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Final (2) ch. 13
492-511 *this one stinks and seems like these terms most likely will not be on test
Terms in this set (86)
*These are the tiny sensory nerves (filaments) of smell, which run from the nasal mucosa to synapse with the olfactory bulbs.
*Because sensory nerve of vision develops as an outgrowth of the brain, it is really a brain tract
*This nerve supplies four of the six extrinsic muscles that move the eyeball in the orbit. "eye mover"
*Means "pulley" and it innervates an extrinsic eye muscle that loops through a pulley-shaped ligament in the orbit.
*Three branches spring from this, the largest cranial nerve. it supplies sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers to the chewing muscles
*This nerve controls the extrinsic eye muscle that abducts the eyeball (turns it laterally)
*A large nerve that innervates muscles of facial expression (among other things)
*This mostly sensory nerve for hearing and balance was formerly called the auditory nerve.
(HI) fracture of ethmoid bone or lesions of olfactory fibers may result in partial or total loss of smell, a condition known as ____
(HI) visual defects are called _____
(HI) damage to a trochlear nerve results in _____ and impairs ability to rotate eye inferolaterally
*_________ is characterized by paralysis of facial muscles on affected side and partial loss of taste sensation
(HI) since laryngeal branches of the ____ innvervate nearly all muscles of the larynx (voice box), ___ nerve paralysis can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice.
(HI) injury to one ___ nerve causes head to turn toward injury side as result of sternocleidomastoid muscle paralysis.
(HI) Damage to ___ nerves causes difficulties in speech and swallowing. If both nerves impaired, person cannot protrude tongue.
*The name ________ means "tongue and pharynx", the structures that this nerve helps to innervate
*This nerve's name means "wanderer", and it is the only cranial nerve to extend beyond the head and neck to the thorax and abdomen
*Considered an ____ part of the vagus nerve, this nerve was formerly called the spinal accessory nerve.
*The name _____ means under the tongue. This nerve runs inferior to the tongue and innervates the tongue muscles.
*In other sensory neurons contributing to the cranial nerves (V, VII, IX, and X), the cell bodies are located in ____________ just outside the brain.
cranial sensory ganglia
*Thirty-one pairs of ______, each containing thousands of nerve fibers, arise form the spinal cord and supply all parts of the body except the head and some areas of the neck. All are mixed nerves
*Each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord by a dorsal root and a ventral root. Each root forms from a series of ____ that attach along the length of the corresponding spinal cord segment.
*_________ contain motor (efferent) fibers that arise from ventral horn motor neurons and extend to and innervate the skeletal muscles.
*_________ contain sensory fibers and conduct impulses from peripheral receptors to the spinal cord.
*Almost immediately after emerging from its foramen, the spinal nerve divides into a small ________, a larger ventral ramus, and a tiny meningeal branch.
*special rami called ___________, which contain autonomic (visceral) nerve fibers, attach to the base of the ventral rami of the thoracic spinal nerves.
*Except for T2-T12, all ventral rami branch and join one another lateral to the vertebral column, forming complicated interlacing networks called __________. These occur in the cervical, branchial, lumbar, and sacral regions and primarily serve the limbs.
*Buried deep in the next under the clernocleidomastoid muscle, the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves form the looping ________.
*Buried deep in the next under the clernocleidomastoid muscle, the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves form the looping cervical plexus. Most of its branches are _________ that supply only the skin. They transmit sensory impulses from the skin of the next, the ear area, and the back of the head and shoulder.
*The single most important nerve from this plexus is the _________, which receives fibers from C3, C4, and C5. This runs interiorly through the thorax and supplies both motor and sensory fibers to the diaphragm.
(HI) Irritation of the ____ nerve causes spasms of the diaphragm, or hiccups.
**The large, important __________, situated partly in the neck and partly in the axilla, gives rise to virtually all the nerves that innervate the upper limn.
*The five ____ (ventral rami C5-T1) of the brachial plexus lie deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
(HI) injuries to the _____ are common. When severe, they weaken or paralyze the entire upper limb. Occur when the upper limb is pulled hard, stretching the plexus
*The _________ nerve branches off the posterior cord and runs posterior to the surgical neck of the humerus. It innervates the deltoid and trees minor muscles and the skin and joint capsule of the shoulder.
*The _____________ nerve, the major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly in the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the biceps brachii, brachialis, and coracobrachialis muscles. Distal to the elbow, it provides cutanenous sensation in the lateral forearm.
