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Terms in this set (723)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are as follows, starting from the bottom: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Physiology means breath, food, water, sex, homeostasis, excretion, sleep. Safety means security of body, employment, resources, morality, family health, property.
Love and belonging means friendship, family, sexual intimacy. Esteem means self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.
Self-actualization means morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
Carl Rogers is best known for unconditional positive regard.
Alfred Adler was the first to break away from the Freud school of thought. He founded the Society for Individual Psychology. Adler's theory suggested that every person has a sense of inferiority.
Adler believed that people strive toward overcoming their insecurity by asserting superiority over others. This is referred to as striving for superiority.
Alfred Adler believed we had one basic goal, and that goal is to belong and feel significant.
Adler's theory is a humanistic theory. Adler also stressed the need to understand individuals within their social context.
Jay Haley helped develop Strategic Family Therapy. He was also apart of the Bateson Project, where he helped to write one of the most influential pieces of literature on family therapy.
Jay Haley pioneered family therapy, and emphasized the role of the family unit in therapy. He focused on the family in therapy not just on individuals. Haley was also critical in the founding of brief therapy and strategic therapy.
According to Piaget, a schema is a way of organizing information. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed.
Piaget had four stages of child development. Those were sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
sensorimotor is between 0 and 2 years of age and the key feature is object performance Preoperational stage is between 2 and 7 years of age and the key feature is egocentrism. =
Concrete operational stage is between 7 and 11 years of age and the key feature is conservation. And the formal operational stage is greater than 11 years of age and the key feature is abstract thinking.
Mimesis is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
A baby is most vulnerable during the embryonic stage.
Iván Böszörményi-Nagy is the founder of contextual therapy.
The goal of contextual therapy is to help the family work through avoided emotional conflicts and to develop a sense of fairness among family members.
Relational ethics is a part of contextual therapy. Relational ethics focuses in particular on the nature and roles of connectedness, caring, reciprocity, loyalty, legacy, guilt, fairness, accountability, and trustworthiness - within and between generations
Multi-directed partiality is a part of contextual therapy. Its aim is to evoke a dialogue of mutual position-taking among family members.
Object relations theory suggests that past residue of relationships affect the relationships in the present.
Object relations has roots in the mother child dyad. And it is based on the theory that human relationships are utmost importance and motivating factor in life.
Melanie Klein and Ronald Fairbairn are most associated with founding object relations.
When a person is left and decides to pursue, what is the result? It is a reactive pursuer and withdrawer scenario.
In EFT there are four patterns of interaction. There is pursue, withdraw. There is withdraw, withdraw. There is attack, attack. There is reactive pursue, withdraw.
Catching the bullet is when someone says something that is going to do damage and you need to bring it back to the emotion.
An interactional landmark are stories or events that people cannot get past.
Reflection is to reflect the client's experience on a superficial note.
Validation is saying you see them and hear them.
Structural therapy views the couple as relationship even if empty chair. It views the couple as whole, looking at patterns and dynamics, views couples boundaries, and view the couples hierarchies and power distribution.
Balance is important. Views rules/roles/patterns of behavior.
A secure base is what you create with someone.
A safe haven is what you create in the environment.
Empathetic attunement means "I see you, I understand you that makes sense."
There are three types of emotions: Instrumental, primary, and secondary. The instrumental emotion is what they use to get someone engaged (yell or cry).
Ethics and clinical records require the following:
• Keep adequate and accurate records
• Financial records are kept separate
10 years is safe to keep records
• Must have evaluation and treatment plan
• Must have progress notes on every client
• Must have a termination summary
In an assessment the therapist will look at family of origin issues, relationship history, and power and hierarchy in the relationship.
Accent is when a therapist emphasizes a word.
Probing is when the therapist asks questions to expand the content. The therapist uses open-ended questions.
Mimesis is when the therapist accommodates to the couple/individual's style as well as when the therapist finds common ground and experience with the client(s).
Clarifying is when the therapist as questions that dispel confusion and make issues clearly understood.
Tracking is following the content of the couple/individual's communication. The therapist shows that they are interested and following what the client is saying
Maintenance is "maintaining as is" or accepting the couple for who they are and focusing on their strengths and encouraging them individually or as a couple
Joining is establishing the relationship, become family, build trust with client(s)
Process is what is actually being communicated and it can include: body language, voice inflection, tone, loudness, use of words, emotion, where couple sits in session, gestures, how they look at each other, if they are looking for approval.
Listening to "how" they say it is the process
Listening to "what" they say is the content
A reframe is when you change a negative to a positive.
Personality is an enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations.
Images of personality: Free will vs. Determinism, Nature vs. Nurture, Past vs. Present, Uniqueness vs. Universality, Equilibrium vs. Growth, Optimism vs. Pessimism
Sigmund Freud developed The 1st complete theory of personality which is Psychoanalytic Theory
His Key Concept is that Unconscious motivation causes conflict and compromise.
Freud considered Motivation to be basic elements of personality that drive our behavior
Freud believed we are motivated by instincts,libido, and aggression.
freud's levels of awareness are the conscious, the subconscious, and the preconcious.
Freud's three parts to the psychic are the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unconscious and our instincts, the ego is the rational part, and the superego is the morality piece.
Freud developed 5 psychosexual stages of development. Stage one is the Oral stage, stage two is the anal stage, stage three is phallic stage, stage four is the latency stage, stage five is the genital stage.
Oral stage has a conflict around the mouth and is between 0 and two years old. Anal stage is between 2 and 4 years and has conflict around toilet training. Phallic stage is between 4 and 5 and has conflict around exploring genitals.
Latency stage is a quiet period where they learn to socialize and is between ages 5 and 12. The genital stage is 12 and older and has conflict around puberty.
Carl Jung developed the Neo-psychoanalytic Theory, Deemphasized the role of sexuality, person shaped by past and future
Carl Jung's key concept was Primitive Psychological past. lives are in the collective conscious
Jung's components of personality are the ego, the personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. The ego is where we think, feel, perceive. the personal unconscious is where we repress feelings. The collective unconscious is the deepest part and hardest to reach - accumulation of inherited experiences.
Jung's attitudes and functions of the psyche are introversion, extroversion, thinking, feeling, sensing, intuitive.
Myers-Brigs Type Indicator test is based on Jung's attitudes of introversion and extraversion.
Jung developed 5 archetypes of the collective unconscious. They are the persona archetype where you present a mask to the world to protect yourself.
There is the anima archetype where there are feminine aspects in the persona. There is the anime archetype where there are male aspects in the persona. There is the shadow archetype where there is evil, immorality in the persona. This is the most powerful.
there is the self-archetype, where there is unity and integration between the archetypes.
Freud had two conflict of purposes principles. He created the pleasure principle, which means the id causes to sin. He created the reality principle, which means the ego causes to sin.
Freud had two conflict of modes of thought. He had the primary process and the secondary process. The primary process was the Id principle and the secondary process was the ego principle.
With Freud's theories, the ultimate goal of life is to reduce tension. Defense mechanisms are designed to reduce anxiety from the demands of the Id,ego, and superego.
In therapy Freud used free associations, which were cathartic, talk therapy. He also used dream analysis and analysis of resistance.
Some of Freud's contributions are the unconscious motivation, defense mechanisms hold us, shaped child development and self observation and insight.
Some of Freud's criticisms are the unscientific, based on case studies, hard to validate, lacked reliability and validity, very subjective, pessimistic
Jung's theory of motivations are the libido concept, the principle of polar opposite, principle of equivalence, principle of entropy.
Jung's libido concept means that there is broader life energy, psychic energy fuels one's soul.
Jung's principle of polar opposite is the primary motivation of all behavior.
Jung's principle of equivalence means continual energy redistribution between the personality.
Jung's principle of entropy means equalization of energy differences.
Alfred Adler developed Individual Psychology, greater emphasis on consciousness, social forces and the uniqueness of the individual than Freud did.
Alfred Adler's key concept was that we struggle to create goals that will make us stronger and better
Adler's childhood causes of faulty life styles are as follows: physical inferiority, spoiling or pampering, or neglecting a child.
Adler worked with birth order and the SIS, the social interest scale.
Karen Horney had a feminist viewpoint of psychoanalysis, theory lies in her childhood experiences
Karen Horney's key concept was Repressing hostility leads to basic anxiety-defined as a feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world-Childhood dominated by safety need. Fear of abandonment. Emphasis on social rather than biological forcers as shapers of personality. 10 Neurotic Needs. Tyranny of the Shoulds.
Karen Horney defined basic ways to protect against anxiety. Those ways are gaining affection, being submissive, attaining power, and withdrawing.
Horney developed three groups of protective style. Movement towards other people, movement against other people, and movement away from other people. Freeze, Fight, or flight.
Erich Fromm developed theory that personality shaped by social and cultural forces.The basic human dilemma:
Freedom or security equal More structure less freedom, more team oriented less competitive-caste society
Henry Murray was an American psychologist, developed Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Founder of Boston Psychoanalytic Society and personality theory based on "need" and "press". He obtained his data from empirical studies of normal persons.
HIs goal was not a tension-free state rather the satisfaction derived from acting to reduce the tension. Tension-free is itself a source of distress.
Murray developed the psychological test the TAT. The thematic appreciation test. This test used the picture interpretation technique. 30 pictures and the subject must tell a dramatic story.
Erik Ericson developed Ego Psychology, Pulitzer Prize winner, Personality develops through the lifespan, Emphasize ego more than ID, Emphasized the environment.
Eric Erickson's key concept was the strength of the ego is built step by step thru successfully meeting the tasks and resolving the crises presented by each stage of life.
Erickson developed 5 adolescent development stages. They are identity achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, identity diffusion, and alienated achievement.Identity achievement is committed to occupational and ideology choices. Moratorium is still undergoing their identity crisis.
Foreclosure is not having an identity crisis, but committed to an occupation and ideology. Identity diffusion is having not committed to an occupation and ideology and may have gone through identity crisis. Alienated achievement is having an identity crisis, but having no goals of occupation.
Erickson's developmental stages are as follows: trust versus mistrust. This is years 0 to 1. This is about infancy and hope. Autonomy versus doubt. Years 1 to 3. This is about shame and will. Initiative versus Guilt. Years 3 to 5. This is about purpose.
Industriousness versus inferiority. Years 6 to 11. This is about competence. Identity cohesion versus role confusion. Years 12-18. this is about fidelity. Intimacy versus Isolation. Years 18-35. This is about love.
Generativity versus stagnation. Years 35 to 55. this is about care. integrity versus despair. Years 55 and older. this is about wisdom.
Gordon allport believed Childhood experiences do not influence adult life
but Traits do -they are distinguishing characteristics that guides behavior
Gordon Allport believed that traits 1. Are real and exist within each of us 2. Determine or cause behavior 3. Can be demonstrated empirically through observation 4. Are interrelated - they may overlap 5. Vary with the situation
According to Gordon allport, Habits are specific, inflexible responses to specific stimuli, may combine to form a trait
according to Gordon allport, Attitudes have a specific objects of reference and involve negative or positive evaluations
Raymond catell believed 1/3 genetic and 2/3 environment, he did not believe childhood forces determine the personality permanently.
Raymond catell developed the 16PF test -measures specific aspects of a personality and for special purposes, marriage counseling, job performance, multiple dependent variables integrated into personal source traits
Raymond catell developed Factor analysis- a statistical technique based on correlations between a number of measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors.
Hans Eyesneck had three dimensions of personality Extraversion vs. Introversion
Neuroticism vs. Emotional stability
Psychticism vs. Impulse Control
Hans Eyesneck believed that 80% of intelligence is inherited.
Hans Eyseneck personality theory based on genetics, agreed with Cattrell that personality is composed of traits or factors derived by the factor-analytic method but a critic of factor analysis b/c of the potential subjectivity and difficulty replicating Cattell's findings
Abraham maslow developed Humanistic Psychology
His Key Concept was I've got to be free to be me
Maslow believed Self-actualization- The fullest development of self.
Maslow believed Metamotivation- the motivation of self actualizers which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for particular goal object
Carl Rogers created Person-centered Psychology or a Humanistic approach, Therapist role is facilitator, director, nurture over nature, free will of man
Roger's key concept was that Some humans are natural good when we are treated w/positive regard we have a great capacity of personal growth. Biological tendency toward personal growth like Maslow
All these concepts belong to rogers: phenomenal reality, positive regard, organismic valuing process, incongruency and unconditional positive regard.
Phenomenological reality - only reality that we are aware of
Positive regard - Acceptance, love, and approval from others
Organismic valuing process - person wants to grow, value thins that are self actualization. Meta needs valued and pursued. Disregard everything else. Judge experiences in terms of whether they help or hinder self-actualization.
Incongruency- abnormal psychology - meta pathology. Discrepancy between person's self concept and aspects of their experiential world
Unconditional positive regard - approval granted regardless of a person's behavior
the Q-sort technique according to Rogers is self report for assessing aspects of the self-concept pre and post-test
Rogers view of psychotherapy is Non Directive - counselor does not assume too much control. Client centered - validate client's reality. Experiential - emphasizes present. Person centered - total person
John Bowlby is the developer of attachment theory.
Superficial change in a system which itself stays invariant is termed first-order, while basic change in the structure of a system is called second order.
The concept of the family life cycle was introduced to the field by Jay Haley.
The differentiated individual can balance his or her needs for closeness and autonomy.
The strategic technique of providing a new label for a family's description of behavior, in order to make it more amenable to therapeutic change is called reframing.
Jackson's concept family homeostasis, that all families are units that resist change, became the defining metaphor of family therapy's first three decades.
The techniques of structural family therapy fall into two general categories, joining and restructuring techniques.
A paradoxical technique that forces a patient to either give up a symptom or admit that it is under voluntary control is known as prescribing the symptom.
