged life—involvement, commitment, absorption in work
Meaning—meaningful life—using one's talents, abilities, and strengths to belong, serve, or commit completely to some enterprise larger than the self.
Seligman's 5 factor model of personality included the following:
3. openness to experience
An Abstract is a Brief condensed overview of study.
There are 3 measures of central tendency: MEAN or average; MEDIAN or middle score when ranked lowest to highest; MODE or most frequent score
The RANGE is the high minus low score
the STANDARD DEVIATION is the measure of spread or dispersion of scores around mean
Variance is SD squared
Scatterplots Can reveal 4 basic relationships: Positive, Negative, No relationship or Zero Correlation, Nonlinear Relationship
Histogram Graph depicting frequency distribution in which the frequencies of class intervals are represented by adjacent bars along the scale of measurement.
Pearson r Tells direction positive or negative and strength of relationship Linear relationships only
.2 to .3 = low correlation; .4 to .6 = med. correlation; .7 to 1.0+ = high correlation
What is the correlation coefficient?
"go-togetherness" of 2 variables. Degree of relationship between variables.
Frequency is The number of times a particular value or range of values of a variable occurs in a set of data.
Frequency Distribution is A graph or table displaying a set of values or range of values of a variable, together with the frequency of each
Nominal Scale Measurement is a scale that involves categorizing cases into two or more distinct categories.
Ordinal Scale Measurement scale in which cases are ordered along some dimension large, small, medium. The distances between scale values are unknown.
Interval Scale Measurement scale in which the spacing between values along the scale is known.
Ratio Scale Highest scale of measurement; it has all of the characteristics of an interval scale plus an absolute zero point.
Validity is The extent to which a measuring instrument measures what it was designed to measure.
Internal Validity is The extent to which a study evaluates the intended hypotheses.
External Validity is The extent to which the results of a study extend beyond the limited sample used in the study.
Face Validity how well a test appears to measure judging by its contents what it was designed to measure. Ex: a measure of mathematical ability would have face validity if it contained math problems.
Content Validity is the Validity of a test established by judging how adequately the test samples behavior representative of the universe of behaviors the test was designed to sample.
Construct Validity Validity that applies when a test is designed to measure a "construct" or variable "constructed" to describe or explain behavior on the basis of theory i.e. intelligence
A test has construct validity if the measured values of the construct predict behavior as expected from the theory i.e. those with higher intelligence scores achieve higher grades
Reliability is Whether an instrument produces the same of similar responses with multiple administrations of the same or similar instrument.
Dependent Variable is The variable measured in a study. Its value is determined by the behavior of the subject and may depend on the value of the independent variable.
Independent Variable is The variable that is manipulated in an experiment. Its value is determined by the experimenter, not the subject.
Stratified Random Sampling is Making sure that the sample is similar to the population in certain respects and then randomly sampling from those groups or strata. Has all the advantages of random sampling with even greater accuracy.
Quota Sampling is Stratified random sampling but without randomization.
Convenience Sampling is to Find them anywhere you can; including people in the sample simply because they are easy or convenient to survey. Hard to generalize.
Theory is A set of assumptions about the causes for behavior and the rules that specify how the causes operate. A theory is subjected to empirical test & retained, modified, or rejected.
Hypothesis is A tentative statement, subject to empirical test, about the expected relationship between variables.
IRB Institutional Review Board. A committee that screens proposals for research using human participants for adherence to ethical standards.
Systems theory looks at the whole context of the problem being presented - each person in a system contributes to its balance or change
Homeostasis occurs because interactions become patterned or repeated because relational systems require balance - if you change the system, the behavior will change
Complementary relationship- fit together well and meet each other's weaknesses over-under functioner
Contrary relationship - constantly fighting
Similar relationship- well-rounded because of similar characteristics both avoidant
What are assessment tools for family therapy?
