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23 terms

Holt Science and Technology: Inside the Restless Earth, Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
crust
the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
mantle
the layer of rock between the earth's crust and core
core
the central part of the Earth below the mantle
lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
mesosphere
The strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
tectonic plate
a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle
continental drift
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
sea-floor spreading
the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies
plate tectonics
the theory that explains how large pieces of the Earth's outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape
convergent boundary
the boundary formed by the collision of two lithospheric plates
divergent boundary
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
transform boundary
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
compression
stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
tension
Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
folding
the bending of rock layers due to stress
fault
a break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another
normal fault
a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall
reverse fault
A fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall
strike-slip fault
opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally
folded mountains
When rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward.
fault-block mountains
Form when tension causes large blocks of rock to drop down in relation to other rocks. Tilting of rock layers can occur as tension pulls the rock layers apart.
volcanic mountains
Mountains that form when magma erupts onto Earth's surface.