The "boy kicks dog" metaphor demonstrates the following theoretical concept circular causality.
According to Bowen, the psychological isolation that results from overly rigid boundaries is disengagement.
Experiential family therapists believe unexpressed emotion is/are the primary cause of dysfunction in families.
A collection of beliefs based on a distortion of historical reality and shared by all family members, which help shape the rules governing family functioning are known as family myths.
A non-verbal experiential technique, in which family members position themselves in a tableau that reveals significant aspects of their perceptions and feelings, is known as family sculpting.
The idea that symptoms often distract or otherwise protect family members from threatening conflicts is called function of the symptom.
Unlike experiential therapist, Bowenians seek to decrease levels of anxiety in order to increase levels of differentiation, of self in the family.
In Bowen theory, when the projection of varying degrees of immaturity to different children in the same family occurs. The one who is most involved in the family emerges with the lowest level of differentiation, and passes on problems to succeeding generations. multigenerational transmission process
The family resilience model of assessing family dynamics includes all of the following except avoid focusing on family risks.
Family belief systems are important in the following approaches to family therapy all of the above structural, resilience-based, experiential
The "pick-up sticks" game demonstrates what concept of family systems theory - all of the above , the whole is more than the sum of the parts, everything affects everything else, families have several subsystems that are a part of the while but are also separate.
The most important aspect of a family's interaction is the process by which they interact.
Ed Friedman's fable "The Net" demonstrates the following system concept(s) complementary relationships.
What are the roles in the family with experiential therapy?
placatory, blamer, computer, distractor
What is postmodernism? Sees concepts/principles/truths as constructs of society
Solution-focused and narrative therapy are forms of postmodernism
What is narrative therapy with family therapy? Key names: Michael White, David Epston
Deconstruction of accepted stories, problems - people are not their problems
Externalize the problem - that becomes the enemy,
Reauthor the story - what is the new outcome
Key names for experiential therapy are Carl Whitaker and Virginia Satir
experiential therapy has an Emphasis on growth, experiencing and monitoring internal process, development of the self within the context of the family
There is also an Emphasis on expression of emotion during the session - spontaneity of affect. Symptoms are reframed to emphasize the mutual responsibility of all parties
First order change - changes the behavior
Second order change - changes the beliefs and underlying rules
What are interventions in solution focused therapy?
Use feedback loops
Paradoxical injuctions - prescribing the symptom, reframing
Quid pro quo - in marriage, roles developed by spouses do not stem from gender differences but emerge as a result of mutual exchanges
Schizophrenic symptoms stemmed from double bind communication - contradictory commands from which there is no escape
Cybernetics - symptoms function to keep the family in equilibrium
Behavioral redundancy - repetitive patterns of interaction
What is the MRI
Mental Research Institute
The miracle question - "Suppose one night, while you were asleep, there was a miracle and this problem was solved. How would you know the miracle had occurred?"
Exception questions - "When was the problem not a problem?"
Scaling questions - "One a scale of 1 to 10, how do you feel right now (regarding the problem)"
What are assumptions in the solution-focused theory?
Clients want to change - resistance is simply demonstrating what does not work for the client. Language changes the way one talks, which changes the way one thinks, which changes the way one acts
What is the therapists role in solution focused? Therapist as a conductor: leads client in solution talk - client decides the answers (what is the problem / solution)
Role is to reinforce the client's solutions
Key names in solution focused therapy are Steve DeShazer, Insoo Kim Berg
What are Bowen's aspects of genograms?
Family structure, sibling constellation, pattern repetition across generations, life events and family functioning, relational patterns and triangles, family balance and imbalance
George Kelly developed the Personal construct theory, 11 Corollaries for anticipating life events.
Construct - a person's unique way of looking at life, an intellectual hypothesis devised to explain or interpret events.
George Kelly developed fixed-role construct therapy. Fixed Role Therapy - a psychotherapeutic technique in which the client acts out construct appropriate for a fictitious person. This show the client how the new construct can be more effective than the old ones he or she has been using.
Role Construct Repertory (REP) Test - it uncovers the constructs we apply to the important people in our lives
Cognitive Complexity - a cognitive style or way of construing the environment characterized by the ability to perceive differences among people
BF Skinner was the most influential psychologist of the 20th century
Skinner's Key concepts - Personality is merely an accumulation of learned responses to stimuli. Behavior can be controlled by its consequences. Whoever controls the reinforcers has the ability to control the human behavior.
Skinner's Behavior modification - a form of therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral changes.
Functional analysis is an approach to the study of behavior that involves assessing the frequency of a behavior, the situation in which it occurs and the reinforcers associated with it.
Punishment is the application of an aversive stimulus following a response in an effort to decrease the likelihood that the response will recur.
Negative reinforcement is the removal of something aversive to reinforce or increase desired behavior
Successive approximation - Shaping an explanation for the acquisition of complex behavior. Only reinforced as it reaches desired behavior.
Operant conditioning - the procedure by which a change in the consequences of a response will affect the rate at which the response occurs.
Albert Bandura internal cognitive variables, most behavior is learned by imitating others' behavior, Bobo doll experiment S---M---R
Bandura's Key concept - is a social learning theory that looks at behavior as it is formed and changed in asocial context. Learning takes place by reinforcement
Bandura's Observational Learning - learning new responses by observing the behavior of other people
Bandura's Modeling - a behavior modification technique that involves observing the behavior of others and participating with them in performing the desired behavior.
Bandura's Disinhibition - weakening of inhibitions if model is observed
Bandura's Self-efficacy - our feeling of adequacy, efficiency and competence in coping with life.
Bandura's Behavior modification - applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral change
Julian Rotter's developed the locus of control. Locus of control - some people believe that their reinforces depend on their own actions while others believe that their reinforcers are controlled by other people and outside forces.
Internal locus of control - a belief that reinforcement is brought about by our own behavior
External locus of control - a belief that reinforcement is under the control of other people, fate or luck
Marvin Zuckerman developed Sensation seeking - the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and willingness to take risks to achieve
Thrill and adventure seeking is to engage in physical activities involving speed, danger, noelty
Experience seeking is to search for novel experiences through travel, music, etc
Disinhibition is the need to seek release in uninhibited social activities
Boredom susceptibility is an aversion to repetitive experiences, routine work and predictable people and a reaction of restless discontent when exposed to such situations
Martin Seligman developed the theory of learned helplessness and attribution model.
Learned Helplessness - a condition resulting from the perception that we have no control over our environment. Doggie experiment (conditioning to uncomfortable stimuli with no escape, learned to not escape with opportunity).
Attribution Model is the idea that we attribute our lack of control or failure to some cause.
Seligman had developed an Explanatory style of life
Optimistic—prevent learned helplessness
Pessimistic—spreads learned helplessness to all facets of life
Seligman developed 3 types of life satisfaction. Three types of happiness or life satisfaction
Positive emotion—pleasant life—job satisfaction, contentment, serenity, and optimism
Engagement—engaged life—involvement, commitment, absorption in work
Meaning—meaningful life—using one's talents, abilities, and strengths to belong, serve, or commit completely to some enterprise larger than the self.
Seligman's 5 factor model of personality included the following:
3. openness to experience
An Abstract is a Brief condensed overview of study.
There are 3 measures of central tendency: MEAN or average; MEDIAN or middle score when ranked lowest to highest; MODE or most frequent score
The RANGE is the high minus low score
the STANDARD DEVIATION is the measure of spread or dispersion of scores around mean
Variance is SD squared
Scatterplots Can reveal 4 basic relationships: Positive, Negative, No relationship or Zero Correlation, Nonlinear Relationship
Histogram Graph depicting frequency distribution in which the frequencies of class intervals are represented by adjacent bars along the scale of measurement.
Pearson r Tells direction positive or negative and strength of relationship Linear relationships only
.2 to .3 = low correlation; .4 to .6 = med. correlation; .7 to 1.0+ = high correlation
What is the correlation coefficient?
"go-togetherness" of 2 variables. Degree of relationship between variables.
Frequency is The number of times a particular value or range of values of a variable occurs in a set of data.
Frequency Distribution is A graph or table displaying a set of values or range of values of a variable, together with the frequency of each
Nominal Scale Measurement is a scale that involves categorizing cases into two or more distinct categories.
Ordinal Scale Measurement scale in which cases are ordered along some dimension large, small, medium. The distances between scale values are unknown.
Interval Scale Measurement scale in which the spacing between values along the scale is known.
Ratio Scale Highest scale of measurement; it has all of the characteristics of an interval scale plus an absolute zero point.
Validity is The extent to which a measuring instrument measures what it was designed to measure.
Internal Validity is The extent to which a study evaluates the intended hypotheses.
External Validity is The extent to which the results of a study extend beyond the limited sample used in the study.
Face Validity how well a test appears to measure judging by its contents what it was designed to measure. Ex: a measure of mathematical ability would have face validity if it contained math problems.
Content Validity is the Validity of a test established by judging how adequately the test samples behavior representative of the universe of behaviors the test was designed to sample.
Construct Validity Validity that applies when a test is designed to measure a "construct" or variable "constructed" to describe or explain behavior on the basis of theory i.e. intelligence
A test has construct validity if the measured values of the construct predict behavior as expected from the theory i.e. those with higher intelligence scores achieve higher grades
Reliability is Whether an instrument produces the same of similar responses with multiple administrations of the same or similar instrument.
Dependent Variable is The variable measured in a study. Its value is determined by the behavior of the subject and may depend on the value of the independent variable.
Independent Variable is The variable that is manipulated in an experiment. Its value is determined by the experimenter, not the subject.
Stratified Random Sampling is Making sure that the sample is similar to the population in certain respects and then randomly sampling from those groups or strata. Has all the advantages of random sampling with even greater accuracy.
Quota Sampling is Stratified random sampling but without randomization.
Convenience Sampling is to Find them anywhere you can; including people in the sample simply because they are easy or convenient to survey. Hard to generalize.
Theory is A set of assumptions about the causes for behavior and the rules that specify how the causes operate. A theory is subjected to empirical test & retained, modified, or rejected.
Hypothesis is A tentative statement, subject to empirical test, about the expected relationship between variables.
IRB Institutional Review Board. A committee that screens proposals for research using human participants for adherence to ethical standards.
Systems theory looks at the whole context of the problem being presented - each person in a system contributes to its balance or change
Homeostasis occurs because interactions become patterned or repeated because relational systems require balance - if you change the system, the behavior will change
Complementary relationship- fit together well and meet each other's weaknesses over-under functioner
Contrary relationship - constantly fighting
Similar relationship- well-rounded because of similar characteristics both avoidant
What are assessment tools for family therapy?
Family resilience goals
Global Assessment of Relational Functioning GARF
Cicumplex model structure/flexibility
McCubbins Stress Model factors leading to maladaption/adaption
Concepts of structural theory
Boundaries clear, enmeshed, disengaged, rules of the family structure, patterns of interaction
Alignment cross-generational boundaries, special interests, triangles and coalitions, power
Techniques in structural therapy
Reframing changing the meaning of behaviors
Unbalancing give those without power a different position, upset homeostasis
structural mapping looks at the following: boundaries, life-cycle context, hierarchy
Organizes the family scheme
Used with genograms and timelines
Look at alliances clear, enmeshed, weak, conflicted
Boundaries closed , open , diffused
Strategic Techniques in family therapy are: Reframing
Exaggerating the symptom
Pretend to change
Pretend to have the symptom - at specified times
Restraining and going slow
Ordeal - more trouble to have the symptom than give it up
What emphasis does strategic theory place on power and hierarchy?
Emphasis on hierarchy - parents are in control
Emphasis on power - who is in control, what circumstances does control change
Normal life transitions are the points of greatest vulnerability - inability to adapt to change stresses the system's rules and may produce dysfunction
In strategic Insight is unimportant - use directive to instigate change
Bowen's four constructs are Four constructs:
Multigenerational transmission of anxiety
Bowen says Anxiety is understood to be the primary promoter of all symptoms. The antidote and the prevention of chronic anxiety is always differentiation
bowen says Multigenerational transmission - emotional responses are passed down from generations - not just the influence of the past, but the "presence of the past"
Bowen says Differentiation is the capacity to be one's own integrated self while still belonging to, or being able to relate to, a larger colony - process of self definition and self regulation - not the same as autonomy or independence - it is a process, not ever achieved
Bowen says Emotional systems - emotional interdependence in a group that include thoughts, feelings, emotions, associations, connections, genetics, sibling positions - the group has its own principles of organization
bowen says Emotional triangle¬ is the natural process formed when two people are in an anxiety-forming system and they pull in a third person to balance the system
Directive Play Therapy is child lead play therapy; i.e. sandbox work to tell their story
Indirective Play Therapy is when the therapist takes the initiative and is not as helpful except for in cases of ADHD.
Limit setting rupture- come away from oven, limited ice cream etc.
Toxic rupture—shame, guilt, trippors of shame...saying "I'm sorry too quickly"
Primary language of play therapy is- behavior
Secondary language is play therapy is - play, helps with resistance
A child's play is their words so you need to have enough toys for them to talk to you
• Piaget sociomotor stages
• Negotiating relationships in play
Freud's thoughts on child development
• Things in childhood are important and matter used to think it didn't matter
• Even rationalized that sexual abuse did not happen
• Sex or aggression are only drives individuals have
• Preconventional morality- punish/obedience/ instrumental
• Conventional-good boy, good girl, law and order moral issue
• Postconventional morality- social contract and individual rights; ethics of self chosen universal principle
• Kids can learn so much on their own
What are the thoughts of moral development in children?