Family resilience goals
Global Assessment of Relational Functioning GARF
Cicumplex model structure/flexibility
McCubbins Stress Model factors leading to maladaption/adaption
Concepts of structural theory
Boundaries clear, enmeshed, disengaged, rules of the family structure, patterns of interaction
Alignment cross-generational boundaries, special interests, triangles and coalitions, power
Techniques in structural therapy
Reframing changing the meaning of behaviors
Unbalancing give those without power a different position, upset homeostasis
structural mapping looks at the following: boundaries, life-cycle context, hierarchy
Organizes the family scheme
Used with genograms and timelines
Look at alliances clear, enmeshed, weak, conflicted
Boundaries closed , open , diffused
Strategic Techniques in family therapy are: Reframing
Exaggerating the symptom
Pretend to change
Pretend to have the symptom - at specified times
Restraining and going slow
Ordeal - more trouble to have the symptom than give it up
What emphasis does strategic theory place on power and hierarchy?
Emphasis on hierarchy - parents are in control
Emphasis on power - who is in control, what circumstances does control change
Normal life transitions are the points of greatest vulnerability - inability to adapt to change stresses the system's rules and may produce dysfunction
In strategic Insight is unimportant - use directive to instigate change
Bowen's four constructs are Four constructs:
Multigenerational transmission of anxiety
Bowen says Anxiety is understood to be the primary promoter of all symptoms. The antidote and the prevention of chronic anxiety is always differentiation
bowen says Multigenerational transmission - emotional responses are passed down from generations - not just the influence of the past, but the "presence of the past"
Bowen says Differentiation is the capacity to be one's own integrated self while still belonging to, or being able to relate to, a larger colony - process of self definition and self regulation - not the same as autonomy or independence - it is a process, not ever achieved
Bowen says Emotional systems - emotional interdependence in a group that include thoughts, feelings, emotions, associations, connections, genetics, sibling positions - the group has its own principles of organization
bowen says Emotional triangle¬ is the natural process formed when two people are in an anxiety-forming system and they pull in a third person to balance the system
Directive Play Therapy is child lead play therapy; i.e. sandbox work to tell their story
Indirective Play Therapy is when the therapist takes the initiative and is not as helpful except for in cases of ADHD.
Limit setting rupture- come away from oven, limited ice cream etc.
Toxic rupture—shame, guilt, trippors of shame...saying "I'm sorry too quickly"
Primary language of play therapy is- behavior
Secondary language is play therapy is - play, helps with resistance
A child's play is their words so you need to have enough toys for them to talk to you
• Piaget sociomotor stages
• Negotiating relationships in play
Freud's thoughts on child development
• Things in childhood are important and matter used to think it didn't matter
• Even rationalized that sexual abuse did not happen
• Sex or aggression are only drives individuals have
• Preconventional morality- punish/obedience/ instrumental
• Conventional-good boy, good girl, law and order moral issue
• Postconventional morality- social contract and individual rights; ethics of self chosen universal principle
• Kids can learn so much on their own
What are the thoughts of moral development in children?
• Object permanence - attachment
• Magical thinking- omnipotent, they think they can fix it, accident, divorce
• Emotional display rules
o What is appropriate
o Trained not to show those emotions
• Social referencing
o Look to the parent to see ok
o Change appearance, use animals
• Dichotomous thinking
• Assimilation/ accommodation
o Making things work from birth
What are tenents for relating to children?
• Not little adults
• Are people
• Unique and worthy of respect
• Resilient; tremendous capacity
• Inherent tendency
• Capable of dealing with their world;
• Silence is ok; selective mutism
• Never control play, unless safety is an issue
• Growth cannot be sped up
What are contradictions for nondirective play therapy?
Children with ADHD
What are ideas on setting limits with children?
Bixler= limits are not therapy- adults don't have boundaries
How do you set limits with kids? Acknowledge feeling
Communicate the limit
What are the physical effects of trauma on children?
• Tightening of chest, shortness of breath, amydala alarm, fatigue, excess
• Increased sensitivity to touch
• Decreased reactivity to physical injury
• Unconscious flinch reaction
What are emotional effects of trauma on children?
• Heightened irritability
• Feelings of isolation
• Extreme sadness
What are behavioral effects of trauma on children?
• Recurrent images
• Sleep disturbances
• Heightened startle response
• Clinging to parents
• Repetitive play
• Panic attacks
• Risk-taking behavior
What are cognitive effects of trauma on children?
