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nominating conventions

a meeting at which a political party selects its presidential and vice presidential candidate; first held in the 1820s

Jacksonian Democracy

an expansion of voting rights during the popular Andrew Jackson administration

Democratic Party

a political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson after the presidential election of 1824

John C. Calhoun

Andrew Jackson's vice presidential running mate

spoils system

a politicians' practice of giving government jobs to his or her supporters

Martin Van Buren

Secretary of State; one of Jackson's strongest allies in his official cabinet

Kitchen Cabinet

President Andrew Jackson's group of informal advisers; so called because they often met in the White House kitchen

Tariff of Abominations

(1828) the nickname given to a tariff by southerners who opposed it, which increased the cost of imported goods

states' rights doctrine

the belief that the power of the states should be greater than the power of the federal government

nullification crisis

a dispute led by John C. Calhoun that said that states could ignore federal laws if they believed those laws violated the Constitution

Daniel Webster

argued that the United States was one nation, not a pact among independent states; he believed that the welfare of the nation should override that of individual states

McCulloch v. Maryland

(1819) U.S. Supreme court case that declared the Second bank of the United States was constitutional and that Maryland could not interfere with it

Whig Party

a political party formed in 1834 by opponents of Andrew Jackson and who supported a strong legislature

Panic of 1837

a financial crisis in the United States that led to an economic depression

William Henry Harrison

an army general who won in an electoral landslide for the Whigs

Indian Removal Act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River

Indian Territory

an area covering most of present-day Oklahoma to which most Native Americans in the Southeast were forced to move in the 1830s

bureau of Indian Affairs

a government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans


a Cherokee who used 86 characters to represent Cherokee syllables to create a writing system for their own complex language

Worcester v. Georgia

(1832) the Supreme Court ruling that stated that the Cherokee nation was a district territory over which only the federal government had authority: ignored by both President Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia

Trail of Tears

(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people

Black Hawk

a leader of Fox and Sauk Indians, led his people in a struggle to protect their lands in Illinois


called upon his people to resist with force, and the Second Seminole War began

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