• Object permanence - attachment
• Magical thinking- omnipotent, they think they can fix it, accident, divorce
• Emotional display rules
o What is appropriate
o Trained not to show those emotions
• Social referencing
o Look to the parent to see ok
o Change appearance, use animals
• Dichotomous thinking
• Assimilation/ accommodation
o Making things work from birth
What are tenents for relating to children?
• Not little adults
• Are people
• Unique and worthy of respect
• Resilient; tremendous capacity
• Inherent tendency
• Capable of dealing with their world;
• Silence is ok; selective mutism
• Never control play, unless safety is an issue
• Growth cannot be sped up
What are contradictions for nondirective play therapy?
Children with ADHD
What are ideas on setting limits with children?
Bixler= limits are not therapy- adults don't have boundaries
How do you set limits with kids? Acknowledge feeling
Communicate the limit
What are the physical effects of trauma on children?
• Tightening of chest, shortness of breath, amydala alarm, fatigue, excess
• Increased sensitivity to touch
• Decreased reactivity to physical injury
• Unconscious flinch reaction
What are emotional effects of trauma on children?
• Heightened irritability
• Feelings of isolation
• Extreme sadness
What are behavioral effects of trauma on children?
• Recurrent images
• Sleep disturbances
• Heightened startle response
• Clinging to parents
• Repetitive play
• Panic attacks
• Risk-taking behavior
What are cognitive effects of trauma on children?
• Lack of concentration
• Excessive worries or fears
• Repetitive thoughts
• Dwelling on trauma
• Skewed memory
• Increase in irrational beliefs
• Changes in values and beliefs
• Escape through fantasy
What needs to children need fulfilled?
• Research on in-utero bonding
Post- trauma stress is the normal reactions of normal people to events that for them are unusual or abnormal
Trauma is the Overwhelming, uncontrollable experiences that psychologically impact victims by creating in them feelings of helplessness, vulnerability, loss of safety, and loss of control.
What are strange situation experiments with children?
Mary ainsworth (1978) measured the quality of infant attachment to caregivers by creating stressful situations for infants. She found four types:
Secure attachment- 65% of 1 year olds
Resistant attachment- 10%
Avoidant attachment- 20%
Disorganized/disoriented attachment- 5-10%
What are key structures in the brain? How do they contribute to early attachment problems?
Brainstem, Amygdale, Hippocampus, Corpus collosum, Prefrontal cortex
includes the orbitofrontal cortex
Contribute to early attachment problems
Maternal depression/ ambivalence towards the baby/ neglect
Temperamental differences between baby and mother
Chemical dependency of a parent
Multiple caregivers early in life
Domestic violence, Physical abuse, Sexual abuse; Verbal/emotional abuse
Hospitalization and invasive medical procedures
What is the general information for reactive attachment disorder?
Markedly disturbed/developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age 5 and is associated with greatly pathological care
Pathogenic care as evidenced by at least one of the following:
• Persistant disregard of the child's basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation and affection
o Persisgtent disregard of the child's basic physical needs
• Repeated changes of primary caregiver that prevent formation of stable attachments.
What are the inhibited and disinhibited types of RAD in children?
1. Inhibited type
• Failure to respond or initiate in developmentally appropriate fashion to most social interactions as manifested by responses that are:
o Excessively inhibited
o Highly ambivalent
• Diffuse attachments as manifest by indiscriminate sociability with marked inability to exhibit selective attachment
o Excess familiarity with strangers
o Lack of selectivity in choice of attachment figures
Types of attachment are: secure, anxious, avoidant and disorganized.
What are treatment approaches for attachment problems?
o "know thyself"- therapy for parents
o Developmental play
o Filial therapy
o Family play therapy
o Parent child interaction training
What are the first 5 of the 10 core concepts?
1. Human development is shaped by a dynamic and continuous interaction b/w biology and experience
2. Culture influences every aspect of human development and is reflected in childrearing beliefs and practices designed to promote healthy adaptation.
3. The growth of self-regulation is a cornerstone of early childhood development that cuts across al domains of behavior
4. Children are active participants in their own development, reflecting the intrinsic human drive to explore and master one's environment.
5. Human relationship and the effects of relationships on relationships, are the building blocks of healthy development
What are facts about marital distress and divorce?
A marriage usually faces crisis moments during the teenage years. During this time, the couple is trying test their individuality: usually happens around 13 to 17 years.
Then during 30 years of marriage it is another time of trouble: it's the launching phase for couples. It's a key time when divorce happens, they start to realize that they don't want to end their life dealing with their spouse.
Four myths of divorce: affairs cause divorce, gender differences cause divorce, communication problems cause divorce, and quid pro quo is successful in marriage.
Positive Sentiment override is Positive Comments and behaviors outweigh negative ones about 20:1.
Soothed psychology relates to the heart rate and how the body responds to anger. Women usually cry and men usually get loud and walk away.
Women generally want to talk about it: "Now" and men usually just "Walk Away".
acceptance of influence is what happens when our physiology is aroused? We are not able to accept influence as well when we are physiology is aroused.
repair attempts are it could be touching or verbal exchanges (throwing humor in to diffuse the angst). An attempt to repair would be saying: "We've tried several things and now I want us to find a way to diffuse this situation."
gridlock is when are couple can't get thru an issue.
What are the principles of NSO? or negative sensory override
Pattern of Demand Change and Withdraw.
Diffuse Physiological Arousal (DPA)
Harsh Start up- Meaning that they would usually come to their partner abruptly and interrupt the situation. They come to them angrily already.
PSO Couples on the other hand usually waited until the time was right to approach the situation.
the four horseman of principles are: criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling.
the basic model of crisis in marriage is Move Gridlock to Dialogue
Teach Recovery after a fight.
Teach six basic social skills
fading out the therapist is to work yourself out of a job.
a harsh start up is a component of escalation
the phases of alcoholism are The Drinking Phase
The transition phase
Ongoing recovery coupled with long term sobriety
Letting Go as an intervention strategy looks like the following: Take a stand!
Structure the separation
Cease protecting partner: we have to be careful not to defend partner
Take Control of self- the person left must take responsibility for their own actions.
Determine your expectations- help them develop a back bone during this situation.
1) Taking a stand by making a declaration. At this stage, we help our client formulate the words needed for their marriage. Some people feel as though there is a sense of entitlement from the spouse that they have left.
we deal with crisis situations by Differentiate self.
Be prepared for it
the three hardest things to fix in marriages are Infidelity
In infidelity you must deal with the affair before you deal with marriage issues.
complete disclosure is crucial in healing infidelity.
couples in crisis present with a great deal of confusion. you need to normalize the situation for them. you need to offer them a plan, and you need to offer them hope.
phase I of domestic violence: Phase I: Blames the victim, small outburst over small things, tension and battering increase, the tension is unbearable.
phase II of domestic violence: Phase II: Explosion/Abusive Behavior (Batterer's Behavior)- the batterer just looses control, etc.
phase III of domestic violence: Phase III: Honey moon/Sorrow (Batterer's Behavior):
Wants Victim's Forgiveness- He may bring flowers to try to make up for all of the pain he caused.
there are two types of abusers, cobras and pitbull. pitbull maybe can change, cobra is ice cold.
the reasons that there have been an increase in divorce are as follows: 1. Legislative: it's easier to get a divorce today with "no fault" laws
2. Increased Legal aid to the poor
3. Improvement in the status of women
4. Greater acceptance of divorce as an alternative
5. Changing expectations of the institution of marriage
6. Focus on the individual (me-ism)
7. Changing attitudes of what constitutes a "good" family (quality vs. composition)
8. People can better afford it
9. People living longer, so great probability of divorce
10. "Throw Away Society"
those who tend to divorce most often are: 1. Those who marry early.
2. Those who are pregnant when they marry.
3. High school or college dropouts
4. Lower socioeconomic class.
5. Previously divorced.
What changed when it moved from traditional divorce to no-fault divorce?
Restrictive to Permissive Law
Specific Grounds for divorce to No Grounds for Divorce
Moral Framework to Administrative Framework
Fault to No fault
Consent of Innocent Spouse needed to No consent needed
Gender-based responsibilities to Gender-Neutral responsibilities
Financial awards linked to fault to Financial awards based on equality
Adversarial to Non-adversarial
Mavis Hetherington's Longitudinal Study of Affects of Divorce
• There is a general disruption in all areas of life (time regimentation, work performance, household duties, parenting, self-esteem decreases)
• Disruption generally exists for two years and peaks at one year.
When asked, "did you make a mistake in getting a divorce?" At one year, most said yes; at two years, most said no. Lots of resolution after two years.
• Parenting Difficulties: 1) Fewer maturity demands on kids 2) Communicate less well with kids 3) less affectionate w/ kids 4) More inconsistent in discipline 5) less control over their children
Bohannon's 6 Stations of Divorce are:
1. EMOTIONAL: natural reaction to loss is grief (shock, anger, guilt, etc)
2. LEGAL: if no kids, 60 days; if kids, 90 days; can be very expensive
3. ECONOMIC: reduced standard of living for both spouses, though men probably bounce back faster
4. CO-PARENTAL: children can be greatest source of guilt in whole process
5. COMMUNITY: "social divorce;" friends take sides or disappear; learn to live a single's life in a couple's world
6. PSYCHIC: separation of the self from the personality and influences of the ex-spouse; begin making decisions for one again
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross: THE GRIEF PROCESS (5 Stages):
1. Denial and Isolation (Numbness, shock, failure to accept that it's really over)
3. Bargaining: overt or covert manipulation
5. Acceptance: Willing to accept (though not necessarily like) the divorced way of life.
Life of a formerly married are as follows:
As a parent: harder to raise kids independently, more demanding.
As a provider: custodial parent has primary responsibility; lower standards of living; Both parents suffer financial stress after divorce, but men found it easier to recover financially than women
As a social being: lots of loneliness, sex comes quickly. Stigma associated.
As an ex-mate: not an ex-parent, so some continued contact
As an ex-family member: blood thicker than water
As a member of community: side-taking or avoidance; need to develop new support networks
As a person: emotional stability fluctuates; time is needed to discover new self.
Divorce facts are as follows: Divorce Rate at 50%.
2/3 of divorces involve children.
Greater than 1 million kids involved in divorce annually.
Over half of kids under 18 have spent some time in a single parent situation.
Child Development Focus absence of states that divorced families are incomplete and thus not conducive to normal development because they lack appropriate sex role models.
Internal Dynamics Focus (eaction to trauma of departure focus on the process induced by the crisis event of divorce and emotional reaction to it.
Symptoms are crisis reactions guilt, shock, anger, etc and behaviors include fantasy, withdrawal, etc. Pathology results when repression causes a person to become stuck.
joint custody is best when parental conflict is low.
Dual relationships cannot be had because of both objectivity and abuse being taken advantage of by other
Dual relationships impair judgment of therapist and bring potential for exploitation of client power imbalnce
What is good to discuss with the client at the first meeting? • Goals of therapeutic process
• Goals expected of client
• Risks and benefits of therapeutic procedure
• Qualification of practitioner
• How long therapy is expected to last
• Limitations of confidentiality
-Therapist must obtain a signed release in order to talk to physician or other about case, etc.
-When consulting with others about case, the identity of the client must be protected
Professional ethics and TN state law indicate that confidential information is controlled by the client. There are two exceptions to this general rule, however:
1. In the case of an emergency where the counselor believes a client is at risk of hurting himself/herself or the person of another. The counselor may breach the requirement of confidentiality in this case.
2. TN law requires that child abuse in any form be reported to DHS or other authority such as a Juvenile Judge
When developing credentials within field of counseling, the subgroups begin with:
Professional Organizations, then it goes to State, then it goes to certifications.
State laws are for- 1.) Protecting consumers with uniform standards, 2.) Protect therapist from other professionals
Regarding advertising, it is very important not to...
mislead the public. Represent your credentials in the appropriate way
Trends in ethical standards include
• Specialized licensure (i.e., MFT)
• Continuing education
• More regulation by state
it is appropriate to refer a client when: • You have an already existing relationship with the client (friend/student/etc.)
• The client cannot pay a mutually acceptable fee for service
• The client is engaged in a counseling relationship with another therapist
• You have a prejudice (based on race, gender, or sexual orientation, etc.)
Situations when it would not be appropriate to refer this client
• The client's problem is within your area of expertise
Situations when it would be appropriate to accept a client
• Informing a client of your deficiencies but indicating a willingness to be educated
Situations when it would not be appropriate to accept a client : • Accepting a client solely because he is able to pay your fee
• Accepting a client because his problem sounds interesting
• Accepting a client outside of your area of expertise
• Accepting a client out of gratitude or responsibility to the referral source
A counselor must be culture free, culture fair and _______
fraudulent scenarios are the following:
• You are counseling a family with serious problems and their health insurance will not reimburse them for your services if you reveal that you are counseling the entire family. So, you counsel the whole family, but only report as to counseling the teen-aged daughter.
You tell the insurance company that direct health care is being provided by someone whose fees for services normally will be reimbursed, when, in fact, the health care is being provided by someone whose fees for services normally would be reimbursed.
• You diagnose a client solely to satisfy insurance company requirements, when the diagnosis cannot be justified according to current professional knowledge and accepted practices concerning the diagnosis of mental illness.
• You indicate on a bill that fees for services are a specified amount, but charge clients only the lesser amount reimbursed by the insurance company.
• You bill a client's insurance company for an hourly appointment that was missed, but do not indicate on the statement that the appointment was missed. You actually bill for an hour of therapy.
You misrepresent your professional credentials to an insurance company.
You fail to report previous contact with a client who has recently applied for health insurance reimbursement.
You report a conjoint session as "individual therapy" because either the insurance company will not pay for conjoint or it pays higher rates for individual.
1 is The no fault divorce is a permissive law.
This means it is to facilitate divorce.
2 is The no fault divorce is a no grounds law.