• Lack of concentration
• Excessive worries or fears
• Repetitive thoughts
• Dwelling on trauma
• Skewed memory
• Increase in irrational beliefs
• Changes in values and beliefs
• Escape through fantasy
What needs to children need fulfilled?
• Research on in-utero bonding
Post- trauma stress is the normal reactions of normal people to events that for them are unusual or abnormal
Trauma is the Overwhelming, uncontrollable experiences that psychologically impact victims by creating in them feelings of helplessness, vulnerability, loss of safety, and loss of control.
What are strange situation experiments with children?
Mary ainsworth (1978) measured the quality of infant attachment to caregivers by creating stressful situations for infants. She found four types:
Secure attachment- 65% of 1 year olds
Resistant attachment- 10%
Avoidant attachment- 20%
Disorganized/disoriented attachment- 5-10%
What are key structures in the brain? How do they contribute to early attachment problems?
Brainstem, Amygdale, Hippocampus, Corpus collosum, Prefrontal cortex
includes the orbitofrontal cortex
Contribute to early attachment problems
Maternal depression/ ambivalence towards the baby/ neglect
Temperamental differences between baby and mother
Chemical dependency of a parent
Multiple caregivers early in life
Domestic violence, Physical abuse, Sexual abuse; Verbal/emotional abuse
Hospitalization and invasive medical procedures
What is the general information for reactive attachment disorder?
Markedly disturbed/developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age 5 and is associated with greatly pathological care
Pathogenic care as evidenced by at least one of the following:
• Persistant disregard of the child's basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation and affection
o Persisgtent disregard of the child's basic physical needs
• Repeated changes of primary caregiver that prevent formation of stable attachments.
What are the inhibited and disinhibited types of RAD in children?
1. Inhibited type
• Failure to respond or initiate in developmentally appropriate fashion to most social interactions as manifested by responses that are:
o Excessively inhibited
o Highly ambivalent
• Diffuse attachments as manifest by indiscriminate sociability with marked inability to exhibit selective attachment
o Excess familiarity with strangers
o Lack of selectivity in choice of attachment figures
Types of attachment are: secure, anxious, avoidant and disorganized.
What are treatment approaches for attachment problems?
o "know thyself"- therapy for parents
o Developmental play
o Filial therapy
o Family play therapy
o Parent child interaction training
What are the first 5 of the 10 core concepts?
1. Human development is shaped by a dynamic and continuous interaction b/w biology and experience
2. Culture influences every aspect of human development and is reflected in childrearing beliefs and practices designed to promote healthy adaptation.
3. The growth of self-regulation is a cornerstone of early childhood development that cuts across al domains of behavior
4. Children are active participants in their own development, reflecting the intrinsic human drive to explore and master one's environment.
5. Human relationship and the effects of relationships on relationships, are the building blocks of healthy development
What are facts about marital distress and divorce?
A marriage usually faces crisis moments during the teenage years. During this time, the couple is trying test their individuality: usually happens around 13 to 17 years.
Then during 30 years of marriage it is another time of trouble: it's the launching phase for couples. It's a key time when divorce happens, they start to realize that they don't want to end their life dealing with their spouse.
Four myths of divorce: affairs cause divorce, gender differences cause divorce, communication problems cause divorce, and quid pro quo is successful in marriage.
Positive Sentiment override is Positive Comments and behaviors outweigh negative ones about 20:1.
Soothed psychology relates to the heart rate and how the body responds to anger. Women usually cry and men usually get loud and walk away.
Women generally want to talk about it: "Now" and men usually just "Walk Away".
acceptance of influence is what happens when our physiology is aroused? We are not able to accept influence as well when we are physiology is aroused.
repair attempts are it could be touching or verbal exchanges (throwing humor in to diffuse the angst). An attempt to repair would be saying: "We've tried several things and now I want us to find a way to diffuse this situation."
gridlock is when are couple can't get thru an issue.
What are the principles of NSO? or negative sensory override
Pattern of Demand Change and Withdraw.
Diffuse Physiological Arousal (DPA)
Harsh Start up- Meaning that they would usually come to their partner abruptly and interrupt the situation. They come to them angrily already.
PSO Couples on the other hand usually waited until the time was right to approach the situation.
the four horseman of principles are: criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling.
the basic model of crisis in marriage is Move Gridlock to Dialogue
Teach Recovery after a fight.
