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Hesi A2 Biology
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Terms in this set (72)
Polarity of Water
Water has a simple molecular structure. It is composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to the oxygen via a shared pair of electrons. Oxygen also has two unshared pairs of electrons. Thus there are 4 pairs of electrons surrounding the oxygen atom, two pairs involved in covalent bonds with hydrogen, and two unshared pairs on the opposite side of the oxygen atom.The most significant aspect of water is the polarity of its bonds.
Polarity of Molecules
When there are no polar bonds in a molecule, there is no permanent charge difference between one part of the molecule and another, and the molecule is nonpolar.A molecule can possess polar bonds and still be nonpolar. If the polar bonds are evenly (or symmetrically) distributed, the bond dipoles cancel and do not create a molecular dipole.
Properties of Water ( Inorganic Compound)
2.high heat capacity
4.solubility ("Aquaeous solution" solvent=water)
Biological Molecules (Organic Compounds)
The four kinds are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbs are made of monosacharrides (single sugars) linked together. Their function is to provide a key source of energy for cells. An example is starch, made of many linked glucose molecules.
Lipids( fatty acids,phospholipids,steriods)
Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are not soluble in water. They include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes. Lipids' functions are to provide energy and serve an important part in the structure and functioning of cell membranes. Some examples of lipids: butter (saturated fat), cholesterol (steroid), earwax (wax).
Fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. There are many kinds of naturally occurring saturated fatty acids, which differ mainly in number of products. Hydrocarbon tail completely filled with H (sat.) non-polar tail easily stack atop of one another (sat.); solid at room temperature.
Fats that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. Liquid at room temp.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.Th molecules combine in a way that creates a barrier that protects the cell.Important in the function of cellular membranes.
Lipids that are made of four carbon rings attached to functional groups. Regulate some immune responses, metabolism, and reproduction.They are a component of membranes, but, more important, many are precursors to significant horomones
Are the most significant contributor to cellular function. They are involved in virtually all cell functions. Each protein within the body has a specific function. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement, or in defense against germs. Proteins vary in structure as well as function. They are polymers of 20 amino acids and have distinct three-dimensional shapes. Enzymes are particular types of proteins that act to catalyze different reactions or processes.
Structural (Fibrous) Proteins
Are fibrous and stringy and provide support. Examples include keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratins strengthen protective coverings such as hair, quills, feathers, horns, and beaks. Collagens and elastin provide support for connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments.
Proteins that perform some biological function in the body. An example of a functional protein is antibodies as they carry out the function of fighting off bacteria and virus'. Another example is hemoglobin which transports oxygen around the body.
Globular proteins tend to be compact, rounded and water soluble. Haemoglobin and enzymes are examples of globular proteins.Function as enzymes, antibodies, for signalling, for transport, and many other things
Their working environment is water
Their shape is partly due to interaction
with water molecules
Consists of DNA and RNA; contain the instructions for the amino acid sequence of proteins and the instructions for replicating.Present in all living organisms.Nucleic acids are long chains of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Nucleic acids mainly serve the purpose of providing the organism with its genetic blueprint and coding. They basically tell you who you are.DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids.
(deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.Is a unique molecule specific to a particular organism and contains the code that is necessary for replication.
Ribonucleic acid is used in transfer and as a messenger, in most species, of the genetic code.
Enzymes as Catalysts for Metabolic Processes
Enzymes affect the rate but not the equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction.Enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction in both directions, forward and reverse. Enzymes bind their substrates, not permanently, but transiently—for a brief time.
ATP( adenosine triphosphate)
An organic compound composed of adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups, hence, the name.ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken down (hydrolyzed) into ADP (or Adenosine Diphosphate). The energy is used for many metabolic processes. Hence, ATP is considered as the universal energy currency for metabolism.
ATP is produced via cellular respiration in the mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts.
Is the control center of the cell; DNA within the nucleus regulates protein(e.g., enzyme) synthesis and therefore the chemical reactions of the cell.
Contain all the material for the regeneration of the cell as well as all instructions for the function of the cell
Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Organelles;Composed of protein and RNA molecule.Reads RNA produced in the nucleus and translates the genectic instructions to produce proteins. Attached to ER or free floating in cytoplasm. The two types are interchangeable and have identical structures, although they have slightly different roles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Organelle;membrane attached to the nuclear membrane and consists of two continuous parts:rough ER and smooth ER.