This means there are no specific grounds in order to get a divorce. Marital breakdown is sufficient enough.
3 is The no fault divorce has an administrative framework.
This means that neither party is responsible or deemed guilty.
4 is The no fault divorce is "no fault."
This means that the cause of the divorce is irrelevant.
5 is The no fault divorce is where no consent is needed.
This means that it is unilateral and no consent or agreement is needed.
6 is The no fault divorce has gender-neutral responsibilities.
This means that both party's are responsible for self-support, both party's are eligible for custody, and both are responsible for child support.
7 is The no fault divorce is where the financial awards are based on equality and need.
This means that alimony is based on need and the property is divided equally.
8 is The no fault divorce is non-adversarial.
This means that there is no guilty or innocent party, there is no financial gain from charges, and an amicable resolution is encouraged.
The traditional divorce law had a restrictive law.
This means that it was meant to protect marriage.
The traditional divorce law had to have specific grounds.
This means that there had to be adultery, cruelty, or something else in order to get the divorce.
The traditional divorce law had a moral framework.
This means that there was a guilty and an innocent party.
The traditional divorce created a fault situation.
This means that one party caused the divorce, or was at fault for the divorce.
The traditional divorce needed the consent of the innocent spouse in order for the divorce to be granted.
This means that the innocent had the power to prevent or delay the divorce.
The traditional divorce had gender-based responsibilities.
This means that the husband was responsible for alimony, the wife was responsible for custody, and the husband was responsible for child support.
The traditional divorce had financial awards linked to fault.
This means that there was alimony for the innocent spouse and the greater share of property went to the innocent spouse.
The traditional divorce was adversarial.
This means that one party was considered guilty and one innocent and there was financial gain in proving fault.
What are the eight parts to no fault divorce?
1 permissive law, 2 no grounds, 3 administrative framework, 4 no fault, 5 no consent needed, 6 gender-neutral responsibilities, 7 financial awards based on equality and need, 8 non-adversarial
What are Kubler Ross' 5 Stages of Grief in order?
1 Denial and Isolation, 2 Anger, 3 Bargaining, 4 Depression, 5 Acceptance
According to Kubler Ross, what is the grief process definition?
The normal emotional reactions to traumatic loss or a life crisis event.
The two main emotions in divorce are what?
Grief and crisis.
What are Bohannon's Six Stages?
1 Emotional, 2 Legal, 3 Economic, 4 Co-parental, 5 Community, 6 Psychic
Describe Bohannon's First Stage
His first stage is emotional. This is a natural reaction to loss. Within this stage are typically feelings of guilt, shock, and anger. However each person is different.
Describe Bohannon's Second Stage
The second stage is legal. This varies from person to person. It can be easy, hard, quick, or long.
Describe Bohannon's Third Stage
The third stage is economic. This includes the distribution of property, alimony, and child support. Many times the wife is forced to go to work. There is a reduced standard of living for both parties.
Describe Bohannon's Fourth Stage
The fourth stage is co-parental. This involves the custody determination and visitation rights.
Describe Bohannon's Fifth Stage
The fifth stage is community. In this stage the divorcee no longer fits with married couple friends anymore. Friends also take sides or don't want to be involved. They learn to live a single's lifestyle in a couples world.
Describe Bohannon's Sixth Stage
The sixth stage is psychic. This describes disentangling from the other person, re-establishing autonomy where there used to be dependency, and re-creating or first time establishment of individuality.
Who are the six groups over-represented in divorced populations?
1 Those who marry early, 2 Those who are pregnant when they marry, 3 High School or College drop outs 4 Those from a low socio-economic background 5 Previously divorced people 6 Those who cohabitated
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who marry early and why they divorce.
1 They don't know themselves, don't have education/skills and encounter financial problems, normal expectations for their age group are different from married couple expectations. (dating, money, friends)
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who are pregnant when they marry and why they divorce.
1 The couple has little time to get to know each other, 2 the coming of the first child is the single greatest adjustment for couples 3 financial bind 4 the decision to get married is not always based on love and committment.
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who are high school or college drop outs and why they divorce.
1 They have reduced earnings, 2 Those who give up on one thing may give up on other things.
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who are from low socio-economic background and why they divorce.
1 They have a lot of pressure, 2 Financially hard, 3 culturally it's hard
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who are previously divorced and why they divorce again.
1 A second marriage is frequently different from the first, 2 blended family stressors
In the over-represented divorced population, describe those who cohabitated and why they divorce.
1 There are committment issues and differing motivations for each person, 2 historically those that cohabitate first have higher divorce rates
What are three other "lesser" groups represented in the over-represented divorced population?
1 Different ethnic backgrounds, 2 one or both have no religious affilation, 3 different denomination affiliation
What is the current rate of divorce?
What percentage of divorces involve children?
60-75 percent. Or two thirds.
True or False. Greater than 1 million children are involved in divorce annually?
True or False. Over 50% of the children under 18 years of age have spent some time in a single parent situation.
Describe the Child Development Focus.
1 Emphasis is on the family unit, 2 Families with absent fathers are incomplete, 3 An incomplete family is not conducive to normal development, 4 It lacks appropriate sex role models, 5 males without father figures over-react and become aggressive.
True or False. You cannot look at divorce as a discreet variable.
Describe the Internal Dynamics Focus.
1 Concern is with the process induced by crisis events, 2 emotional reaction is of major concern, 3 emotional reactions normal, 4 symptoms are crisis reactions and not pathogenic, 5 guilt, shock, fear, anger are normal feelings, 6 fantasy, withdrawal, acting out, depression, behavioral problems are typical, 7 pathology is result of repression which results in a character formation crystallization.
True or False. Being a single parent is different, often difficult, and not generally desired. However, it is not the end.
According to the Internal Dynamics Focus, family dysfunction is not based on membership, it's based on relationship.
What is the difference between the Child Development Focus and the Internal Dynamics Focus?
The difference is that the Internal Dynamics Focus is more about the process than the family unit staying in tact. The Internal Dynamics Focus normalizes much of the emotional reactions and doesn't label the family as incomplete. The Internal Dynamics Focus also lends itself to hope and recovery.
Describe Hetherington's Recovery Timeline
The one year marker is the most intense. The emotions and the pain are at their worst. At the end of the two year period, most of the disruption has subsided.
Describe Hetherington's Longitudinal Study
1 There is a basic disruption of the household. There is time and emotional strain. 2 There are fewer maturity demands on the divorced. They are put in a position to just survive in the firs two years. The parents tend to communicate less with kids, are more testy and stressed, inconsistent parenting skills, and less control over children. This subsides after the two year mark.
According to Wallerstein and Kelly what provides the best opportunity for children to adjust in divorce?
Symptoms of divorce are generally temporary if children get physical and loving care by their parents. Control generally worsens conditions and causes a more turbulent post-divorce. There was crisis and impairment found at one year, but no trend in abnormal adjustment. Accept that disruption is normal and get professional help for all parties. Give the children support and encourage growth.
True or False. Children of divorce are not an at risk group during the initial stages of divorce.
True or False. A comparison of stable intact families and single parent families is irrelevant because single parent families were not stable even when they were intact.
What are the seven points of the World of the Formerly Married?
1 parent, 2 provider, 3 social being, 4 ex-mate, 5 ex-family member, 6 member of the community, 7 person
Describe the formerly married Parent Point.
Parenting is more stressful and demanding doing it alone. Too many other things destracting from parenting. Also a tempation to bash the other parent.
Describe the formerly married Provider Point.
Custodial parent has primary care. Standard of living goes down for everyone. Mother has to go to work. Mother may have to assume new roles and acquire new skills.
Describe the formerly married Social Being Point.
Quickly gets back into the dating circle. Anxiety with the dating scene. Sex comes quickly. People are often lonely.
Describe the formerly married Ex-Mate.
There is usually continued contact witht he ex-mate. Contact may even be sexual. There is anger and bitterness usually.
Describe the formerly married Ex-Family Member.
Blood is thicker than water. People pick family over in-laws. Within one's own family there is role regression. Kids sometimes go back to live with parents. Or there is alienation - treated like a loser in the family.
Describe the formerly married Member of the Community.
Friends usually takes sides, avoid you alltogether, and a new support group is developed.
Describe the formerly married as a Person.
Emotional stability fluctuates, there is a flight phase, anything to run away from pain. Time allows for healing and someone may begin to finally do and be who they want to be.
True or False. Men and women both suffer financial stress and setbacks vs. men doing well and women doing poorly.
True or False. Divorce is generally harder on women than men. Men generally recover quicker.
What is the basic impact of divorce on women financially?
If they are not already working, many have to go back to work. Standard of living is much lower.
What is the basic impact of divorce on men financially?
Their standard of living is lower. Most of the time they have to pay child support or alimony.
True or False. People who have joint legal custody almost always have joint physical custody.
False. Though a large percentage have legal custody, still very few have joint physical custody.
True or False. When parental conflict is high joint custody is a good idea.
False. Children are more likely to be stuck in the middle of parents conflict.
True or False. When parental conflict is low, joint custody is a good idea.
True. Children are less likely to be stuck in the middle of conflict.
Casual sex occurs very quickly for the divorced.
This is true for almost all men and a majority of women. Generally sex occurs withing first or second date.
Hunt and Hunt found remarriage rate to be at 80%.
This is true.
True or False. Divorced individuals are more prone to suicide or self harm.
True. but not excessivley so.
True or False. Society no longer see divorced individuals as failures or incompetent.
True or False. The divorced become embittered and disillusioned.
False for the most part. You can get bitter or get better.
True or False. There is no real difference in divorce rates within religious groups.
True or False. Transition is fairly rocky with ups and downs. There are better days and worse days.
Is more structure or more process important regarding the health of the children during divorce?
More process is healthier.
What is the most beneficial moderator in divorce for adults?
A new relationship or remarriage.
At one year divorcees were asked if they made a mistake in getting divorced.
80% of women said yes and 70% of men said yes.
At two years divorcess were asked if they made a mistake in getting divorced.
20% of women said yes and 15% of men said yes.
What was the divorce peak in the 1940's attributed to?
World War II.
Murry Bowen was a ________ and studied _________
psychiatrist and studied schizophrenia
Bowenian theory is a balance between individuality and togetherness and a balance of logic and feelings.
to improve self-focus or see one's role
to decrease emotional reactivity
modify dysfunctional patterns
What are the four points of a healthy bowenian relationship
a love bond
loyalty is stronger with partner than with FOO
Role of a Bowenian Therapist
strong and empathetic therapeutic alliance
increase their confidence
increase ability for one partner to support other partner
therapist must be transparent
As a whole bowenian therapy is focused on insight not on techniques.
What happens in the initial stage of therapy?
build therapeutic alliance and gather relationship information
What happens in the middle of therapy?
The couple aims to understand the other's view of the problem
What happens in late stage therapy?
change has occurred when the couple needs less coaching, they are relating well and telling stories of intimacy at home and change
What is Reflection?
An intervention where therapist conveys understanding and helps the client feel heard.
What is an example of reflection?
So help me understand how this plays out at home.
What is validation?
An intervention where therapist conveys to clients that they are entitled to their experience and emotional responses. They are accepted and there is nothing wrong with their feelings.
What is an example of validation?
I get it and I think I understand. You feel angry when he's depressed because you feel left alone to handle everything? Is that it?
What is evocative responding?
An intervention where the therapist verbalizes the emotion behind the content. The therapist calls out emotion. The therapist offers evocative responses tentatively allowing the client to 'try out' new responses in therapy.
What is an example of evocative responding?
I think I hear you saying that when you see his expression, you feel inadequate, like you don't measure up.
What is heightening?
Using repetition, images, metaphors, enactments
Highlighting key experiences that organize responses to the partner and new formulations of experience that will re-organize the interaction
What are ways a therapist can heighten?
Emphasize a phrase or word. Or the therapist can change their pitch low or high, or lean into the clients. They can use a metaphor, or they can instruct them to do a heightening enactment.
What is an example of a heightening question?
Can you say that again Jim, that you just can't let go?
What is empathetic conjecture?
Clarifying and formulating new meanings, especially regarding interactional positions and definitions of self. Example would be so how does that make you feel?
What are the basics of EFT?
Primary focus is on the present. Secure bonding is a treatment goal. There is an emotional focus. You take people as they are.
EFT Stage One is
de-escalation of the negative cycles of interaction
EFT Stage Two is
Changing interactional positions
EFT Stage Three is
Consolidation and Integration
Step One in EFT is
Creating an alliance and identifying issues
Step Two in EFT is
Identyfying the negative interactional cycle
Step Three in EFT is
Identifying unacknowledged emotions underlying interactional positions
Step Four in EFT is
Refram the problem in view of the negative cycle and the underlying emotions and the attachment needs
Step Five in EFT is
Promote identification with disowned emotions and self
Step Six in EFT is
Promote acceptance of the partner's experience and new interactional responses
Step Seven in EFT is
Expression of needs and wants and creation of engagement and bonding based on new understanding of the partner's experience
Step Eight in EFT is
Facilitat new solutions to old problems
Step Nine in EFT is
Consolidating new positions and new cycles of attachment behaviors
EFT therapy is easier if the therapist is comfortable with what kind of interaction?
The EFT therapist is ________ and _______ and ________
active and engaged and flexible
What is the role of empathy?
reassure the client
encourage clients to listen better to each other
slow down the process so clients can hold on to experience
organize chaotic experiences
allow for emotional expression to be explored
Research suggest that a positive alliance between therapist and client does what?
It allows for more significant emotional engagement
Building an alliance is one of the _______________
most crucial stages of EFT.
The therapeutic alliance is built by what?
What is empathetic atunement?
The therapists attempt to connect with each partner.
What is acceptance?
That is the nonjudgmental stance of the therapist that aids in building a strong alliance.
What is genuiness?