Teach six basic social skills
fading out the therapist is to work yourself out of a job.
a harsh start up is a component of escalation
the phases of alcoholism are The Drinking Phase
The transition phase
Ongoing recovery coupled with long term sobriety
Letting Go as an intervention strategy looks like the following: Take a stand!
Structure the separation
Cease protecting partner: we have to be careful not to defend partner
Take Control of self- the person left must take responsibility for their own actions.
Determine your expectations- help them develop a back bone during this situation.
1) Taking a stand by making a declaration. At this stage, we help our client formulate the words needed for their marriage. Some people feel as though there is a sense of entitlement from the spouse that they have left.
we deal with crisis situations by Differentiate self.
Be prepared for it
the three hardest things to fix in marriages are Infidelity
In infidelity you must deal with the affair before you deal with marriage issues.
complete disclosure is crucial in healing infidelity.
couples in crisis present with a great deal of confusion. you need to normalize the situation for them. you need to offer them a plan, and you need to offer them hope.
phase I of domestic violence: Phase I: Blames the victim, small outburst over small things, tension and battering increase, the tension is unbearable.
phase II of domestic violence: Phase II: Explosion/Abusive Behavior (Batterer's Behavior)- the batterer just looses control, etc.
phase III of domestic violence: Phase III: Honey moon/Sorrow (Batterer's Behavior):
Wants Victim's Forgiveness- He may bring flowers to try to make up for all of the pain he caused.
there are two types of abusers, cobras and pitbull. pitbull maybe can change, cobra is ice cold.
the reasons that there have been an increase in divorce are as follows: 1. Legislative: it's easier to get a divorce today with "no fault" laws
2. Increased Legal aid to the poor
3. Improvement in the status of women
4. Greater acceptance of divorce as an alternative
5. Changing expectations of the institution of marriage
6. Focus on the individual (me-ism)
7. Changing attitudes of what constitutes a "good" family (quality vs. composition)
8. People can better afford it
9. People living longer, so great probability of divorce
10. "Throw Away Society"
those who tend to divorce most often are: 1. Those who marry early.
2. Those who are pregnant when they marry.
3. High school or college dropouts
4. Lower socioeconomic class.
5. Previously divorced.
What changed when it moved from traditional divorce to no-fault divorce?
Restrictive to Permissive Law
Specific Grounds for divorce to No Grounds for Divorce
Moral Framework to Administrative Framework
Fault to No fault
Consent of Innocent Spouse needed to No consent needed
Gender-based responsibilities to Gender-Neutral responsibilities
Financial awards linked to fault to Financial awards based on equality
Adversarial to Non-adversarial
Mavis Hetherington's Longitudinal Study of Affects of Divorce
• There is a general disruption in all areas of life (time regimentation, work performance, household duties, parenting, self-esteem decreases)
• Disruption generally exists for two years and peaks at one year.
When asked, "did you make a mistake in getting a divorce?" At one year, most said yes; at two years, most said no. Lots of resolution after two years.
• Parenting Difficulties: 1) Fewer maturity demands on kids 2) Communicate less well with kids 3) less affectionate w/ kids 4) More inconsistent in discipline 5) less control over their children
Bohannon's 6 Stations of Divorce are:
1. EMOTIONAL: natural reaction to loss is grief (shock, anger, guilt, etc)
2. LEGAL: if no kids, 60 days; if kids, 90 days; can be very expensive
3. ECONOMIC: reduced standard of living for both spouses, though men probably bounce back faster
4. CO-PARENTAL: children can be greatest source of guilt in whole process
5. COMMUNITY: "social divorce;" friends take sides or disappear; learn to live a single's life in a couple's world
6. PSYCHIC: separation of the self from the personality and influences of the ex-spouse; begin making decisions for one again
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross: THE GRIEF PROCESS (5 Stages):
1. Denial and Isolation (Numbness, shock, failure to accept that it's really over)
3. Bargaining: overt or covert manipulation
5. Acceptance: Willing to accept (though not necessarily like) the divorced way of life.
Life of a formerly married are as follows:
As a parent: harder to raise kids independently, more demanding.