*The _____ nerve descends though the arm to the anterior forearm, where it gives off branches to the skin and to most flexor muscles.
*___ nerve injury makes it difficult to use the pincer grasp (opposed thumb and index finger) to pick up small objects.
*The ___ nerve branches off the medial cord of the plexus. It continues into the hand, where it innervates most intrinsic hand muscles and the skin of the medial aspect of the hand. Causes the wrist and fingers to flex and adducts and abducts the medial fingers.
(HI) where it takes a superficial course, the ___ nerve is very vulnerable to injury. Striking the "funny bone"--the spot where the nerves rests against the medial epicondyle--makes the little finger tingle
Injury to this nerve affect individuals with having trouble to make a fist and gripping objects. also known as clawhand
*The ___ nerve, the largest branch of the brachial plexus, is a continuation of the posterior cord. This nerve wraps around the humerus.its motor branches innervate essentially all the extensor muscles of upper limb.
(HI) trauma to the ___ nerve results in wrist drop, inability to extend the hand at the wrist.
(HI) improper use of a crutch or "saturday night paralysis", in which a drunk person falls asleep with an arm draped over back of chair, can compress the ___ nerve and impair its blood supply
*Although the _____ ____ serves mainly the lower limb, it also sends some branches to the abdomen, pelvis, and buttock
**The ____ ____ arises from spinal nerves L1-L4 and lies within the psoas major muscle. Its proximal branches innervate parts of the abdominal wall muscles and the psoas muscle, but its major branches descend to innervate the anterior and medial though.
*The ____ nerve, the largest terminal nerve of the lumbar plexus, runs deep to the inguinal ligament to enter the thigh and then divides into several large branches.
*The ___ nerve enters the medial thigh via the obturator foramen and innervates the adductor muscles.
**The _____ ____ arises from spinal nerves L4-S4 and lies immediately caudal to the lumbar plexus.
Some fibers of the lumbar plexus contributes to the sacral plexus via the ___ ___
*The largest branch of the sacral plexus is the ____ ____, the thickest and longest nerve in the body. It supplies the entire lower limb
The ___ nerve is actually two nerves--the tibial and common fibular--wrapped in common sheath
*The ____ nerve continues through the popliteal fossa and supplies the posterior compartment muscles of the leg and the skin of the posterior calf and sole of foot.
*In the vicinity of the knee, the tibial nerve gives off the ___ nerve, which serves the skin of the posteriolateral leg.
*At the ankle the tibial nerve divides into the ___ and ____ plantar nerves, which serve most of the foot
medial and lateral plantar nerves
*The ___ ___ nerve, or common peroneal nerve, descends from its point of origin, wraps around the neck of the fibula, and then divides into superficial and deep branches. These branches innnervate the knee joint
*The next largest sacral plexus branches are the superior and inferior ____ nerves. Together they innervate the buttock and tensor fasciae late muscles.
*The ____ nerve innervates the muscles and skin of the perineum and helps stimulate erection and control urination.
(HI) characterized by stabbing pain radiating over the course of the sciatic nerve
*The ventral rami T1-T12 mostly course anteriorly, deep to each rib, as the ___ nerves. These nerves supply the intercostal muscles, the muscle and skin of the anterolateral thorax, and most of the abdominal wall.
*Two thoracic nerves are unusual: the tiny T1 and T12, which lies inferior to the 12th rib, making it a ___ nerve
**A _____ is an area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve.
*in patients with spinal cord injuries, you can pinpoint the damaged nerves and the inured region of the spinal cord by determining which ___ are affected.
*The easiest way to remember which nerves serve which synovial joints is to use _____
*says "any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint"
**Partial or total loss of smell
**visual defects including blindness
**eye rotates laterally and ptosis of eyelid
**perceives 2 images
double vision or diplopia
**response to most excruciating pain known, wincing during pain
**eye rotates medially
**paralysis of facial muscles on affected side
nerve associated with bells palsy
nerve associated with internal strabismus
nerve associated with tic douloureux
nerve associated with double vision or diplopia
nerve associated with external strabismus
nerve associated with anopsias
nerve associated with anosmia
nerve with partial or total loss of smell
nerve with visual defects including blindness
nerve with eye rotates laterally and ptosis of eyelid
nerve where perceives 2 images
nerve with response to most excruciating pain known
nerve with eye rotates medially
nerve with bells palsy
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