Reading Specialist MTEL
Terms in this set (82)
-Informal Reading Records
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
IRIs test grade-level passages from which children read aloud. The primary purpose is to determine a child's independent reading level and to reveal the child's strengths and weaknesses when decoding print. As the child reads the passage aloud, the teacher scores the child's performance on a separate copy. Instruction is then planned accordingly.
Word lists tell you which passage to begin with to determine the independent reading level. The words are grouped by grade level. The child reads the words aloud and once they miss 20% of the words on a list, the teacher finds a reading passage that is a level or two below the highest level that the child could read (letting the child warm up/build confidence).
Calculating the Reading Level
After reading a passage and marking the errors, take the total number of words read minus the errors and divide that by the total number of words read. The percentage tells you the student's reading level.
96% and above
Books at this level are appropriate for independent and at home reading.
Books at this level are the ones used for one-on-one or small-group instruction.
89% and below
Books at this level are withheld until the child's instructional level rises.
Used to determine independent reading levels. Running Records are more flexible than IRIs. Teachers record the student's performance on a blank recording sheet, rather than a copy of the text. This enables a teacher to perform running records analyses on any text. The teacher can therefore take a running record at any time. The teacher uses check marks for words correctly and errors are written as what the child said above the actual word in the text.
Teachers do miscue analyses after IRIs or running records. The analyses look at two things: the errors and the self-corrections. These show the processes (cueing systems) the students are using to make and correct mistakes.
-Meaning/semantics (reading with the meaning in mind
-Visual/graphophonics (reading with the print in mind)
-Syntax/grammer (reading the with grammar in mind)
Portfolios take a long view of a child's literacy development: They are collections of artifacts that reveal a student's ability to read and write. A portfolio should include a variety of samples. There should be a reading section and a writing section. Used for conferences.
Reading Section of Portfolio
Includes all of the child's IRIs, word lists, miscue analyses, and running records. This will demonstrate the child's progress and areas of continuing need. Should also include reading lists of books the student has read.
Writing Section of Portfolio
Includes all of the pieces of writing the child creates, including pre-wring, drafts, and teacher's comments.
Two types of assessment can be used: Student self-assessment and teacher assessment. Rubric assessments are the most common assessment tool. Rubrics award the student points based on whether they have met the stated criteria.
Norm-referenced tests should be reliable and valid. They compare a student's raw score to others using percentile ranks or grade-equivalents.
The consistency of an assessment. For example, it should not matter if a test is taken one day to the next.
The accuracy of an assessment-- whether it measures what it is supposed to measure.
The number correct out of the number of items given. (ex: 6 out of 12 words spelled correctly is 6/12)
Used to compare the individual to the group, and the group to other groups of students. The scale can go from 1-99 and you locate the student's raw score on the scale to figure out how much "better" they did in relation to other students.
These scores move us into the interpretation of what a raw score or percentile rank means. You compare the scores to see if the child is performing "normally" in relation to other students in the same grade.
These tests look at both product and process. The product is handled through the benchmark score and the process side is viewed through the preselected rubric criteria.
A benchmark score is set (for example "12 out of 12"). You would assess how long it would take for the student to make the benchmark score. Useful for identifying strengths and needs and helping reach particular benchmarks.
Rubrics typically rate students in terms of early, developing, or advanced stages of proficiency. Criteria is set for who is early, developing, and advanced. You can assess children throughout the year using the same rubric.
3 Areas of Decoding Instruction
1) Foundations of Decoding- concepts about print, phonemic awareness
2) Decoding Instruction- phonics skills, sight words
3) Ultimate Aim- automatic decoding
Concepts About Print (CAP) sequence
-Parts of a book
-Print carries meaning
-Words in sentences
-Letters within words
-Upper- and lowercase letter names
Concepts about Print (CAP) categories
Book Concepts: Where is the cover? Title? Author's name?
Sentence Concepts: Where does the reading start from? In which direction is the text read?
Word Concepts: Where do words begin and end? Where is a capital letter?