That is when the therapist presents as real. This is research from Carl Rogers.
What is continuous active monitoring?
When the therapist takes an active and deliberate role in monitoring and probing.
What is joining the system?
When the therapist engages the couple and not just the individuals. This is from Salvador Minuchin.
Emotion gives meaning ____________________
to the client's presenting distress
Emotion in EFT can be used by:
focusing attention on each partner's own needs
organizing emotional responses
acknowledge the whys in the emotionality
communicate with others
What is a primary emotional response?
responses that are in the here and now or direct responses to a situation
what are secondary emotional responses?
they are reactions to or attempts to cope with primary emotional responses, these could be defensive responses
Instrumental emotional responses are ____________
used to manipulate the responses of others. this is what they use to get someone engaged. to make them yell or cry.
3 guidelines to focusing on emotion in therapy are
focus on the most vivid emotional experience
focus on the emotion related to attachment, especially needs and fears
focus on the emotion that has a direct role in negative interaction cycle
What is an example of an empathetic conjecture question?
What's it like for you when he says he wants to run and hide?
What is self-disclosure?
used limitidly to build and alliance or intensify validation. An example would be the therapist self-disclosing his sadness about the couples situation. This isn't necesarily the therapist saying that they experienced the same thing as the couple.
What is tracking and reflecting?
the therapist keeps the couple on task and keeps the couple from sidetrackiing
What is reframing?
the reframe focuses on the emotional reality of the partners
How do you deal with therapeutic impass?
present examples of other couples that show how to confront the negative cycle
conduct individual sessions to focus on attachment injury
EFT therapist brings emotional responses from:
vague to vivid
general to specific
then to now
global to personal
passive to active
abstract to concrete
What are therapeutic goals for the first sessions?
connection with both partners
assess the problem and suitability to EFT
assess partner goals for therapy
therapeutic agreement between partners and therapist
What is de-escalation?
the process of calming or softening the ultimate emotional reaction
At the end of step four what has happened?
a secure base has been created allowing for each partner to feel more secure and allowing for more emotional risks
What happens in step five?
previous avoided interactions can now occur an example is a wife can tell her husband she is jealous of a friend
This step promotes acceptance of each partner's experience and new ways of interacting.
In this step attachment longing and desires begin to be clearly articulated
What are markers of step five and six?
emotional responses assesed in step three are now being experienced in step five and in step six the therapist is helping the partner to hear the new way the other partner is responding and encourages them to respond in new ways
In these steps partners begin to own their own responses
steps five and six
In this step the therapist helps the client express their needs and wants
This is the last step in EFT that allows for new emotional experience
What is the goal of step nine?
to identify and support healthy patterns of responding
What are the four attachment styles?
secure, avoidant, anxious, disorganized
What is secure attachment?
I'm ok and you're ok.
what is avoidant attachment style?
I'm ok and you're not ok.
What is anxious attachment style?
I'm not ok but you're ok.
What is disorganized attachment style?
I'm not ok and you're not ok.
What are the ten tenets of attachment theory?
Number one is attachment is an innate motivating force. Number two is secure dependence compliments autonomy. Number three is attachment offers a safe haven. Number four is attachment offers a secure base. Number five is emotional accessibility and responsiveness build bonds. Number six is fear and uncertainty activate attachment needs. Number seven is the process of separation distress is predictable. Number eight is there are a finite number of insecure forms of engagement. Number nine is attachment involves working model of self and other. Number ten is isolation and loss are inherently traumatizing.
Tenet One of attachment theory
attachment is an innate motivating force. seeking contact with others is a primary and innate motivating force for humans.
Tenet Two of attachment theory
secure dependence compliments autonomy. secure dependence allows us to become confident and gives us the ability to act on our own and be different and separate and be ok. it fosters inter-dependence.
Tenet Three of attachment theory
attachment offers a safe haven. secure attachment offers comfort and security in time of distress. proximity to a loved one tranquilizes the nervous system.
Tenet Four of attachment theory
Number four is attachment offers a secure base. the secure base allows for someone to explore with confidence and still know that they can come back home too. This promotes confidence and the risk to learn new information.
Tenet Five of attachment theory
emotional accessibility and responsiveness build bonds. emotion activates and organized attachment behaviors. secure bonds are built on accessibility and responsiveness and knowing that someone is going to be there for you.
Tenet Six of attachment theory
fear and uncertainty activate attachment needs. when an individual is threatened attachment needs for connection and comfort are very strong. connection with someone is a regulating device during trauma or fear.
Tenet Seven of attachment theory
the process of separation distress is predictable. because we are made for attachment, when those connections fail we predictable become angry, clingy, depressed, and act out in desparation.
Tenet Eight of attachment theory
there are a finite number of insecure forms of engagement. basically there are only so many ways to cope with a negative response to the question, "can I count on you?" The two types of responses revolve around anxiety and avoidance.
Tenet Nine of attachment theory
attachment involves working model of self and other. we define ourselves in the context of our intimate relationships. we see ourselves through what we've experienced.
Tenet Ten of attachment theory
isolation and loss are inherently traumatizing. attachment is a theory of trauma. it describes the trauma of deprivation, loss, rejection, and abandonment.
What are the five interactional patterns?
pursue and withdraw
withdraw and withdraw
attack and attack
reactive pursue and withdraw
describe pursue and withdraw interaction
it is the most common, one partner is determined to make the other respond and the other partner stonewalls
describe withdraw and withdraw interaction
both partners avoid and do not engage
describe attack and attack interaction
where there is escalation, attack sequences, and metaphoricaly throwing rocks
describe complex cycles interaction
they go back and forth between anxiety and avoidance
describe reactive pursue and withdraw
will appear like typical pursue and withdraw, but the withdrawer is really the burnt out pursuer and the pursuer is really only pursuing out of fear
What is catching the bullet?
when someone says something that is going to do damage and you need to bring it back to the emotion
In step one, what are therapy basics and questions?
what have you done before that has worked or not worked?
what is the committment level?
how they talk and communicate
explore their story
ask do you understand the other persons experience
how do they see the problem
what is an interactional landmark?
stories that people cannot get past.
what do you assess for in step one?
landmarks and positions of power and closeness
what is empathetic atunement?
i see you and I understand you.
What are stage one goals?
don't let them talk negative to each other
check for safety
check for motivation
check for sever psychiatric issues because not a good model
a secure base is what you create with _______________
a safe haven is what is created in an ____________
what activates attachment needs?
fear and uncertainty
what are two items about the EFT model?
intended to be brief
it is circular and it builds
A temporary affiliation where the therapist takes one person's side for a short period of time.
Three Step Model
Join, deal with resistance, deal with the problem
First Stage of Three Step Model Do What?
Second & Third Stage of Three Step Model Do What?
Dealing with second order change
Types of resistance in the 3 Step Model
quantity (they are limiting the amount of information they are giving), content (they circle airfield and never land), style (manipulation, forgetting, or counselor stroking, false promising), legistical management (not pay or show up)
Rationale for the 3 Step Model
Until you deal with the resistance you can't get to the heart of the problem, you have to remove the roadblock.
Three types of confidentiality
1) no secrets, 2) secret keeper, 3) accountability with discretion
When confidentiality might be an issue
when you see them individually
What stance would each confidentiality type mean in therapy?
no secrets can cause lack of sharing, secret keeper can cause lack of trust between partners and difficulty for the therapist (multiple case files), and accountability with discretion can cause lack of trust because of what was kept secret (timing as well)
Alliances (Reflection) what kind of response might reflect this skill?
directs the clients attention to the unfolding inner experience. "What you are saying is that your silence is telling me that this is hard for you."
Alliances (Validation) what kind of response might reflect this skill?
Validate each partners experience of the relationship. "It makes sense to me that you feel that way."
Alliances (Tracking) what kind of response might reflect this skill?
You follow the dance and are able to articulate it. "How do you pull each other into the dance?" "What happens when you fight?"
the outline of an intake session
1) opening (chat and join) 2) confidentiality (set the rules) 3) the problem presentation (why are they here, let them tell their story, explore the problem in context -- how did it begin? precipitating incident? what have you done to try to solve in past? identity the pattern 4) gather information on FOO (pertinent to the their problem within the history) 5) see their commitment to each other 6) close the session and make it not abrubt, tell what we will do next, schedule next appt
JH Model Session One
Join with the couple. Goals are 1) trust, develop client relationship, and gathering info
JH Model Session Two
Separate Sessions. Goals are 1) discussing private concerns, reviewing the assessment with each partner, and grow their knowledge of self and their partner by bringing concerns to light
JH Model Session Three
Genogram. Goal is to increase awareness of potential problems and patterns that may be problematic
JH Model Session Four
Share all the information you have gathered. Goal is to evaluate relationship and reaffirm commitment.
JH Model Session Five
Communication. Goal is sharing with them how to have healthy interaction.
JH Model Session Six
Conflict Resolution. Goal is to deal with conflict in a healthy way
JH Model Session Seven
Finance, Time, Budget. Goal is to limit the amount of trauma from finances and come up with a family mission statement.
JH Model Session Eight
Sex and Spirituality. Goal is to increase knowledge and develop healthy life-giving patterns.
become part of the family, establish relationship and trust
maintaining "as is", supporting the marital structure,
follow as an interested party "following"
you make clear to dispel confusion
accomdate a couples style and find common experiences
emphasize a word (under tracking)
expanding content through open-ended questions
what constitues a higher-level response? (empathetic response)
the client feels as thought the therapist wants to understand their experience. the response is well-timed, accurate, empathetic, and concrete
example of a higher level response
you feel ________ because _________ and that caused in you _______
structure in an intake interview
estsablishing ground rules for therapy including lateness, appropriate talk, confidentiality, cancelation, not letting clients run a way with the session
what is the process in an intake inverview
using the 3rd ear and listening for the real problem. what is actually being communicated, trying to clarify meaning and intent. your body language and voice can help that process
what is concurrent session?
a couple seeing the same therapist but in individual sessions
a couple seeing two different therapists and the therapists have permission to collaborate together.
Years of Early Adolescence
Years of Middle Adolescence
Years of Late Adolescence
Developmental Changes in Early Adolescence
1) Adjusting to pubertal changes
2) Learning to use new cognitive capacities
3) Finding a place among peers
4) Dealing with gender-related expectations
Developmental Changes in Middle Adolescence
1) Handling sexuality
2) Making moral decisions
3) Balancing autonomy and accountability
Developmental Changes in Late Adolescence
1) Consolidating an Identity
2) Experiencing new levels of intimacy
3) Leaving home
The _____ of each individual as well as the ______ of the family unit needs to be heard.
4 things you must do in assessment
1) get each individual's view of the presenting problem
2) Find out why they are here
3) Get info from child, parent, siblings, teachers, etc.
4) Consider what the family is NOT saying
What does assessment look like?
1) perspective in each person's own words
2) obtain history of presenting problems
3) may need to assess child through play
4) meet individually (child/parent)
5) Observe interactions (non-verbals, seating arrangements, other dynamics
The language of children is _____
In play therapy, what gives you insight into the inner dialogue of the child?
Forms of play that are repetitive, and themes that are repetetive
The language of adolescence is ______
3 parts of the Webb's Tripartite Assessment Model
1) nature of traumatic event
2) Individual factors
3) support system factors
Items in "Nature of Traumatic Event"
1) Anticipated vs sudden crisis
2) single vs recurring (Type I acute, Type II chronic/ongoing)
3) solitary vs shared crisis
4) proximity to the crisis
5) extent of exposure to violence/ injury/pain (witness or experience)
6) nature of losses
7) attribution of causality (random act/human-made)
Items in Webb's Individual Factors
1) age/developmental stage/cognitive level
2) temperamental characteristics
4) pre-trauma adjustment/past experience (resilience vs vulnerability)
5) coping style (avoidance or other)
6) meaning of the trauma
7) symptoms of PTSD or other disorders
Items in Webb's support system factors
Keep in mind with assessment 3 things:
1) everyone is unique
2) no cookie cutter approach
3) acceptance, respect, honesty, with families
Regardless of modality, it's important to what in therapy?
build a relationship with each individual
In family therapy problems occur within _________
What are the advantages of individual therapy?
1) more open expression
2) teach individual coping skills
3) relationship building
what are the disadvantages of individual therapy?
3) becomes individually focused
what are the advantages of family therapy?
1) emphasized family systems concepts
2) foster resilience
3) improve relationships, communication
What are the disadvantages of family therapy?
1) triangulation in session
2) difficult to manage at times
3) hard to get parents aligned with family
What are the advantages of group therapy?
1) skill building
3) good way to work with multiple people
4) can do family groups as well
What are the disadvantages of group therapy?
1) very general and broad
2) difficulties with attendance
3) challenges of teen/child groups
Three keys in choosing a modality.
1) Pick a modality that is best or "doable" for the client
2) therapy needs to be realistic
3) take it slow in introducing alternative forms of therapy
Attachment is defined as:
biological, psychological, and social connections between a child and caregiver.
Both ____ and _____ contribute to the development of attachment.
nature and nuture
What are the 4 components of attachment (bowlby)?
1) proximity maintenance: the desire to be close to the people we love
2) safe haven: returning to caregiver for comfort or safety when there is a perceived threat
3) secure base: caregiver is a safe place to return to and an anchor in exploration
4) separation distress: anxiety that occurs when caregiver isn't present
what are the four attachment styles?
