chapter 5. theories of counseling and helping relationship

Terms in this set (212)

Little Albert was a famous case associated with the work of John Broadus Watson, who pioneered American behaviorism. In 1920, John Watson and his graduate student, who later be- came his wife, Rosalie Rayner conditioned an 11-month-old boy named Albert to be afraid of furry objects. First Albert was exposed to a white rat. Initially the child was not afraid of the rat: however, Watson and Rayner would strike a steel bar, which created a loud noise whenever the child would get near the ani- mal. This created a conditioned (i.e., learned) fear in the child. This experiment has been used to demonstrate the behavioristic concept that fears are learned rather than the analytic concept that they are somehow the result of an unconscious process. In- cidentally, rumor has it that Albert (who was used to prove that Pavlovian conditioning could instill a fear in humans) was never cured of his experimentally induced affliction. Horrors! Choices "a," "c," and "d" refer to landmark psychoanalytic cases, which are often cited in the literature. The 1880s case of Anna O. (actually a client named Berta Pappenheim) was considered the first psychoanalytic patient. Anna O. was a patient of Freud's colleague Joseph Breuer. She suffered from symptoms without an organic basis, which was termed hysteria. In hypnosis she would remember painful events, which she was unable to re- call while awake. Talking about these traumatic events brought about relief and this became the talking cure or catharsis. Al- though Freud became disenchanted with hypnosis, his associa- tion with Breuer led him to his basic premise of psychoanalysis; namely, that techniques which could produce cathartic mate- rial, were highly therapeutic. The case of Little Hans is often used to contrast behavior therapy (Little Albert) with psycho- analysis. It reflects the data in Freud's 1909 paper, "An Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy," in which this child's fear of going into the streets and perhaps even having a horse bite him were explained using psychoanalytic constructs such as the Oe- dipus complex and castration anxiety. Thus, Little Hans reflects psychoanalytic explanations of behavior, while Little Albert is indicative of the behaviorist paradigm. Daniel Paul Schreber has been called the "most frequently quoted case in modern psychiatry." In 1903 Schreber—after spending nine years in a mental hospital—wrote Memoirs of a Mental Patient. His family was rather wealthy and bought almost every copy in circulation. Nevertheless, Freud got his hands on one and in 1911 published Psychoanalytical Notes upon an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia. Schreber's major delusion was that he would be transformed into a woman, become God's mate, and produce a healthier race. Freud felt that Schreber might have been struggling with unconscious issues of homosexuality. (b)
Insight is the "aha, now I understand," phenomenon. Technically, the term insight is equated with the work of the gestalt psycholo- gist Wolfgang Kohler. From 1913 to 1919 Kohler spent time on the island of Tenerife (the largest of the Canary Islands), where he studied chimpanzees and the great apes. In a somewhat land- mark experiment one of Kohler's subjects, a rather intelligent chimp named Sultan, needed to secure a dish of food placed outside the cage. The chimp had two sticks but neither would reach the food. Finally, via trial and error, the chimp put the two sticks together to create a longer stick and the problem was suddenly solved (insight took place). In another famous experiment a banana was suspended from the ceiling of the cage, and the chimp needed to stack boxes and stand on them to reach the banana. When the chimp saw the value of using the box or the stick as a tool, Kohler called it an insight experience. His 1925 book The Mentality of Apes took the information beyond the Canary Islands to its rightful place in the therapy room. Accord- ing to some theorists three types of learning exist: reinforcement (operant conditioning), association (classical conditioning), and insight. I can just hear you saying, "Okay Dr. Rosenthal, will I really need to know the cute little stories about the sticks and the bananas to pass my comprehensive exam?" Answer, "I certainly doubt it, but once in a while it's nice to learn something just for the sake of learning something fascinating." (d)