ER membrane covered with ribosomes; responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production.
ER membrane lacking ribosomes; functions in detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules. Manufactures lipids and carbohydrates, detoxifies harmful chemicals; stores calcium.
Organelle; functions to transport materials from the ER throughout the cell.(packaging, processing, shipping)
- membrane-bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes involved in intracellular digestion.Can hydrolyze proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids.
Is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells. In general, the functions of the vacuole include:
Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell
Containing waste products
Containing water in plant cells
Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell
Maintaining an acidic internal pH
Containing small molecules
Exporting unwanted substances from the cell
Allows plants to support structures such as leaves and flowers due to the pressure of the central vacuole
In seeds, stored proteins needed for germination are kept in 'protein bodies', which are modified vacuoles
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP.
Lipid bilayer composed of proteins, phospholipids and cholesterol throughout. Functions as the outer boundary of cells; controls the entry and exit of substances; receptor proteins function in intercellular communication; marker molecules enable cells to recognize one another
Clear in color and has a gel-like appearance. It is composed mainly of water and also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. The cytoplasm helps to move materials around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste.
A network of fibers that help the cell maintain its shape and give it support.
Is the movement of solutes from an area of higher solute concentration to an area of lower solute concentration.
Water diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane.
Is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
Mitosis (asexual reproduction)
In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
Mitosis is divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase,telophase
Prophase- The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense and become visible, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the spindle apparatus forms at opposite poles of the cell.
Chromosomes align in the middle of the cell (important for even distribution of genetic material)
Chromatids separate.At this point, two identical sets of chromosomes are moved by the spindle fibers toward the centrioles at one of the poles of the cell. At the end of anaphase, each set of chromosomes has reached an opposite pole of the cell, and the cytoplasm begins to divide.
Nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes to form two separate nuclei.The chromosomes begin to uncoil and resemble the genetic material characteristics of interphase.
Is the division of the cell's cytoplasm to produce two new cells
Meiosis is when a cell divides to produce four hapoloid nuclei whose chromosomes are not identical ( sexual reproduction)
In Meiosis I members of homologous chromosome pairs are separated. This results in the segregation of genes into the two gametes.
Chromosomes line up and sister chromatids are separated by the action of the spindle fibers. The daughter cells are genetically identical to one another.
Double helix structure
Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder's rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.
A,T, G and C
The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide.
The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
Is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
The first step is the conversion of glucose to pyruvate in a process.It takes place in the cytosol of the cell and produces two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvate, and two molecules of NADH
In step two, the pyruvate is transported into a mitochondrion and used in the first of a series of reactions.This cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria, and for a single consumed glucose molecule, two ATP molecules, six molecules of carbon dioxide, and six NADH molecules are produced.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.This molecule is used as a precursor to produce greater amounts of ATP in the final steps of respiration.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor involved in several important reactions in metabolism. FAD can exist in two different redox states and its biochemical role usually involves changing between these two states. FAD can be reduced to the FADH2, whereby it accepts two hydrogen atoms:
Electron Transport Chain
The third step begins with oxidation of NADH molecules to produce oxygen and finally to produce water in a series of steps. For every glucose molecule, 28 to 32 ATP molecules can be produced.This conversion results in overall ATP production numbers of 32 to 36 ATP molecules for every glucose molecule consumed.
Anaerobic fermentation means "absence of oxygen".Anaerobic fermentation is a method cells use to extract energy from carbohydrates when oxygen or other electron acceptors are not available in the surrounding environment. This differentiates it from anaerobic respiration, which doesn't use oxygen but does use electron-accepting molecules that come from outside of the cell.
A genotype is an individual's collection of genes. The term also can refer to the two alleles inherited for a particular gene. The genotype is expressed when the information encoded in the genes' DNA is used to make protein and RNA molecules.
A phenotype is an individual's observable traits, such as height, eye color, and blood type.
An allele is one of two or more versions of a gene. An individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent.
Genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents.
An individual who has inherited two different alleles, usually one normal and the other abnormal, at a particular locus
A tool that helps to show all possible allelic combinations of gametes in a cross of parents with known phenotypes in order to predict the probability of their offspring possessing certain sets of alleles.
A chart that can help trace the phenotypes and genotypes in a family to determine whether people carry recessive alleles.
Organization of Species
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization, such as bacteria.
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. humans
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