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Final (1) ch. 13
Terms in this set (74)
*The _______ provides these links from and to the world outside of our bodies. Ghostly white nerves thread through virtually every part of the body, enabling the CNS to receive information and carry out its decisions.
Peripheral nervous system
*______________ are specialized to respond to changes in their environment
*Sensory receptors are specialized to respond to changes in their environment, which are called ____
Typically, activation of a ____________ by an adequate stimulus results in graded potentials that in turn trigger nerve impulses along the afferent PNS fibers coursing to the CNS.
(I) awareness of the stimulus
(I) interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus
*_____________ respond to mechanical force such as touch, pressure (including blood pressure), vibration, and stretch
*_____ respond to temperature changes
*____, such as those of the retina of the eye, respond to light.
*____ respond to chemicals in solution (molecules smelled or tasted, or changes in blood or interstitial fluid chemistry)
*____ respond to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain. For example, searing heat, extreme cold, excessive pressure, and inflammatory chemicals are all interpreted as painful. These signals stimulate subtypes of thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and chemoreceptors.
*____ are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body, so most of these are near or at the body surface.
* Include touch, pressure, pain, and temp receptors in the skin and most receptors of the special senses (vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, smell)
*_____ also called visceroceptors, respond to stimuli within the body, such as from the internal viscera and blood vessels.
*____ monitor a variety of stimuli, including chemical changes, tissue stretch, and temperature. Sometimes their activity causes us to feel pain, discomfort, hunger or thirst. We are usually unaware of their workings.
Interoceptors, or visceroceptors
*____, like interoceptors, respond to internal stimuli. However, their location is much more restricted.
*____ and ___ respond to internal stimuli
proprioceptors and interoceptors
*____ occur in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments and in connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles.
*____ constantly advise the brain of our body movements by monitoring how much the organs containing these receptors are stretched.
*The overwhelming majority of sensory receptors belong to the ___________ and are simply the modified dendritic endings of sensory neurons.
*Receptors for the _________ are housed in complex sense organs.
*Receptors for the special senses (vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell, and taste) are housed in complex _________
*The widely distributed general _________ are involved in tactile sensation (a mix of touch, pressure, stretch, and vibration), temperature monitoring, and pain, as well as the "muscle sense" provided by proprioceptors.
*Present nearly everywhere in the body, _____________________ of sensory neurons are particularly abundant in epithelia and connective tissues.
Nonencapsulated (free) nerve endings
*Most of these sensory fibers are nonmyelinated, small-diameter group C fibers, and their distal endings (the sensory terminals) usually have small knoblike swellings.
nonencapsulated (free) nerve endings
_______ respond chiefly to temperature and painful stimuli, but some respond to tissue movements caused by pressure as well.
free nerve endings
*_________, which lie in the deepest layer of the epidermis, function as light touch receptors.
Tactile (Merkel) discs
*______, free nerve endings that wrap basketlike around hair follicles, are light touch receptors that detect bending of hair. The tickle of a mosquito landing on your skin is mediated by these receptors
hair follicle receptors
*All ______________ consist of one or more fiber terminals of sensory neurons enclosed in a connective tissue capsule. virtually all are mechanoreceptors, but vary greatly in shape, size, and distribution in the body.
encapsulated nerve endings
*________, or _________ are small receptors in which a few spiraling sensory terminals are surrounded by Schwann cells and then by a thin egg-shaped connective tissue capsule.
Tactile corpuscles or Meissner's corpuscles
*found just beneath the epidermis in the dermal papillae and are especially numerous in sensitive and hairless skin areas such as nipples, fingertips, and soles of feet. They are receptors for discriminative touch, and apparently play the same role in sensing light touch in hairless skin that hair follicle receptors do in hairy skin.
Tactile corpuscles or Meissner's corpuscles
*________, also called _______, are scattered deep in the dermis, and in subcutaneous tissue underlying the skin.
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles
*Although they are mechanoreceptors stimulated by deep pressure, they respond only when the pressure is first applied, and thus are best suited to monitoring vibration. Largest corpuscular receptors
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles
*_______ or _____, which lie in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and joint capsules, contain a spray of receptor endings enclosed by a flattened capsule. THey bear a striking resemblance to tendon organs and play similar role in other dense connective tissues where they respond to deep and CONTINUOUS pressure.
Bulbous corpuscles, or Ruffini endings
*_____ are fusiform (spindle-shaped) proprioceptors found throughout the perimysium of a skeletal muscle.