In the movie Final Analysis Richard Gere takes a young woman to dinner and explains how easy it is to be a therapist. You sim- ply listen to the client, he basically explains to his dinner com- panion, and then you repeat their final words. Sorry, Rich, but the tinsel town version could be a tad oversimplified. The client doesn't really need to pay big bucks for this type of help; parrot- ing can be accomplished simply by talking into a digital recorder. If you parrot a client, the client's response may be something like, "Yes, I just said that!" Parroting can cause the client to feel angry and uneasy. In the counseling profession, the term attend- ing (choice "a") refers to behaviors on the part of the counselor which indicate that he or she is truly engaged in active listening skills. Examples would be good eye contact or the old standby "umhum." Choice "c" is another must-know concept for nearly any major counseling test. Robert R. Carkhuff suggests a "scale for measurement" in regard to "empathic understanding in in- terpersonal processes." In a nutshell it reads like this: Level 1— Not attending or detracting significantly from the client's verbal and behavioral expressions. Level 2—Subtracts noticeable affect from the communication. Level 3—Feelings expressed by the client are basically interchangeable with the client's mean- ing and affect. Level 4—Counselor adds noticeably to the cli- ent s affect. Level 5—Counselor adds significantly to the client's feeling, meaning even in the client's deepest moments. If all of this sounds like a foreign language because you've never heard it before, you can now remove the cotton you placed in your ears during your graduate days, or better still, pick up a copy of Carkhuff s 1969 book Helping and Human Relations. (b)
Maultsby is the Father of rational-behavior therapy, which is sim- ilar to REBT but emphasizes a written self-analysis. Maultsby's technique is said to work well for multicultural counseling and group therapy. In group work the counselor has a didactic or a teaching role in which participants are taught to apply the tech- niques to their own lives. The leader encourages equal group participation for all members and gives reading assignments (i.e., bibliotherapy) between the sessions. All in all, the leader is high- ly directive and uses RBT as a model for self-help. Like REBT, RBT utilizes rational-emotive imagery on a regular basis. Choice "d" describes an old abbreviation of stimulus-response behavioral psychology. REBT and RBT are not fond of this model be- cause it asserts that a stimulus (or what Ellis has basically termed an activating event at point A) causes a response (or what Ellis calls the consequence at point C). The S-R model, according to Ellis, is guilty of leaving out B, the client's belief system. Thus, although Ellis might concede that the S-R paradigm explains rat behavior, it is inadequate when applied to human beings. The S-R model also has been called the "applied behavior analysis" or "radical behaviorism" by B. F. Skinner. Radical behaviorism makes the assumption that the environment maintains and sup- ports behavior and that only overt behaviors are the subject of treatment. The treatment? You guessed it—Skinnerian operant conditioning, of course. (a)
When a client manipulates others to experience a childhood feeling, the result is called a "racket." (Note: in TA the experience of trying to secure these feelings is known as "collecting trading stamps.") Choice "b," or the life script, is a person's ongoing drama which dictates how a person will live his or her life. Claude Steiner has written extensively on scripts. His book, Scripts People Live, suggests three basic unhealthy scripts: no love, no mind, and no joy. It is like a theatrical plot based on early parental messages (often called injunctions in TA). Choice "d," abbreviated ANOVA, is a statistical technique used to deter- mine differences between two or more means. Hold your horses, we'll get to statistics soon enough. Does domestic violence have a script? Well, I guess the answer is kind of, sort of. According to Dr. Leonore Walker, who researched women in abusive relationships, there is a cycle of violence with three phases. First, there is a tension building phase where arguments erupt very easily. Many women have dubbed this as the "walking on eggshells phase." Then there is the battering or acute incident phase where the actual fight or abuse sexual abuse, or worse yet homicide occurs. Finally, there is a makeup phase often referred to as the honeymoon phase characterized by romantic moonlight dinners, the "I'll never do it again" lines, and the deliveries from the local flower shops. As time goes by the couple goes through the phases more rapidly and the honeymoon phase may not even exist. (a)