3) anxious (ambivalent)
Describe Secure attachment style
1)confident in connect, can manage stress with separated, can express attachment needs
2) child ex - says hi to mom then goes back to play
3) teen ex - confident with love so more picky in dating partners
Describe Anxious attachment style
1) extreme distress at separation, clingy, angry at reunion, difficult self-soothing, wary of strangers
2) child ex - difficulty when reintroduced with parent after separation
3) teen ex - does whatever it takes to prevent a breakup
Describe Avoidant attachment style
1) suppressed emotions at separation and reunion, focus on task not relationship. little emotion, little relational difference between parent/stranger
2) child ex - upset but doesn't seek comfort from caregiver
3) teen ex - unaffected by breakup
Describe disorganized attachment style
1) mixture of anxious and avoidant, come close but stay away,
2) child ex - seem like caregiver to other children, or appear dazed
3) teen ex - frequently breaks up and gets back together with partners
What are benefits of secure attachment?
1) safe haven, consistency
2) affects brain development
3) fosters independence
4) healthy cognitive, social, emotional development
5) teaches trust, intimacy, reciprocity
6) encourages self-soothing
7) increases positive sense of self
8) a protective resiliency factor
secure parenting fosters:
autonomy and connectedness
How to foster secure attachments?
1) sensitive to child's cues/signals
2) nurturing, compassionate, loving
3) atunement and reciprocity
4) parental attachment history
5) autonomy and connectedness
6) discilpline with love and limits
7) family and community systems
8) clear and consistent structure
secure dependence fosters ______ and _____
autonomy and self-confidence
the alternative forms of attachment usually occur due to:
How do you build relationship in therapy?
I've got your back
How do you build bonds with family members?
1) family nights
2) individual time with children
3) increase warmth in communication
4) increasing trust
What are family systems refreshers?
1) the whole is greater than the sum of parts
4) generational transmission anxiety
5) circular causality
7) family secrets
What are interventions when working with the family?
1) communication skills
2) parenting skills
3) enhancing bonds
What is Micucci's Symptomatic Cycle?
2) Family focuses on symptom
3) Adolescent labeled as the problem
4) Adolescent feels isolated
5) relationships suffer
6) back to the symptom again
What are the consequences of the symptomatic cycle?
1) rigidity (only see one side of the client)
2) mutually reinforcing narratives (self-fulfilling prophecy - )
3) arrested development - cycle restricts healthy development
The ______ is the problem
patterns of symptomatic families
1) conflict avoidance
3) disengagement and abandonment
Strategies for the therapist personally:
3) personal therapy
how do you treat the cycle?
1) have a plan and stay focused
2) focus on changing relationships/patterns
3) invite collaboration
4) refer back to the pattern
5) encouragement, accentuate the positive
6) promote moments of engagement
7) alliance building (joining)
8) identify problem cycles
what are ways to change the pattern?
1) direct teaching
3) direct communication
4) work with emotions
5) challenge assumptions
6) externalize the problem
8) assigning tasks
Examples of direct teaching
map out the cycle, teach systems theory
examples of complementarity
circular causality, pursue-withdraw, attack-defend
examples of direct communication
turn them towards each other in session
examples of working with emotions
access primary emotions
examples of externalizing problem
name it, see person separate from problem
examples of unbalancing
siding with one parent to throw off power imbalance
What are the goals of collaboration?
1) increase assessment
2) increase social support
4) best option for child
5) encourage least restrictive environment
6) advocate for the child
when do you file a DCS report?
suspected harm to child
evidence of abuse
suspected sexual abuse
What are the benefits of diagnosing?
1) common language between providers
2) help get appropriate care for child
3) lead to accurate medication
4) used to externalize symptoms
5) insurance companies may reimburse
what are disadvantages of diagnosing?
1) stereotype children
2) use as a crutch
3) label can stay with child
4) could be over-pathologizing symptoms
5) accurate or thorough diagnosis does not always ocurr
examples of mild behavior problems
test limits (violate rules, verbal disrespect)
examples of moderate behavior problems
more persistent pattern of defiance
may be regular alcohol/drug/sex use
marginal school performance
frequent arguments (no violence)
examples of severe behavior problems
possibility of serious danger (child or parent)
running away, staying out all night
daily use of drugs
problems with law
Peers are ___ ____ for teens
What is the most commonly abused substance in the US?
The use of which two substances have remained fairly stable in
Alcohol and tobacco
What are the indirect costs on the war on drugs
1. 200 billion a year in indirect costs
2. Indirect costs would include police salaries, staff to transport criminals, prosecutors and district attorneys, legal and court fees etc., and costs associated with prisons
Are women more likely to develop an alcohol abuse disorder than men?
What percentage of the world population has abused an illicit substance at least once
What is tolerance of a drug?
This develops when the individual must use more of the drug in order to achieve the desired effects because the initial dose is no longer effective.
What is metabolic tolerance?
When the body becomes more effective in breaking down or eliminating the drug. It does not remain in the body for as long as it originally did and has a diminished effect.
What is pharmacodynamic tolerance?
The body's ability to develop some kind of insensitivity to the drug's effects. The cells in the body function normally despite the drug being in the system.
What is social use of a drug?
When an individual's culture defines the frequency with which the individual might use these substances and under what conditions.
What are the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of a substance use disorder?
1.)Preoccupation with use of the chemical between periods of use
2.)Using more of the chemical than had been anticipated
3.)The development of tolerance to the chemical in question
4.) A characteristic withdrawal syndrome from the chemical
5.) Use of the chemical to avoid or control withdrawal symptoms
6.) Repeated efforts to cut back or stop the drug use
7.) Intoxication at inappropriate times (such as at work) or when withdrawal interferes with daily functioning;
8.) A reduction in social, occupational, or recreational activities in favor of further substance use
9.) Continuing chemical use even though the individual suffers social, emotional, or physical problems related to drug use
10.) Any combination of four or more of these signs is used to identify the individual who is said to suffer from the "disease" of addiction
According to the basic law of behavioral psychology, know the main motivating force for humans
Consequences and rewards
What are the stages of alcohol addiction
Stage 1 is the pre-alcoholic stage
Stage 2 is the prodromal stage
Stage 3 is the physically dependent stage
Stage 4 is the chronic stage
Is there evidence that a variance in any particular gene can turn someone into an addict
What is type I alcoholic
1.)Tend to engage in harm-avoidance activities
2.)Tend to have higher levels of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)
what is type II alcoholic
1.)Tend to be high in the novelty-seeking traits
2.)Lower level of MAO
3.)Might account for more violent
what is the Theory of Neuroplasticity
The persistent drug abuse induces changes in the structure and function of the brain through neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is the altering of neuronal connections.
What is the cornerstone of the Jellinek model of alcoholism
Alcoholism is a disease
Genetic inheritance accounts for what percent of an individual's risk for developing an SUD
What is the overall psychosocial model of addiction
Addictions are learned behaviors, poor psychosocial functioning, or the result of maladaptive thinking
What is the Final Common Pathway theory?
1.)Not a theory, nor supported by profession
2,)A multitude of different factors
3.)"addictive behaviors are complex disorders multiply determined through biological, psychological, and sociocultural processes"
According to your text, what does spirituality allow for?
The discovery of meaning in the face of the absurdity of life.
How does a person with an SUD use games?
1.)They build a support system of other users
2.)They may manipulate doctors for various reasons
3.)They may study medical manuals to learn what kind of symptoms to present with to get a certain prescription
4.)They may threaten their doctors
5.)They may make claims of stolen prescriptions
6.)They may go from hospital to hospital to get prescriptions for the same medication
7.)The substance use disorders, especially when at their most extreme, involve both conscious and unconscious lifestyle adjustments that often shock the non-user.
In your text, what is viewed as a disorder of the spirit?
What are the roles of the assessment process?
1.)Helping to identify those individuals who require professional assistance to help them come to terms with their SUD
2.)Serves as a gatekeeper, providing justification for admission
3.)Determining the proper level of treatment and the identification of the individual's strengths and weaknesses
4.)Forms the foundation of the rehabilitation process
Know the core of the assessment process
How the assessment process relates to rehabilitation, it is the first step of the rehabilitation process
Know examples of collateral information that may be important to collect during a client assessment
1.)Medical test data
2.)Family, friends, employer, physician
Always assume deception unless proven otherwise
What does the assessor do when acting as a "gatekeeper" during the admissions process
Providing justification for admission
Know the one major disadvantage of paper-and-pencil screening instruments
They are more vulnerable to deception and assume that the client is literate
In contrast to the screening phase, during the assessment phase the individual conducting the assessment is attempting to
Measure the severity of the substance abuse disorder identified in the screening process
What is enabling?
1.)Knowingly behave in such a way to make it possible for another person to continue to use chemicals without having to pay the natural consequences for his or her substance use disorder.
2.)Family member confused caretaking with expression of love thus perpetuating the expression of dysfunctional behavior
What is codependency?
1)The over-involvement with the dysfunctional family member
2)The obsessive attempts on the part of the codependent person to control the dysfunctional family member's behavior
3)The extreme tendency to use external sources of self-worth
4)The tendency to make personal sacrifices in an attempt to "cure" the dysfunctional family member of his/her behavior
What is detaching?
Completely cutting off and separating from the addict
What is enmeshment?
Relationship with addict and boundaries are crossed and too close
AA is based on the premise that . . .
You can't do it alone, must accept one's limitations.
How is NA different from AA?
It is like AA except it is inclusive of all drug addiction types.
One way to deal with a client who wishes to share a secret with a staff person is. . .
Encourage the client to share with the group. Secrets keep you sick.
Be able to identify a rarely discussed relapse trigger
what is the prerequisite for outpatient treatment
Abstinence is a prerequisite for participation in outpatient treatment
what is the purpose of an aftercare program
An aid to abstinence
What is the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States and Canade?
What percentage of the population in the US has abused marijuana at least once?
What are the four horseman of addiction?
Detachment is one of the cornerstones to the recovery process.
Greta feels anxious and frustrated, and is beginning to see that if she has a number of alcoholic drinks, she feels better. Greta is most likely in which stage of alcohol addiction?
According to research, there is no evidence that a variance in any particular gene can turn someone into an addict.
Norm has always been a risk taker, has gotten into some trouble with the law, and developed an AUD in his early 20s. Based on this information, Norm is most likely a what type of alcoholic?
Type II Alcoholic
Genetic inheritance appears to account for about what percent of an individual's risk for developing an SUD.
Which of the following theories/hypotheses purports that the brain's neural pathways are constantly rewiring themselves in response to environmental changes?
Theory of Neuroplasticity
According to your text, a cornerstone of the medical model is that disease states are a reflection of:
biological dysfunction at the cellular or molecular level.
What model is the belief that addictions are viewed as a weakness in character?
Reina, a heroin addict, states, "I only started using because of my boyfriend." Reina is most likely engaging in the defense mechanism of.
One of the challenges to the defense mechanism theory is that:
research found that most substance abusing clients do not engage in defense mechanisms.
The theory that describes how there is marked variability between clients and their symptoms in the early stages of alcohol abuse, but that the variation is much less than in the later stages of the disorder is part of what theory?
Final Common Pathway
One flaw in the "addictive personality" theory is that:
it was based almost exclusively on research samples drawn from people is a rehabilitation facility of some kind.
The Final Common Pathway of the addictions holds that:
addiction is a common endpoint, reached by different routes.
The author stresses that a person with a SUD will engage in various what to support their addiction.
Scientists tend to:
dismiss the wealth of knowledge accumulated by theologians.
With the growth of addiction:
the individual makes the chemical(s) the axis around which she or he centers his or her life.
Psychology and biology are both sciences because they share the assumptions that :
a. our physical needs are the root of all behavior
b. behavior follows general rules
c. creativity is best left to artists
d. unconventional ideas should be rejected
b. behavior follows general rules
Untestable statements are:
Which statement is most representative of a reason that a scientist would reject a claim:
a. It just doensn't make sense
b. That's not what the experts say
c. That goes against the objective evidence
d. If that were true, it would be kept secret
c. That goes against the objective evidence
Which term/phrase in this list does NOT belong with the others?
a. operational definition
If you define life satisfaction as a person's response to the question, "On a scale from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 5 (extremely satisfied) are you with your life? you are...
a. using an operational definition
b. using an after-the-fact explanation
c. making a testable statement
d. making a vague statement
a.using an operational definition
When psychologists repeat another's study, they are very likely to get the same pattern of results. The fact that they are just as likely as physicists to get the same pattern of results is testimony to:
From a scientific viewpoint, the statement "The sould and the brain are the same thing" is
The statement,"ESP is impossible" demonstrates:
a. a lack of skepticism
b. a failure to be open minded
c. a proven fact
d. an after-the-fact explanation
b. a failure to be open minded
Psychology became a science when psychologists began to:
a. charge fees for their service
b. get college degrees
c. use computers
d. use objective evidence to test hypothesis
e. consider physiological influences on behavior
d. use objective evidence to test hypothesis
You have collected surveys with several questions that together have been shown to predict cookie-buying behavior in malls. Now you are going to test your survey questions on a group of people who go to the mall. If your measure does not accurately predict Fred's cookie-buying behavior, but you predict with 75%accuracy who buys (or does not buy) Girl Scout cookies at the mall, you should conclude that...
a. the behavior of buying Girl Scout cookies is governed by several rules
b. 75 out of 100 people in the sample purchased Girl Scout cookies
c. the behavior of buying Girl Scout cookies is too subjective to study scientifically
d. the behavior of buying Girl Scout cookies is too complicated to study scientifically
e. Fred has a 75/25 chance of buying Girl Scout cookies
a. the behavior of buying Girl Scout cookies is governed by several rules
c. a systematic series of opinions
Psychology is considered a science because it:
a. gains information using modern technology
b. accepts what seems reasonable
c. relies on objective observation
d. studies animal as well as human behavior
c. relies on objective observation
Understanding research can help you:
a. evaluate information
b. create information
c. detect misinformation
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Scientists believe in objective facts because they know from past experience that we can't always accept people's subjective opinions.
As long as you have a good secondhand source, it is not important for you to be able to read the original source and come to your own conclusions.