As a provider: custodial parent has primary responsibility; lower standards of living; Both parents suffer financial stress after divorce, but men found it easier to recover financially than women
As a social being: lots of loneliness, sex comes quickly. Stigma associated.
As an ex-mate: not an ex-parent, so some continued contact
As an ex-family member: blood thicker than water
As a member of community: side-taking or avoidance; need to develop new support networks
As a person: emotional stability fluctuates; time is needed to discover new self.
Divorce facts are as follows: Divorce Rate at 50%.
2/3 of divorces involve children.
Greater than 1 million kids involved in divorce annually.
Over half of kids under 18 have spent some time in a single parent situation.
Child Development Focus absence of states that divorced families are incomplete and thus not conducive to normal development because they lack appropriate sex role models.
Internal Dynamics Focus (eaction to trauma of departure focus on the process induced by the crisis event of divorce and emotional reaction to it.
Symptoms are crisis reactions guilt, shock, anger, etc and behaviors include fantasy, withdrawal, etc. Pathology results when repression causes a person to become stuck.
joint custody is best when parental conflict is low.
Dual relationships cannot be had because of both objectivity and abuse being taken advantage of by other
Dual relationships impair judgment of therapist and bring potential for exploitation of client power imbalnce
What is good to discuss with the client at the first meeting? • Goals of therapeutic process
• Goals expected of client
• Risks and benefits of therapeutic procedure
• Qualification of practitioner
• How long therapy is expected to last
• Limitations of confidentiality
-Therapist must obtain a signed release in order to talk to physician or other about case, etc.
-When consulting with others about case, the identity of the client must be protected
Professional ethics and TN state law indicate that confidential information is controlled by the client. There are two exceptions to this general rule, however:
1. In the case of an emergency where the counselor believes a client is at risk of hurting himself/herself or the person of another. The counselor may breach the requirement of confidentiality in this case.
2. TN law requires that child abuse in any form be reported to DHS or other authority such as a Juvenile Judge
When developing credentials within field of counseling, the subgroups begin with:
Professional Organizations, then it goes to State, then it goes to certifications.
State laws are for- 1.) Protecting consumers with uniform standards, 2.) Protect therapist from other professionals
Regarding advertising, it is very important not to...
mislead the public. Represent your credentials in the appropriate way
Trends in ethical standards include
• Specialized licensure (i.e., MFT)
• Continuing education
• More regulation by state
it is appropriate to refer a client when: • You have an already existing relationship with the client (friend/student/etc.)
• The client cannot pay a mutually acceptable fee for service
• The client is engaged in a counseling relationship with another therapist
• You have a prejudice (based on race, gender, or sexual orientation, etc.)
Situations when it would not be appropriate to refer this client
• The client's problem is within your area of expertise
Situations when it would be appropriate to accept a client
• Informing a client of your deficiencies but indicating a willingness to be educated
Situations when it would not be appropriate to accept a client : • Accepting a client solely because he is able to pay your fee
• Accepting a client because his problem sounds interesting
• Accepting a client outside of your area of expertise
• Accepting a client out of gratitude or responsibility to the referral source
A counselor must be culture free, culture fair and _______
fraudulent scenarios are the following:
• You are counseling a family with serious problems and their health insurance will not reimburse them for your services if you reveal that you are counseling the entire family. So, you counsel the whole family, but only report as to counseling the teen-aged daughter.
You tell the insurance company that direct health care is being provided by someone whose fees for services normally will be reimbursed, when, in fact, the health care is being provided by someone whose fees for services normally would be reimbursed.
• You diagnose a client solely to satisfy insurance company requirements, when the diagnosis cannot be justified according to current professional knowledge and accepted practices concerning the diagnosis of mental illness.
• You indicate on a bill that fees for services are a specified amount, but charge clients only the lesser amount reimbursed by the insurance company.
• You bill a client's insurance company for an hourly appointment that was missed, but do not indicate on the statement that the appointment was missed. You actually bill for an hour of therapy.
You misrepresent your professional credentials to an insurance company.
You fail to report previous contact with a client who has recently applied for health insurance reimbursement.
You report a conjoint session as "individual therapy" because either the insurance company will not pay for conjoint or it pays higher rates for individual.