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BIOL 121 Blood Vessels
Terms in this set (128)
The innermost layer of a blood vessel, consisting of endothelium, lumen, basement membrane, and internal elastic lamina.
The middle and thickest layer of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand.
The outermost layer of a blood vessel wall which connects it to surrounding tissues; consists of dense connective tissue, elastic fibers, and nerves.
This is another name for the tunica interna.
This is another name for the tunica externa.
The specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood vessels.
The space within a blood vessel.
internal elastic lamina
The layer of connective tissue that separates the tunica intima and tunica media.
external elastic lamina
The layer of connective tissue that separates the tunica media and the tunica externa.
The narrowing of blood vessels, which reduces blood flow, and increases blood pressure.
The increase in diameter of blood vessels, which increases blood flow, and decreases blood pressure.
A contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of a damaged blood vessel to prevent blood loss.
Small blood vessels that supply blood to the outer part of larger blood vessels.
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
The ability of a blood vessel wall to expand and contract passively with changes in pressure.
Thick-walled, large-diameter blood vessels that are closer to the heart; allow stretch as blood is pumped into them and recoil when ventricles relax.
This is another name for the elastic arteries.
The temporary storage of potential energy by elastic arteries as their walls are stretched by the incoming surge of blood, followed by the release of kinetic energy as the vessels recoil, which moves blood through the arteries.
Medium-sized arteries with more smooth muscle (and less elastic laminae) that distribute blood to skeletal muscles and internal organs; have greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
This is another name for the muscular arteries.
A connection between two or more blood vessels that serve the same volume of tissue, often acting as backup routes for blood to flow if one vessel is blocked.
Alternate blood flow routes by smaller blood vessels that branch off from larger, obstructed vessels.
Blood vessels that do not form an anastomosis.
The formation and growth of new blood vessels.
Small blood vessels that receive blood from arteries and regulate blood flow into capillaries.
Short vessels that link arterioles and capillaries.
A metarteriole that continues through a capillary bed to a venule.
A band of smooth muscle fibers that encircles the capillaries at the arteriole-capillary junctions and regulates blood flow to tissues.
A tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells.
The flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule through a capillary bed.
A network of capillaries in a tissue or organ.
Contraction and relaxation cycle of capillary sphincters that causes blood flow in capillary beds to constantly change routes.
A common type of capillary with an intact endothelium that forms a tube interrupted only by intercellular clefts; found in the brain, lungs, skeletal and smooth muscle, and connective tissues; the least permeable type of capillary.
A more permeable type of capillary with small pores in its endothelium to facilitate exchange; found in the kidneys, villi of the small intestine, choroid plexuses of the ventricles in the brain, and endocrine glands.
The most permeable type of capillary, having large pores that allow blood cells to leak through; found in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissues.
A gap between neighboring endothelial cells in a capillary that allows small solutes to pass through.
A large pore in the endothelial cells of capillaries that allows the free passage of water and small substances.
Consists of two capillary beds in a series through which blood must travel before returning to the heart.
A small vein that connects the capillaries with the larger systemic veins.
A blood vessel that drains blood from the capillary bed.
A blood vessel that transports blood into a vein, and acts as a reservoir for accumulating large volumes of blood.
A thin-walled blood vessel with valves that carries blood back to the heart; has little smooth muscle, but has a thick tunica externa, with no elastic laminae.
A flap of tissue in a vein that prevents blood from flowing backward.
A thin-walled vein that has no smooth muscle to alter its diameter.
A vein found in a double set that is paired with arteries.
A vein that travels in the subcutaneous layer and/or fascia that is not paired with major arteries.
A vein that is the companion vessel to an artery and travels in-between skeletal muscles.
An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein, usually in the legs.
A function of the systemic veins and venules, which store up to 64% of the body's total blood volume.
The movement of substances into and out of capillaries.
blood brain barrier
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
The movement of substances into, across, and then out of a cell, such as large lipid-insoluble molecules (insulin).
The movement of large volumes of fluid and solutes due to a difference in pressure between two locations.
The pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid.
The process in which water and dissolved substances are taken back into the blood.
net filtration pressure
The difference between net hydrostatic pressure and net osmotic pressure, which moves fluid out of a capillary.
Starling's Law of the Capillaries
This states that under normal conditions, the volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed is almost as large as the volume filtered.
blood hydrostatic pressure
This drives fluid out of a capillary through the process of filtration; it is high on the arterial end of a capillary and low on the venous end.
interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
The pressure created by proteins present in the interstitial fluid; pulls fluid out of capillaries to promote filtration.
blood colloid osmotic pressure
The largest driving force that promotes reabsorption of fluid from the interstitial spaces back into the capillaries.
interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
The pressure created by fluid located in the interstitial spaces which helps in the reabsorption of fluid and solutes into capillaries.
net filtration pressure equation
NFP = (BHP + IFOP) - (BCOP + IFHP)
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues, due to excess filtration or poor reabsorption.