Most television and newspaper journalists have extensive training in research methodology.
Which statement is a scientist most likely to make:
a. Stop being so skeptical
b. You're too open-minded
c. Never speculate
d. Make statements that can be disproven
d. make statements that can be disproven
a. open the door to discovering new knowledge
b. are correct
c. are intuitive
d. are made "after-the-fact"
a. open the door to discovering new knowledge
Testable research includes
a. operational definitions
b. specific predictions
c. neither a or b
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
When you define "intelligence" as a score on an IQ test, you are:
a. being vague
b. being skeptical
c. offering an operational definition
d. being open-minded
c. offering an operational definition
If human behavior follows general rules,which of the following statements is most likely to be true?
a. Psychologists will be able to predice human behavior perfectly
b. Psychologists will be able to completely control individual behavior
c. Everyone will behave the same
d. Psychologists will find general rules/principles of human behavior
d. Psychologists will find general rule/principles of human behavior
Which statement best reflects the role of speculation in science?
a. speculation has no place in the scientific method
b. speculation is often the starting point for useful hypotheses
c. speculation always leads to questionable conclusions
d. science is little more than well reasoned speculation
b. speculation is often the starting point for useful hypotheses
Margaret loves being a kindergarten teacher. Her father claims that Margaret is so good with children because she grew up with several younger siblings:
a. Her father's statement provides scientific evidence for why Margaret loves teaching
b. Her father's statement is untestable because it is after-the-fact explanation
c. Her father's statement is unscientific because it is untestable
d. both b and c
d. both b and c
a. rejects common sense
b. refuses to consider claims that were not discovered scientifically
c. does not question objective evidence
d. has been extremely productive
d. has been extremely productive
Predicting a person's behavior in a given situation is usually:
a. simple, once you know the rules
c. difficult because there are so many opinions about why a person might behave in a given way
d. difficult because there are so many rules that may affect a person's behavior in a given situation
d. difficult because there are so many rules that may affect a person's behavior in a given situation
a. not be studied scientifically because it cannot be operationalized or measured
b. not be studied because it cannot be observed
c. be studied by looking at observable behaviors or physiological responses, such as pupil dilation, that indicate the presence of love
d. be observed directly just by looking at someone
c. be studied by looking at observable behaviors or physiological responses,such as pupil dilation, that indicate the presence of love
Researh is important to science because it will:
a. verify what we already know
b. prove our position
c. objectively test our beliefs
d. uncover absolute truth
c. objectively test our beliefs
Psychology is best defined as:
a. the study of human behavior
b. the study of the relationship between mind and behavior
c. the study of human and animal behavior
d. the scientific study of behavior
d. the scientific study of behavior
Psychologists use the scientific method to uncover simple rules that explain, describe, and predict behavior
Counterintuitive ideas should not be studied because they are usually wrong
One of the most important reasons for you to be able to critically read firsthand research reports is to help you identify unsupported claims
Science's emphasis on objective, observable evidence encourages it to be productive, as well as skeptical, yet open-minded
Operational Definitions are: ________, ________, ___________
specific, observable, and concrete
After-the-fact explanations are not _________
Research questions that are not testable are _________, _____________, ___________
vague, after-the-fact, untestable
If you can take your findings and transfer them to the general populaton, this is _________ ______
What are nine major descriptors of Psychology that uses the scientific approach?
Psychology simplifies by seeking general rules for describing, predicting, explaining.
Psychology uses _________ and _________ evidence to support or refute ideas.
observable and objective
Psychology makes _________ statements before the research is conducted.
You are ________ when you do not accept claims at face-value, but rather hold them too scientific scrutiny.
When you allow yourself to evaluate counter-intuitive ideas, you are ___________
What are the reasons a Psychologist makes her work public?
others can check the work
others can build on the work
it accelerates new discoveries and progress
this has helped Psychology become productive
What has helped Psychology become productive?
That research has been made public.
Psychology often relies on _________ to measure constructs and answer research questions.
Concrete definitions of abstract concepts are ____________
Psychology is constantly ___________
These connections are difficult to prove because it is difficult to isolate the cause - so many things work together to cause behavior.
The "generalizability" of findings is called
These are examples of general rules
operant and classical conditioning
While people are different, we are also alike - we are governed by rules (it's how we love and live together) - not random behavior
Abstracts that we attempt to make more tangible
What is the interaction effect?
Multiple rules working together
What are examples of constructs?
emotions, attitudes, thoughts, beliefs, attachment styles
Behavior and emotions are governed by rules.
Why is it that one treatment works for one person but not another?
Rules only apply in specific circumstances.
We will be right more often than chance when we do what?
Apply rules to individuals.
How do Psychologists keep evidence objective?
a. keep biases in check
b. make their work public (evaluated by peers)
c. use objective measures and statistical techniques
d. develop operational definitions
e. replicate others' studies and get similar results
What are the three possibilities in testing a hypotheses
What comes before the hypotheses
The research question
By not accpepting prevailing wisdom, but putting it to the test, we are being what?
What are positive ways a Psychologist can be skeptical?
a. not accepting prevailing wisdom at face-value
b. validate measure (ex. validating IQ tests as measurements of IQ)
c. question cause-effect relationships
d. do not assume that results can be generalized
What are two examples of being creative in testing?
a. lots of interesting ideas to test
b. creative ways to measure and describe things
How will the scientific approach/research help me as a counselor?
a. MARKETABILITY increase my marketability by helping me to think critically
b. OBJECTIVITY more objectivity will help me help people (my first instinct could be wrong), willingness to be wrong can help me get to the real root of issues,
c. SKEPTICISM skeptical yet open attitude will help me discern the quacks from the legitimate (in whatever training, semiars, conferences etc.)
d. UNDERSTAND my ability to understand research articles will make it easier for me to apply the new information to my work and help me be more successful
e. LESS HARM to CLIENTS knowing most current and effective treatment will preven me doing harm to clients
f. STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENTS to diagnose, understand, monitor, and treat problem
g. DO OWN RESEARCH
The scientific method is applied to ________ not ____________.
groups not individuals
Hypotheses testing with an individual is called a ______________
What are nine major ways that research can help a counselor?
be more objective
learn from the literature and apply it
balance objectivity and subjectivity
try something new
admit when you are wrong
use systematic techniques for assessment
assess for outcomes
be willing to change
In APA, margins are what size?
What spacing do you use in APA?
What are four main attributes to the Title page in APA?
12 point font
When do you single space in APA?
When do you space twice in APA?
after puncuation marks at the end of a sentence
Tips to write more clear and concise in APA would be:
remove bias in language
limit use of personal pronouns ("I" or "We")
being concise and precise in language
use past tense when citing research
In APA punctuation goes inside or outside quotation marks?
What is a colloquialism?
slang or casual language
Five things to avoid in APA language
indiscriminate use of the thesauras
It is helpful to have someone read your paper, as well as you reading it out loud.
You use a block quote when you have ____ or more words.
If you use _ or more words in a row from an author you need to use quotes.
Current research falls within the last____ years
In APA it's ok to use an acronym before spelling it out.
The unauthorized use of someone else's thoughts or wording either by incorrect documentation, failing to cite your sources altogether, or simply by relying way too heavily on external resources is what?
Establishing that a factor causes effect.
Internal Validity is important for what two reasons?
1) To know what makes people tick, we need know what causes people to behave the way they do. 2) In order to help people we need to know which treatments are effective.
To establish that your study has internal validity you must do three things:
1) You must establish that changes in the alleged cause are related to changes in the outcome variable 2) You must establish that changes in the treatment came before changes in the outcome variable 3) You must establish that the treatment is the only factor responsible for the effect.
Extraneous factors are:
anything other than the treatment
What is the Two-Group Design?
Find two identical groups, treat them the same except that you give one group the treatment. Then you compare the results.
What is the pretest-posttest Design? "Before/After"
Find participants, give them outcome measure (happy test), make sure nothing has changed in life except that they get the treatment, then give them the outcome measure again (happy test).
What are the 8 Threats to Internal Validity?
2) Selection by Maturation Interaction
Threat 1 - Selection is...
Pick two identical groups. However, comparing apples to oranges -- the group of people you selected were different from the beginning.
Threat 2 - Selection by maturation interaction is...
The selection at the beginning was different in ways that would cause them to grow apart. example, comparing tree seeds to pea seeds.
Threat 3 - Regression is...
extreme scores produced by random error will normalize, they will go the opposite of the their pretest score. What goes up comes down, what comes down goes up.
Threat 4 - Mortality is...
Attrition, Treatment-Related Participant loss, Differential dropout. Mortality makes groups different by who dropped out.
Threat 5 - History is...
When "life" happens. Factors outside the participant and the treatment cause the person to change.
Threat 6 - Maturation is...
Factors inside the participant cause the person to change.
Threat 7 -- (Re) Testing is...
Taking the pretest changed the participant, thus changing their posttest.
Threat 8 -- Instrumentation is...
There was a difference in the instrumentation between pretest and posttest (different test, different administration, different scoring).
What is the most serious threat to internal validity in the two-group design?
How can you avoid selection bias?
prevent self-selection and prevent researcher assignment to group
What is self-selection?
Participants choosing what condition they want to be in. (One group chose treatment/other group avoids treatment)
Why does arbitrary assignment to groups create bias?
Groups are selected based on their differences. example, right seat sitters and left seat sitters.
What is the problem with matching on multiple or all variables for a group selection?
Impossible. No two people are alike.
What is the problem with matching on only the relevant variables?
Impossible. There are thousands of factors that influence those variables. (example -- thousands of variables that influence happiness)
What is the problem with matching participants on the variable you want to measure? (or matching on pretest scores?)
Those that tested the same on the pretest could still differ on the posttest due to two things: 1)selection by maturation interaction and 2) regression (toward the average or mean)
Three reasons participants may change between pretest and posttest.
1) Maturation 2) History 3) (Re) Testing
What is the testing effect?
When the pretest motivates the participant to learn what is on the test or makes them better at taking the test.
Three measurement changes that may cause scores (not participants) to change between pretest and posttest.
1) Instrumentation 2) Regression 3) mortality (change in number of participants changes the average score)
How do you rule out extraneous variables?
1) random assignment (coin flip) 2) use logic to rule out some suspect variables === if you can rule out the 8 threats then you can conclude that the treatment was responsible
If you have ruled out all 8 threats, then you have established...
Three reasons researchers don't try to boost their external validity
1) research from internally valid studies tend to generalize 2) If other researchers have same findings with different participants and settings it validates the generalizability 3) the things to increase external validity could end of decreasing internal validity
Symptoms are_____ for family dynamics
Look at how the individuals in the family think and feel; view from the context of their world
Family therapy is relational, contextual, dynamic, interactive and___ inclusive. Family systems therapy is not static, one single best theory, the only theory / therapy that works, individual therapy with several people at once, child therapy and then reporting to parents, identifying roles that are taken in each family
Reframing - changing the client's view of the problem, designed to make the situation more changeable, must be believable
Joining - the process in which the therapist enters the family system, tracks interaction and communication, adapts and accommodates to the styles and rules of the family - display empathy and confirm/acknowledge feelings
Mimesis - using, matching, and acknowledging the system's metaphors and themes
Strategic Therapy "social stage" - obtain "social response" from each family member Observe family interaction, mood, relationship dynamics, organization of family members
MRI therapy "explore the problem" - what is the problem, how is it a problem, what does it stop you from doing or make you do that you do not want to do
Satir therapy "making contact" - experiential therapy - family members act as they always do (homeostasis) and therapist must make space for change in the system, resistance is reframed - model congruent communication
Bowen therapy non-anxious presence" - intergenerational therapy - look at the emotional history of the family,
how stress is measured and handled - therapist is not emotionally reactive to family anxiety
Solution focused therapy "non-judgmental interest" - problem is defined in the client's language and interpreted
from their perspective
Narrative therapy "know the person" - who is the person when they are not having a problem, expand the client's sense of self separate from the problem
Collaborative therapies "a not knowing stance" - humility, curiosity, open space for dialogue, keep pace with the client
How do you counsel families with adolescents in family therapy?
Main goal: put the parents back in charge
Identify the goal of the misbehavior
Remove ineffective approaches to parenting
Make the covert overt
Affirm the voice of the adolescent
Choose your arguments and avoid power struggles
Primary purpose of the strategic technique of reframing is to
make the problem more amenable to change
The primary purpose of joining is to get inside the family system so they will
accept your leadership to change
Most successful form of couples therapy for domestic violence was
multi couple groups
When it comes to intrafamiliar child sexual abuse...
This means: the degree of involvement of the family in sessions depends on the type and level of denial and acknowledgement of the abuser and the family
Anger is likely a transgenerational process and therefore is understood by family therapist
What is a genogram used for? A genogram is used by the family therapist primarily to identify patterns of behavior and anxieties projected from one generation to the other
Satir used techniques like scultping, touch and role playing.
They do the following: Make the covert overt, Allow expression of feeling, Understand the alliances and conflicts in the family
Lifespan or developmental psychology is concerned with understanding and explaining changes that occur between conception and death.
Two views of Lifespan Development 1. Restricted/Traditional view - all important developmental changes occur between conception and adolescence
2. Contemporary Lifespan view - important changes occur at all ages throughout the lifespan
the divisions of lifespan are as follows: Birth and infancy birth-2yrs
Early Childhood 2 - 6/7 yrs
Middle Childhood 6/7 - 11/12 yrs
Adolescence 11/12 - 19/20 yrs
Early Adulthood20 - 40/45 yrs)
Middle Adulthood 40/45 - 60/65 yrs
Late Adulthood 65/70 yrs and up
What are subdivisions of lifespan development?