Big book readings, morning messages, language-experience approaches (LEAs), and letter-name activities
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
A literacy development method used with early readers. It is centered around a learner-generated text. The class discusses a shared experience, creates a text with the teacher, read the story aloud, talk about making any corrections, and do a final reading altogether. The idea is that materials with familiar ideas and vocabulary are more meaningful and accessible to young students than other texts.
The ability to recognize that the English language is made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Children learn to take spoken words and break them into individual sounds (segmenting). Later, they attach letters to these individual sounds and learn how to decode words. Instruction in phonemic awareness prepares students for phonics instruction. (Different from phonological awareness in that it only addresses phonemes). Remember: Phonemic awareness addresses sounds, not letters.
The ability to recognize that words are made up of a variety of sound units. This term encompasses a number of sound related skills related to learning to read. Students understand that words are not only made up of sounds (phonemes) but that words can be segmented into larger sound "chunks" known as syllables and that each syllable begins with a sound (onset) and ends with a sound (rime).
Phonological awareness provides the basics for phonics.
Begins in kindergarten, taught alongside CAP. Begins with very broad concepts adn then moves toward a very specific skill: being able to segment spoken words into individual sounds. Done so in songs, rhymes, pictures, and activities.
The understanding that sounds and print letters are connected. Phonics comes after phonemic and phonological awareness. Once instruction is in print, it is considered phonics.
Blending and Segmenting
The final areas of phonemic awareness.
Children learn to blend individual phonemes into spoken words and to segment spoken words into individual phonemes.
Parts of Phonemic awareness (4 parts)
1) Initial and final sound identification
2) Discriminating sounds in different words
3) Blending sounds into words
4) Segmenting spoken words into sounds
Assessing phonological awareness
1. Initial and final sound ID
-Identifying first and last sounds in spoken words and/or using picture sorts
-Can the child identify first and last sounds in words using picture sorts?
2. Discriminating sounds
-Differentiating first and last sounds heard in two or more spoken words and/or words using picture sorts
3. Segmenting spoken words
-Disassembling each sound heard in a spoken word
Sounds in the middle of a word. Medial sounds tend to be assessed through blending since they are very hard to hear in words.
Elkonin sound boxes
Boxes that use markers to help children learn how to segment words into individual phonemes.
-The teacher shows the child a picture of a familiar word, says the name of the picture, stretches the sound, and then works with the child to segment the word into individual phonemes. Segmenting takes place by moving markers into boxes that account for each fo the sounds heard in the word.
Early Phonics Instruction
Early phonics instruction teaches the child to associate sounds to letters and to combine these letters into short, common, one-syllable words that are easily decoded. Once the child has a few known sound-letter associations, these letters become "onsets" that are attached to other simple letter patterns called "rimes" to make words.
Later Phonics Instruction
Sound-letter associations become more complex as phonics instruction advances. Children learn more sound associations and more complex onset and rime letter combinations. Students start using consonant blends and digraph combinations.
You can hear both sounds associated with both letters
(bl, sp, cr)
Consonants come together to make an entirely different sound (ph, ck, ch)
Advanced Phonics Instruction
Focuses on generalizations (rules) and complex vowel patterns.
Common Phonics Generalizations (rules)
CVC short vowel patterns
CVCe long vowel patterns
Hard and soft "g"
Hard and soft "c"
Complex Vowel Representations
Long vowel digraphs (beat, meet, piece, weigh)
Vowel blends/dipthongs (boil, joy, out, cow)
-Unlike vowel digraphs, vowel diphthongs represent two individual and distinguishable vowel sounds)
Students read words from lists in each phonics area and the teacher marks the areas of need for each type of word. The starting point for instruction begins at the decoding level at which the child is struggling.
An activity in which students sort words by category. This can be used as a phonics activity/assessment.
Word sorts ask children to focus on letters and patterns to make or categorize words during explicit phonics instruction.
Types of polysyllabic words
1. Compound words
2. Complex words with prefixes and suffixes (ex: untame)
3. Decodable words (ex: calculus)
4. Irregular words (ex: Wednesday)
Syllabication is the final area of phonics instruction that sets the stage for fluently decoding text.
