chapter 5. theories of counseling and helping relationship
encyclopedia of counseling
Terms in this set (212)
201. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is both a form of treatment and a very comprehensive personality theory. According to Freud's theory, inborn drives (mainly sexual) help form the personality._____and ____, who originally worked with Freud, created individual psychology and analytic psychology, respectively.
a. Carl Jung; Alfred Adler.
b. Alfred Adler; Carl Jung.
c. Joseph Breuer; A. A. Brill.
d. Alfred Adler; Rollo May.
Alfred Adler was the father of individual psychology, and Carl Gustav Jung (correctly pronounced "Yung") founded analytic psychology. But a word of caution is in order here: read all test questions carefully. Since the question utilizes the word respec- tively Adler's name (i.e., individual psychology) must come be- fore Jung's name (i.e., analytic psychology), hence choice "a" is false. The question itself also emphasizes the key point that psy- choanalysis is both a form of therapy as well as a theory of per- sonality. Joseph Breuer was a Viennese neurologist who taught Freud the value of the talking cure, which is also termed cathar- sis. Brill's name is usually associated with the impact that Freud- ian theory has on career choice, and Rollo May was a prime mover in the existential counseling movement. (b)
202. Eric Berne's transactional analysis (TA) posits three ego states: the Child, the Adult, and the Parent. These roughly correspond to Freud's structural theory that includes
a. oral, anal, phallic.
b. unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.
c. a and b.
d. id, ego, and superego.
I must emphasize that neither Freud nor Berne characterized these ego states as biological entities. That is to say, a neurologist could not open up an individual's brain and map out the id or dis- sect the Parent ego state. Instead, the id, ego, and superego, and the Child, Adult, and Parent are hypothetical constructs used to explain the function of the personality. In Freudian theory, as well as in TA, experts in the field often refer to the aforemen- tioned entities as the "structural theory." You will recall that the entities in choice "a" (oral, anal, and phallic) are the names of Freud's first three psychosexual stages. The unconscious, pre- conscious, and conscious noted in choice "b" relates to Freud's topographic notion that the mind has depth like an iceberg. The word topography means mapping, in this case that the Freud- ians, have mapped the mind. (d)
203. In transactional analysis, the ___ is the conscience, or ego state concerned with moral behavior, while in Freudian theory it is the______ .
a. Adult; unconscious.
b. Parent; ego.
c. Parent; superego.
d. Parent; id.
Eric Berne's transactional analysis utilizes popular terminology. The Parent ego state has been likened to Freud's superego. If a child has nurturing care- takers, he or she is said to develop "nurturing parent" qualities such as being nonjudgmental and sympathetic to others. The Parent ego state, however, may be filled with prejudicial and critical messages. Persons who fall into this category will tend to be intimidating, bossy, or know-it-alls. An individual whose care- taker left or died at an early age might be plagued with what TA refers to as the "incomplete parent." This person could expect others to parent him or her throughout life, or might use the lack of parenting as an excuse for poor behavior. ("Of course, I can't keep a job; I never had a mother to teach me how." TA calls this the game of "Wooden Leg."). (c)
204. Freud felt that successful resolution of the Oedipus complex led to the development of the superego. This is accomplished by
a. identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex.
b. analysis during the childhood years.
c. identification with the parent of the opposite sex, the ag- gressor.
Oedipus means "swollen feet" and comes from the Greek trag- edy by Sophocles. In the story Oedipus is unaware that he has killed his father and married his mother. According to Freudian theory, the child's libido or sex energy is directed toward the parent of the opposite sex. The child, nevertheless, realizes that retaliation would result if he (or she in the case of the Electra complex) would act on these impulses. The child thus strives for identification with the parent of the same sex to achieve vicari- ous sexual satisfaction. Now I must be honest and remind you that many behavioral scientists find this notion a bit far fetched. The word transference in choice "d" is also a psychoanalytic con- cept. Transference implies that the client displaces emotion felt toward a parent onto the analyst, counselor, or therapist. (a)
205. Freudians refer to the ego as
a. the executive administrator of the personality and the re- ality principle.
b. the guardian angel of the mind.
c. the pleasure principle.
d. the seat of libido.
Some scholars refer to the ego as the "executive administrator" since it governs or acts as a police officer to control the impulses from the id (instincts) and the superego (the conscience). The ego is a mediator. The ego is also called the reality principle and houses the individual's identity. Choices "d" and "c" describes the id. And just in case you chose choice "b," I can only say, "the guardian angel of the mind"—get serious, I just made it up!" (a)
206. Freud's theory speaks of Eros and Thanatos. A client who threat- ens a self-destructive act is being ruled primarily by
b. Eros and the id.
d. both Eros and Thanatos.
Is it Greek or is it Freudian theory? You decide. Eros is the Greek god of the love of life. To the Freudians this means self-preservation. Thanatos is the Greek word for death. Later Freudian writings use the word to describe a death wish or what is sometimes called the death instinct. Today we call specialists who study death thanatologists. (c)
207. The id is present at birth and never matures. It operates mainly out of awareness to satisfy instinctual needs according to the
a. reality principle.
b. notion of transference.
c. Eros principle.
d. pleasure principle.
The id is the pleasure principle, the ego is the reality principle, and the superego is the ego ideal. (d)
208. If you think of the mind as a seesaw, then the fulcrum or balanc- ing apparatus would be the
a. id, which has no concept of rationality or time.
c. superego, which judges behavior as right or wrong.
If you missed this one, review the answer to question 205. Coun- selor educators often utilize the seesaw or fulcrum analogy when explaining the relationship of the id, ego, and superego. (b)
209. A therapist who says to a patient, "Say whatever comes to mind," is practicing
a. directive counseling.
d. free association.