This model (choice "a"), supposedly based somewhat on what Milton H. Erickson, Fritz Perls, and Virginia Satir really did in their sessions, makes some incredible claims, such as the ability to cure a longstanding phobia in less time than it takes to con- duct a typical counseling session! Perhaps the two most popular techniques used by NLP practitioners are "refraining" and "anchoring." When using refraining the counselor helps the client to perceive a given situation in a new light so as to produce a new emotional reaction to it (e.g., a glass of water is not half empty; it is really half full). In anchoring, a desirable emotional state is evoked via an outside stimulus such as a touch or a sound or a specific bodily motion. This is similar to classical conditioning or the concept of a posthypnotic suggestion (i.e., a suggestion which works after you leave the hypnotist's office). A client with a phobia of cats, for example, might squeeze his left arm when he came in contact with a cat, and this would bring out an emotion other than fear. If you are taking an exam which is slanted toward this model, then you must read Structure of Magic I and Structure of Magic II by Bandler and Grinder. This approach has been very popular with business people (especially salespersons) and emphasizes the importance of eye movements in determining a person's "representational system" for storing information, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling. I have no doubt that the fellow who has made the most money from this approach, however, is not a licensed therapist but rather info-mercial king Anthony (Tony) Robbins, who expanded on NLP and whose various Personal Power tape series have outsold any other motivational product in history. Tony—a dynamic speaker by any standard—sports a high school education. (a)
Now hear this! I fully expect that you will see several questions on your exam related to consultation. Many counselors tell me they have never studied this topic. Read this answer over sev- eral times. Choice "c" is not the best answer inasmuch as no integrated theory of consultation exists at this time. Consultation can target organizational concerns or service delivery. Several major consultation models exist. First is Caplan's psychodynamic mental health consultation in which the consultant does not see the client directly but advises the consultee (i.e., the individual in the organization who is receiving the consultant's services). This model is interesting because it recommends that the con- sultant—not the counselor/consultee—be ethically and legally responsible for the client's welfare and treatment. Second is the "behavioral consultation'' or "social learning theory model" asso- ciated with Bandura, in which the consultant designs behavioral change programs for the consultee to implement. Third is the process consultation model by Edgar Schein, which is said to be analogous to the "doctor-patient" model. The consultant is paid to diagnose the problem (i.e., the consultee is not certain what it is) and prescribe a solution. The focus is on the agency or or- ganization, not the individual client. With process consultation, the focus is not—I repeat—is not on the content of the prob- lem, but rather the process used to solve the problems. Schein also mentions the purchase of expertise model in which the con- sultee says: "Here's the problem; you fix it." This is similar to the doctor-patient model except that the consultee knows what is wrong. Fourth is triadic consultation in which the consultant works with a mediator to provide services to a client. (d)
Some exams will call social power "social influence." My memo- ry technique here is what I call the "EAT" formula; the "E" is for expertness, the "A" for attractiveness, and the "T" for trustwor- thiness. The three factors first made an impact on the counseling profession in 1968 when Stanley Strong wrote a landmark article which suggested that counselors perceived as expert, attractive, and trustworthy would not be discredited by the client. Expert- ness here refers to the manner in which the client perceives the counselor rather than the way the counselor perceives himself or herself. A counselor's self-perception is technically known as "competence." E. Fuller Torrey, author of The Death of Psy- chiatry, suggested that a wall full of degrees and an impressive office can help to insure that the counselor will be perceived as an expert. Thus, a counselor who is seen as an expert may not actually be competent. Attractiveness implies that positive feelings and thoughts regarding the counselor are helpful. One hypothesis states that if the client and counselor have had similar experiences, the client will view the counselor as attractive. Cli- ents who say, "I like my counselor," are demonstrating that the counselor has been perceived as attractive. The chemical depen- dency model (CD), in which a recovering addict helps a practic- ing addict, is based on this principle. In regard to trust, it is felt that a violation of confidentiality will nearly always eliminate this factor. (b)