*Each ________ consists of a bundle of modified skeletal muscle fibers, called intrafusal fibers enclosed in a connective tissue capsule. They detect muscle stretch and initiate a reflex that resists the stretch.
*_______ are proprioceptors located in tendons, close to the skeletal muscle insertion. They consist of small bundles of tendon (collagen) fibers enclosed in a layered capsule, with sensory terminals coiling between and around the fibers.
*_______________ are proprioceptors that monitor stretch in the articular capsules that enclose synovial joints. contains at least 4 receptor types: lamellar corpuscles, bulbous corpuscles, free nerve endings, and receptors resembling tendon organs. Together, these receptors provide info on joint position and motion.
joint kinesthetic receptors
*Our survival depends on ____ and _____
sensation and perception
*The ____________--part of the sensory system serving the body wall and limbs--receives inputs from exteroceptors, proprioceptors, and interoceptors.
*It transmits info about several different sensory modalities, or types of sensation.
*The somatosensory system has 3 levels. This level is characterized by sensory receptors.
*The somatosensory system has 3 levels. This level is characterized by processing in ascending pathways
*The somatosensory system has 3 levels. This level is characterized by processing in cortical sensory areas
*stimulus energy converted into the energy of a graded potential
*The graded potential is called a _________ because it generates action potentials in a sensory neuron
*When the receptor is a separate cell, the graded potential is called a _____ because it occurs in a separate receptor cell. It changes the amount of neurotransmitter released by the receptor cell onto the sensory neuron
*Many but not all sensory receptors exhibit _____, a change in sensitivity (and nerve impulse generation) in the presence of a constant stimulus
*_________ are fast adapting, often giving bursts of impulses at the beginning and the end of the stimulus. These report changes in the internal or external environment. ex: lamellar and tactile corpuscles
*_______ provide a sustained response with little or no adaptation.
*At the second level of integration, the ______, the task is to deliver impulses to the appropriate region of the cerebral cortex for localization and perception of the stimulus.
*_______ is the ability to detect that a stimulus has occurred. This is the simplest level of perception.
*______ is the ability to detect how INTENSE the stimulus is.
*____________ allows us to identify the site or pattern of stimulation.
*A common tool for studying spatial discrimination in the lab is the ___________________ test. The test determines how close together two points on the skin can be and still perceived as two points rather than one.
two-point discrimination test
*____________ is the mechanism by which a neuron or circuit is tuned to one feature, or property, of a stimulus in preference to others.
*_____ is the ability to differentiate the submodalities of a particular sensation. Each sensory modality has several QUALITIES, or submodalities. ex: taste is a sensory modality and its sub modalities include sweet and bitter.
*__________ is the ability to take in the scene around us and recognize a familiar pattern, an unfamiliar one, or one that has special significance for us.
*We all have the same _________--that is, we begin to perceive pain at roughly the same stimulus intensity.
When we say that someone is "sensitive" to pain, we mean that the person has a low _________ rather than a low pain threshold
(HI)*Long-lasting or very intense pain inputs, such as limb amputation, can disrupt this system, leading to ______ (pain amplification), chronic pain, and phantom limb pain.
(HI) _______ _____ ____ (pain perceived in tissue that is no longer present) is a curious example of hyperalgesia. Back then resulted in amputation
phantom limb pain
*_____ pain results from noxious stimulation of receptors in the organs of the thorax and abdominal cavity. Like deep somatic pain, it is usually a vague sensation of dull aching, gnawing or burning.
*The fact that visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers helps explain the phenomenon of _________, in which pain stimuli arising in one part of the body are perceived as coming from another part.
*A _____ is a cordlike organ that is part of the PNS. They vary in size, but every one consists of parallel bundles of peripheral axons.
*Each axon is surrounded by _____, a delicate layer of loose connective tissue that also encloses the fiber's associated Schwann cells.
*A coarser connective tissue wrapping, the ______, binds groups of fibers into bundles called fascicles.
*A tough fibrous sheath, the _____, encloses all the fascicles to form the nerve
*________ contain both sensory and motor fibers and transmit impulses both to and from the CNS
*When PNS fiber is crushed and the axon fragments spreads distally from the injury site, fragmenting the distal part of the axon.
*A system of cellular cords that guide the regenerating axon "sprouts" across the gap to their original contacts.
_____ fibers regenerate, but most ____ fibers never regenerate
*Twelve pairs of ______ are associated with the brain. The first two attach to the forebrain, and the rest are associated with the brain stem.
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