How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Ch. 1 The Evolution of Nursing

Key terms and boxes
STUDY
PLAY
illness
an abnormal process in which aspects of the social, emotional, or intellectual condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired
health
a condition of physical, mental, and social well-being and the absence of disease or other abnormal conditions
patient
a recipient of of a health care service
medicine
the art and science of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health
holistic
of or pertaining to the whole; taking into consideration all factors
Dorothea Dix
Pioneer crusader for elevation of standards of care for the mentally ill.
Clara Barton
Developed the American Red Cross in 1881
Mary Ann Ball
Civil War nursing heroine
championed the rights and comforts of the soldiers,; organized diet kitchens, laundries, ambulance service; and supervised the nursing staff
Linda Richards
First trained American nurse
responsible for the development of the first nursing and hospital records
credited with the development of our present-day documentation system
Isabel Hampton Robb
started the NLN with Dock
Organized the first graded system of theory and practice in the schools of nursing
one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing
Lavinia Dock
responsible, with Robb, for American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools- NLN (National League of Nursing)
Mary Eliza Mahoney
The first African American professional nurse
worked for acceptance of African-Americans in nursing
Lillian D. Wald
developed the public health nursing in the US through the founding of the Henry Street Settlement in NYC
Mary Adelaide Nutting
a leader in nursing education
developed curriculum concepts and aguidelines for student nurses
assisted in the development of the International Council of Nurses
Mary Breckenridge
pioneer in nurse-midwifery
established the Frontier Nursing Service - nurses traveled on horseback to reach mothers in the hills of Kentucky
Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing
NYC's foremost proponent of the Nightingale Plan in America
licensure
the granting of permission by a competent authority [usually a govt agency] to an organization or individual to engage in a practice or activity that would otherwise by illegal
certification
a process by which the nurse is granted recognition for competency in a specific area of nursing
1881
the year the Red Cross was established
Hippocrates
"The Father of Medicine" - encourages holistic medicine
1892
the year the Ballard School in NY was established
1907
the year The Thompson Practical Nursing School in Vermont was established
1917
the year the Smith-Hughes Act was passed
1942
the year the Association of Practical Nurse Schools became the National Association of Practical Nurse Education (NAPNE)
1949
the year the National federation of Licensed Practical Nurses (NFLPN) was founded
Lillian Kuster
who founded the National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses (NFLPN)
1965
the year the American Nurses Association (ANA) turned professional and technical
American Nurses Association
ANA
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
NFLPN
National League of Nursing
NLN
NLN and NAPNES
who gives accreditation to schools
National Council Licensing Examination for Practical Nursing
NCLEX-PN
Certification Examination for Practical and Vocational Nurses in Long-Term Care
CEPN-LTC
approved program
type of program that meets the minimum standards
accreditation
a higher standard of nursing education
wellness-illness continuum
the range of a person's total health
wellness
a dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimal balance between internal and external environment
holistic health care
a system of comprehensive or total patient care that considers the physical, emotional, social, economic and spiritual
Nursing
encompasses the roles and actions of the nurse
Patient
the individual receiving the care
Health
the area along the wellness-illness continuum that the patient occupies
Environment
the setting for the nure-patient interaction
HIPPAA
The privacy element, patient confidentiality
Nightingale
whose objective was to facilitate "the body's reparative processes" y arranging the patient's environment"
Leinenger
whose objective was to provide care consistent with nursing's emerging scienece and knowledge, with caring as central focus
Parse
whose objective was to focus on man as living unity and man's qualitative participation with health experience (nursing as science and art)
young adulthood
20 to 44
middle adulthood
45 to 65
late adulthood
65+
maslow's hierarchy
self-actualization
esteem
love and belongingness
safety and security
physiologic
American Hospital Association
AHA
1972
What year did the American Hospital Association (AHA( issue the Patient's Bill of Rights
Health maintenance organizations
HMOs
Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
group health care practices pthat proved health care to members for a fixed prepaid rate
1849
the year Theodore Fliedner brought 4 nurses to the US
Dept of Health and Human Services
DHHS - developed Healthy People
frail elderly
75+ with health concerns
chronologic age
the age of an individual exspressed as the time that has elapsed since birth
every two years
how often should women get mammograms?
around age 35
when should women begin getting mammograms?
annually-every year
how often should women get pap smears
ageism
a profound prejudice in American society against older adults
stress
the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
stressor
a situation, activity, or event that produces stress
anxiety
a vague feelings of apprehension that results from a perceived threat to the self
motivation
the gathering of personal resources or inner drive to complete a task or reach a goal
frustration
anything that interferes with goaldirectivity
adaptation
out ability to adjust to changing life situations by using carious strategies
coping responses
the responses we use to reduce anxiety brought on by stress
denial
defense mechanism where reality doesn't exist
displacement
defense mechanism where emotions are expressed CONSCIOUSLY toward someone or something other than the actual source of the emotiong
regression
defense mechanism where behavior, thoughts, or feelings used at an earlier stage of development are exhibited
repression
defense mechanism of UNCONSCIOUSLY barring from conscious thought of painful, disagreeable thoughts
suppression
defense mechanism of CONSCIOUSLY excluding painful thoughts, experiences, or impulses