Provisional Adulthood - 18-30
1st Adulthood - 30-45
2nd Adulthood - 45-85+
Age of Mastery - 45-65
Age of Integrity - 65-85+
What are the ways people view newborns? Locke and Rousseau
John Locke - the child is a blank slate; neither good or bad until the rewards and punishments of experiences exert an influence on him/her; few abilities of skills, neutral at birth
Rousseau - the child is innately good; if untainted by corruption and evil in the world, he/she would be undeniably good when grown
Growth - usually refers to physical changes that are quantitative in nature measurable
Maturation - naturally unfolding changes that are relatively independent of environment
Learning - relatively permanent change in behavior that results from practice or experience
What are measurements in human development research?
Observation - watching people and recording what they do
-Self Reports - clinical interviews, surveys, questionnaires
-Formal experiment - most preferred because it gets to the issue of cause/effect
Experimental group - group on which the independent variable is manipulated
-Correlational method -relationships examined; problem in that cause/effect relationships cannot be determined
What are designs for studying human development
Longitudinal - observes same subjects over a period of time
Cross-sectional - compares different subjects of different development levels at same time
What is psychoanalytic? Freud and Erikson
-The most important causes of human behavior and personality are unconscious (deep seated)
-Humans powered by two fundamental drives: eros urge to procreate, sex and thanatos urge to survive, death
What are 3 defense mechanisms to deal with anxiety
Rationalization explain away
Displacement redirect to another target
Erickson, influenced by Freud, downplayed importance of.... sexuality in favor of social environment; stressed role of ego; expanded development into adulthood
Erickson's trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, integrity versus despair.
according to behavioristic therapy, -Behavior is learned in three ways:
1. Classical conditioning developed by Pavlov, Watson
2. Operant conditioning - Reinforcement & Punishment developed by Skinner
3. Social learning/Modeling/Observational learning developed by Bandura
humanistic theory by maslow and rogers -Concerned with the uniqueness of the individual; stress that we have an internal drive that pushes us to realize own potential
genotype is the actual genetic makeup
phenotype is what we see in characteristics
- Huntington's Chorea, Sickle-Cell Anemia, PKU, Tay-Sacks
-Downs Syndrome (Trisomy 21), Turner Syndrome (XO), Klinefelters Syndrome XXY, XYY Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, XXX Syndrome
Zygote - fertilization to when ovum implants in uterine wall 2 wks
Embryo - 3rd to 8th weeks
Fetus - end of 2nd month until birth
Proximodistal means near to far
Cephalocaudal means head to tail
-Teratogens are external factors causing malformations or physical defects in fetus drugs, chemicals, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, etc.
Bowlby identified four sequential phases in development in infant attachment:
pre-attachment, attachment, true attachment, reciprocal attachment
-Three types of play:
-Practice play - physical activity (physical skills)
-Pretend play - imagining self, others or objects in different circumstances (cognitive skills)
-Social play - play with two or more children (social skills)
-Categories of Social Status by Gottman
-Socioeconomic stars - well liked by most
-Mixers - high peer interaction, some liked
-Teacher negatives - typically in conflict with teacher, some liked
-Tuned out - not involved, ignored
-Rejectees - rejected and butt of cruel jokes
adolescent development - Imaginary Audience - collection of beings that the teen imagines is watching and evaluating him/her at all times; girls especially susceptible; actors whose performance is being constantly watched by peers
adolescent development - Personal Fable - teens tend to believe that they are different/special, that they can take risks but nothing will happen to them; boys are more susceptible
What are Marcia's 4 types of Identity Status?
-Identity Diffusion - no commitment to an identity but not crisis either
-Foreclosure - strong commitment to an identity but no crisis or struggle
-Moratorium - no commitment to an identity but struggling (crisis)
-Identity Achieved - clear cut commitment to an identity that was achieved through struggle
what is Sternberg's model of love?
Passion - desire to be with another person
Commitment - decision to maintain and cultivate the relationship
Intimacy - what leads two people to share with each other
-Non-Love is no passion, no intimacy, no commitment
-Infatuation is passion, no intimacy or commitment
-Liking is intimacy, no passion or commitment
-Romantic Love is passion and intimacy, no commitment
-Companionate Love is intimacy and commitment, no passion
-Fatuous Love is commitment and passion, no intimacy
-Empty Love is commitment, no passion or intimacy
-Consummate Love is intimacy, passion, commitment
What are the 3 clocks regarding human development
-Biological - physical body's way of telling time: predictable throughout age
-Social - society's way of telling us what we should be doing in life, where to be at certain age
-Psychological - unique way to tell time according to where you are in life
Rigid Complementary System: One up, one down. Power or responsibility imbalance.
Symmetrical System: Power struggle to seek control over one another.
. Egalitarian System Fluctuating Complementary: balanced; roles mutually determined; mutual willingness to be self-sacrificing.
Marriageability: does a person have the personal characteristics to successfully engage another person in an intimate relationship?
Compatibility: Assume marriageable and reasonable. Generally, the more commonalities there are, the easier it is to adjust to issues. Differences in personality are easier to work with than differences in values.
What are an individuals influences they bring in a marriage?
1. FOO (Bowen's genograms) Look at themes and sensitivities a person brings from their family of origin.
2. Family Constellation or Birth Order (Adler)
3. Influence of the Self: Level of general well-being; Bowen's differentiation. Whether the person has a strong identity or a fragile self-image.
4. Physiological Influences: genetic differences like temperament
5. Gender: actually, more of a personality issue. Mutually-defined roles are essential.
6. Influences of Life Experiences: Culture, Environment, Education, Trauma
EMOTIONAL TONE: is The "want to" in the relationship
Marital disaffection contributors are as follows;
1. Inappropriate / unacceptable behavior
2. Repetitive nature of this behavior
3. Realization that the future will be no different than the past
Biggest Contributors: Power imbalance with a controlling partner and lack of intimacy
Marital disaffection is the gradual loss of an emotional attachment, including an increasing sense of apathy and indifference towards one's spouse. Positive emotional tone becomes neutral.
the three phases of marital disaffection are 1. Disappointment- anger and hurt; tries to solve problems unilaterally; tries to please or cope denial
2. Between disappointment and disaffection- intense anger and hurt; patterns of traits observed, direct confrontation of partner; withdrawal
3. Disaffection- apathy, hopelessness; plans to end marriage; disengagement
Marital Dissatisfaction is a low level of happiness
Marital Breakdown is a decline in attractiveness of relationship
Marital Dissolution is the ending of relationship by legal act of separation or divorce
Marital Instability is the propensity to dissolve marriage, though may not be outcome
what are stations of hopelessness?
despair, defeat, disregard, and disengagement.
1. Despair is characterized by emotional intensity. Spouses on the jagged edge; anxiety, frustration
2. Defeat is emotionless. Feel dull, bland, weary, tired.
3. Disregard involves a willingness to bargain and is characterized by the spouse losing all hope in the future of the marriage. Often keeps a separate life. Covert hostility. Discounting attitude.
4. Disengagement the spouse has lost all hope and views the relationship as static with no chance for change. Some degree of peace and acceptance here; can be a healthy place. May involve divorce.
What is interdependency? Balance between autonomy and codependency.
what is the first stage of the family cycle? 1. Leaving home / Single young adults: Accept responsibility for self; Differentiation, establishment of work and financial independence.
what is the second stage of the family cycle? 2. New couple: Commitment to a new system; realignment of relationships to include spouse and extended families
what is the third stage of the family cycle? 3. Families with young children: accept new members into the system; joining in child rearing, financial, household tasks; realign relationships
what is the fourth stage of the family cycle?
4. Families with adolescents: increasing flexibility of family boundaries to include children's independence and grandparent's frailties; permit adolescent to move in and out of system; refocus on midlife marital and career issues; begin to care for older generation
what is the fifth stage of the family cycle?
5. Launching children and moving on: accept many exits from and entries into family system; renegotiate marriage as a dyad; adult to adult relationships with kids, realign relationships, deal with deaths of parents
what is the sixth stage of the family cycle?
6. Families in later life: accept the shifting of generational roles; maintain own and couple functioning in face of physiological decline; deal with loss of spouse and peers; life review and integration
Blended families are more difficult because there are so many moving parts including baggage from FOO and past relationships. New concept of family.
What is stage 1 of blended families? Entering new relationship
What is stage 2 of blended families? Conceptualizing and Planning New Marriage and Family
What is stage 3 of blended families? Remarriage and Reconstitution of family
What is an achievement and aptitude test? Aptitude is the CAPACITY to learn the necessary knowledge base and/or to ACQUIRE the necessary skills.
Assessment: involves the collection of meaningful information to understand and help people cope with problems.
Measurement: the process of assigning numbers according to certain agreed upon rules
Interview - a conversation with a purpose
Psychological Test - method of acquiring a sample of a person's behavior under controlled conditions like a snapshot
Measures of a Relationship: Describe the degree of association between two or more sets of scores. Correlation doesn't mean causality
Regression Analysis: use of relationships between variables for purposes of prediction PEARSON test can be a positive or negative. Either -1 to +1 This reflects a PERFECT negative or PERFECT positive correlation
Standard Scores: Expresses the distance of the individual's score from the mean of the distribution in standard deviation units
Percentiles: Refers to the proportion of people in the standardization sample whose scores were below a particular test score i.e. 98 percentile
Reliability: extent to which we are measuring some attribute in a systematic therefore repeatable way consistent
the three assumptions of reliability are:
1. True Score - each person or environment to be described by the test has some fixed amount of the attribute of interest
2. Every observation contains some degree of error
3. Any observed score reflects both the 'true' score and some degree error
the sources of error in test scores are:
Time influence, Test content, Test examiner or scorer mistakes can be made, Situation in which testing occurs, Examinee
What are ethical guidelines for assessment?
Client's best interest
• protect security of test results
• explain it in a way that they understand
• do not label a client because it can be stigmatizing
What are 4 ways to measure a person's interest?
expressed interest, manifest or evidenced interest, tested interests, inventoried interest - Donald super created how to measure person's interests.
Strong Campbell—compare people's likes and dislikes with successful people in the field abilities are tied to likes and dislikes
What is measurement of interest? Measurement of interest: information about a person's interests, likes or preferences for different kinds of activities, events, people may be obtained in a variety of ways
• most traditional approach—interview method focusing on self-report
• questionnaires have been developed to assess behavior in the areas of assertiveness, social interactions, marital interactions, ingestive behaviors, etc.
• Observation of recording of one's own behavior
• Permits data collection on certain behaviors (headaches) that are difficult for someone else to observe
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test
• Developed by Loretta Bender (1938) for the purpose of detecting brain damage
• Frequently used to organize behavior and to identify problem behaviors
• Behavioral excess overeating, compulsive hand washing, alcohol/drugs
• Behavioral deficit inadequate study skills and poor social skills
• Asks subject to complete a task; usually a sentence for which the stem is supplied
Draw-a-Person Expressive Technique:
• drawing of a person represents the unconscious projection of the client's self-image
Rorschach Inkblot Test: Hermann Rorschach in 1921
• the location of the response indicated where on the card the concept or image was seen and whether the whole blot or part of the blot was used
Thematic Apperception Test TAT Henry Murray and Christina Morgan in 1938
• A construction technique in which the subject makes up stories in response to a series of pictures
Projection Association techniques: ask client to respond to stimulus with first word or image
Projection Construction techniques: ask client to tell a story about a given situation or picture
Projection Completion technique: clients are requested to complete some task or situation
Projection Ordering technique: instruct clients to choose from a number of alternatives presented or to order pictures
Projection Expressive techniques: primarily concerned with having client perform some activity or task
What is the pschodynamic model? Psychodynamic model: interpretive basis for projective techniques that were developed to assess an individual's motives, drives, and defenses
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory MCMI
• Personality inventory useful for assessing and making a clinical diagnosis especially Axis II
NEO Personality Inventory
• Developed to measure the five major dimensions of normal adult personality
• Neurotisicm, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire 16 PF Raymond Cattell
• designed primarily to identify personality traits of normal adults
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale
• An assessment of self-concept that can be used with children or adults
What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI
• Most useful psychological test available in clinical and counseling settings for assessing the degree and nature of emotional upset
• Designed to assess some major personality characteristics that affect personal and social adjustment
Meyers Briggs Specifically developed to describe Carl Jung's personality types which tend to describe different kinds of people who are interested in different things
more tests of basic skills are:• Wonderlic Basic Skills Test WBST
• Adult Basic Learning Examination ABLE
• The College-Level Examination Program CLEP
• Special-Purpose Achievement Tests
The Graduate Record Examination Subject Advanced Tests
Medical College Admission Test MCAT
National Teacher Examination Programs NTE
achievement tests Describes what has already been learned or developed capacity
measures of scholastic aptitude are SAT, ACT, PSAT, GRE, MAT
Interpretive Validity: The extent to which the test and test manual facilitate accurate & useful interpretations by a test user what do we learn from the results of an I.Q. test? Can it be interpreted
Content Validity: Refers to how well the particular sampling of behaviors used to measure a characteristic reflects performance in the entire domain of behaviors that constitutes that
2. Criterion-Related Validity: Usually refers to the extent to which a measure of a n attribute demonstrates an association with some independent or external indicator of the same attribute criterion
3. Construct Validity: Does the test measure what it if intended to measure?
validity Refers to the extent to which the test we're using actually measures the characteristic or dimension we intend to measure is it doing/measuring what it says it is?
1. Test-Retest Reliability or stability: An assessment of the degree to which test scores are similar or stable over time vs. the degree to which scores change or fluctuate upon repeated testing
2. Alternate Forms Reliability TEST Q: Assesses the degree to which two different forms of the same test yield similar results
3. Split-Half Reliability: Dividing one test into two comparable halves
4 Internal Consistency Reliability homogeneity: The degree to which each item of a test is measuring the same thing as each other item.