Assessing polysyllabic words
-Use word lists of polysyllabic words
-Use pseudo- or nonsense words.
-The goal is to assess that students can decode words with both open and closed syllables
Teaching polysyllabic words
Remove polysyllabic words from text and conduct explicit instruction in how to decode them. Teach students that polysyllabic words can be divided into decodable units.
-Teach by disassembling and reassembling the word into one spoken utterance.
Sight word assessment
-Students read from a word list. They read a column that corresponds to grade-level expectations.
-Can also be assessed when a running record or IRI data are analyzed.
Stages of spelling development
1. Pre-phonetic stage
2. Phonetic stage
3. Transitional stage
4. Conventional stage
Writing with little knowledge of spelling. Here children often scribble b/c they have not yet learned to associate the sounds they hear w/ letters.
Later the scribbling may include discernible lines or symbols that look like regular print.
When children begin to write letters to represent the dominant sounds they hear in words.
This stage depends greatly on how much prior knowledge they have and how much instruction they've received in encoding.
Example: "tr" for "tree"
When children encode all of the dominant sounds they hear in the word. This stage reflects very late development and is a goal of instruction.
Example: "brade" for "bread"
When children spell the majority of the words they write correctly. This doesn't mean they spell every word correctly.
Children at this stage use spelling to increase vocabulary and learn to spell words with prefixes, suffixes, roots.
Fluency is the ultimate aim to decoding instruction. The expectation is that children can read fluently and accurately by grade 3. This ability is contingent on the child's ability to recognize words automatically.
Assessed by rate and accuracy.
Fluency building activities
Sustained silent reading (SSRI)
Answering who, what, where, and when questions. Identifying factual ideas that are explicitly stated in the text.
Answering how and why questions. About uncovering ideas that are only implied in a text. Asking inferential questions is not possible if the child cannot grasp the basic facts of the story.
Making judgments about the text.
Components of Reading Comprehension
2. Vocabulary development
3. Comprehension levels
Words that sound the same but but their spellings are different and indicate different meanings
Example: site, cite, sight
Words that are written the same way but are pronounced differently.
Example: lead (v.), lead (n.)
The smallest meaningful units of a word.
Example: cats= cat+s (two morphemes)
Inflectional suffixes make plurals, possessives, comparatives, and verb tenses, but do not change a word from a noun to a verb or an adjective to an adverb.
Examples: books, Mike's, bigger, walking
Sounds that are different variants of the same phoneme.
Example: "s" sounds different in "books", "cars", and "misses"
Students can do different word study activities by categorizing by different allophones
Origins of words
Students use derivations when they encounter words to to broaden their vocabularies and aid their comprehension. Students learn explicit methods to pick words apart into their roots, bases, and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) while they are reading. Teachers must instruct students how to find these parts of words.
Grammar of the English language
The meaning of words in sentences and paragraphs
Students must learn how to use syntax and semantics either during or after reading to understand what they are reading.
A comprehension activity that helps students answer questions based on information found within and beyond the text. There are four different types of questions that are used in this activity. Used for expository text.
Writing Process (5 steps)
The idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language.
Explicit phonics (synthetic phonics)
Builds from part to whole. It begins with the instruction of the letters (graphemes) with their associated sounds (phonemes). Next, explicit phonics teaches blending and building, beginning with blending the sounds into syllables and then into words. Research-proven method.
Implicit phonics (analytical phonics)
Moves from the whole to the smallest part. Phonemes associated with particular graphemes are not pronounced in isolation. Students analyze words and look for the common phoneme in a set of words. Through comparison and identification, they deduce which grapheme to write or which phoneme to read. Blending and building are not usually taught, and students identify new words by their shape, beginning and ending letters, and context clues. This analysis (breaking down) of the whole word to its parts is necessary only when a child cannot read it as a whole word. This is a whole-language approach.
A brief reference to a person, place, or thing in literature.