The physical principles of blood flow based on pressure and resistance.
The volume of blood moving through a vessel, organ, or entire circulation in given time period.
The force exerted by the blood upon the walls of the blood vessels, especially arteries.
The blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.
The lowest blood pressure against the walls of an artery; occurs when the ventricles are relaxed.
mean arterial pressure
The pressure forcing blood into tissues, averaged over the cardiac cycle.
The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute; CO = MAP/total resistance (R).
The opposition to blood flow due to friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels; depends on blood vessel diameter, blood viscosity, and total blood vessel length.
The stickiness of the blood due to formed elements and plasma proteins.
systemic vascular resistance
The pressure in the peripheral blood vessels that the heart must overcome to pump blood into the system.
The amount of blood flow back to the heart.
skeletal muscle pump
Rhythmic skeletal muscle contractions that force blood in the extremities toward the heart.
The pressure changes during breathing that move blood toward the heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand.
The distance blood flows in a given time; it is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the blood vessels.
The time it takes a drop of blood to travel from the right atrium back to right atrium; in a resting human is normally one minute.
The area of the medulla oblongata that regulates the rate and force of the heartbeat and the diameter of blood vessels.
A receptor that responds to changes in body position such as stretch on a tendon, or contraction of a muscle; the receptors allow us to be consciously aware of the position of our body parts.
A sensory receptor that responds to changes in pressure, such as those in the carotid arteries and the aortic arch that monitor blood pressure.
carotid sinus reflex
The stimulation of baroreceptors that monitor blood pressure to ensure enough blood flows to the brain.
The stimulation of baroreceptors that helps maintain normal systemic blood pressure.
A sensory neuron that responds to a change in the chemical composition of the blood around it; detects changes in blood oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
Chemoreceptors located in the internal carotid artery that respond to changes in arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions.
Chemoreceptors located in the arch of the aorta that are capable of detecting changes in arterial oxygen.
A deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.
The abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.
vagus (X) nerve
Parasympathetic; decrease heart rate.
cardiac accelerator nerves
Sympathetic; increase heart rate and contractility.
A moderate state of vasoconstriction in a blood vessel that sets the resting level of systemic vascular resistance.
Fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by a lack of blood supply to the cerebrum.
Sudden loss of consciousness due to emotional stress.
Caused by pressure stress associated with urination, defecation, or severe coughing.
drug induced syncope
Caused by antihypertensives, diuretics, vasodilators, and tranquilizers.
A decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions.
renin angiotensin aldosterone system
A hormone cascade pathway that helps regulate blood pressure and blood volume.
A hormone secreted by the kidney that increases blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction.
A hormone that stimulates constriction of precapillary arterioles and increases reabsorption of NaCl and water by the kidney, increasing blood pressure and volume.
A "salt-retaining hormone" that promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys, which promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases cardiac output by increasing heart rate and contractility, along with vasoconstriction of the arterioles and veins in the skin and abdominal organs.
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary in response to dehydration or decreased blood volume; causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure; promotes movement of water from the kidneys into the blood, which increases blood volume and decreases urine output.
atrial natriuretic peptide
A hormone released by cells in the atrium of the heart; decreases blood pressure by causing vasodilation and promoting the loss of salt and water in the urine, which
decreases blood volume.
The rhythmic expansion and recoil of arteries resulting from heart contraction; can be felt from the outside of the body.
A specific site on the body where arterial pulsations can be felt.
The number of pulse beats per minute.
An abnormally rapid heartbeat greater than 100 beats per minute.
An abnormally slow heartbeat that is less than 60 beats per minute.
An instrument used to measure blood pressure in millimeters of mercury.
A series of sounds that correspond to changes in blood flow through an artery as pressure is released.
The difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient blood flow to enable every body part to perform its function.
A condition in which low blood volume, due to massive internal or external bleeding or extensive loss of body water, results in inadequate blood flow.
A state in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissues of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart. It can be a severe complication of a large acute myocardial infarction, as well as other conditions.
Poor circulation that results from extreme vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance.
A severe reaction that occurs when an allergen is introduced to the bloodstream of an allergic individual. Characterized by bronchoconstriction, labored breathing, widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death.
Caused by a severe infection, which results in an uncontrollable decrease in blood pressure.
Occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.
A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
Abnormally high blood pressure.
High blood pressure that results from an unidentified cause.
High blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease.
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all of the body organs and then returns oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium via the veins.
The flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart.
The flow of blood to and from the brain.
hepatic portal circulation
Drains nutrient-rich blood from digestive organs and delivers it to the liver for processing.
The flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
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