Free association is literally defined as instructing the client to say whatever comes to mind. True to the tinsel town version, classical analysts have the client (known as an analysand) lie on a couch and free associate. The analyst remains out of sight. This is more or less the antithesis of directive approaches (choice "a") in which the client is asked to discuss certain material. Paraphras- ing (choice "c") results whenever a counselor restates a client's message in the counselor's own words. (d)
210. The superego contains the ego ideal. The superego strives for --------------, rather than ---------- like the id.
a. perfection; pleasure.
b. pleasure; perfection.
c. morals; ethics.
d. logic; reality.
The superego is more concerned with the ideal than what is real. The superego is composed of values, morals, and ideals of par- ents, caretakers, and society. And oh yes, as for choice "c," the id ethical—with the possible exception of handling biological needs like hunger and thirst—never! The id is chaotic and has no sense of time. (a)
211. All of these theorists could be associated with the analytic move- ment except
Read this question very carefully. This is the so-called reverse or negative type question, and questions of this ilk do appear on the NCE/CPCE and other major exams. Questions of this nature ask you to ferret out the "incorrect" rather than the "correct" response. In this case, all of the choices except "d" name thera- pists in the psychoanalytic movement. Joseph Wolpe developed a paradigm known as "systematic desensitization" which is use- ful when trying to weaken (i.e., desensitize) a client's response to an anxiety-producing stimuli. Systematic desensitization is a form of behavior therapy based on Pavlov's classical con- ditioning. (d)
212. Most scholars would assert that Freud's 1900 work entitled The Interpretation of Dreams was his most influential work. Dreams have
a. manifest and latent content.
b. preconscious and unconscious factors.
c. id and ego.
d. superego and id.
For Freud, the dream was the royal road to knowledge of the un- conscious activities of the mind. According to Freud, the dream is composed of a surface meaning, which is the manifest content, and then a hidden meaning or so-called latent content. In ther- apy, dream work consists of deciphering the hidden meaning of the dream (e.g., symbolism) so the individual can be aware of unconscious motives, impulses, desires, and conflicts. (a)
213. When a client projects feelings toward the therapist that he or she originally had toward a significant other, it is called
a. free association.
Some counselors feel that transference is actually a form of pro- jection, displacement, and repetition in which the client treats the counselor in the same manner as he or she would an authority figure from the past (e.g., a mother, a father, a caretaker, or significant other). Just for review purposes, choice "a," free asso- ciation, is an analytic technique in which the client is instructed to say whatever comes to mind. Choice "b," insight, refers to the process of making a client aware of something which was previ- ously unknown. This increases self-knowledge. Insight is often described as a novel sudden understanding of a problem. Choice "d" is resistance. Psychoanalysts believe that a client who is re- sistant will be reluctant to bring unconscious ideas into the con- scious mind. Nonanalytic counselors generally utilize the term in a looser context and use the word to describe clients who are fighting the helping process in any manner. (c)
214. Which case is not associated with the psychodynamic movement?
a. Little Hans.
b. Little Albert.
c. Anna O.
Little Albert was a famous case associated with the work of John Broadus Watson, who pioneered American behaviorism. In 1920, John Watson and his graduate student, who later be- came his wife, Rosalie Rayner conditioned an 11-month-old boy named Albert to be afraid of furry objects. First Albert was exposed to a white rat. Initially the child was not afraid of the rat: however, Watson and Rayner would strike a steel bar, which created a loud noise whenever the child would get near the ani- mal. This created a conditioned (i.e., learned) fear in the child. This experiment has been used to demonstrate the behavioristic concept that fears are learned rather than the analytic concept that they are somehow the result of an unconscious process. In- cidentally, rumor has it that Albert (who was used to prove that Pavlovian conditioning could instill a fear in humans) was never cured of his experimentally induced affliction. Horrors! Choices "a," "c," and "d" refer to landmark psychoanalytic cases, which are often cited in the literature. The 1880s case of Anna O. (actually a client named Berta Pappenheim) was considered the first psychoanalytic patient. Anna O. was a patient of Freud's colleague Joseph Breuer. She suffered from symptoms without an organic basis, which was termed hysteria. In hypnosis she would remember painful events, which she was unable to re- call while awake. Talking about these traumatic events brought about relief and this became the talking cure or catharsis. Al- though Freud became disenchanted with hypnosis, his associa- tion with Breuer led him to his basic premise of psychoanalysis; namely, that techniques which could produce cathartic mate- rial, were highly therapeutic. The case of Little Hans is often used to contrast behavior therapy (Little Albert) with psycho- analysis. It reflects the data in Freud's 1909 paper, "An Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy," in which this child's fear of going into the streets and perhaps even having a horse bite him were explained using psychoanalytic constructs such as the Oe- dipus complex and castration anxiety. Thus, Little Hans reflects psychoanalytic explanations of behavior, while Little Albert is indicative of the behaviorist paradigm. Daniel Paul Schreber has been called the "most frequently quoted case in modern psychiatry." In 1903 Schreber—after spending nine years in a mental hospital—wrote Memoirs of a Mental Patient. His family was rather wealthy and bought almost every copy in circulation. Nevertheless, Freud got his hands on one and in 1911 published Psychoanalytical Notes upon an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia. Schreber's major delusion was that he would be transformed into a woman, become God's mate, and produce a healthier race. Freud felt that Schreber might have been struggling with unconscious issues of homosexuality. (b)
215. In contrast with classical psychoanalysis, psychodynamic counseling or therapy
a. utilizes fewer sessions per week.
b. does not utilize the couch.
c. is performed face to face.
d. all of the above.
Classical psychoanalysis is quite lengthy—three to five sessions per week for several years is not unusual—not to mention expensive. A complete analysis could cost well over $100,000 in some parts of the nation and virtually no forms of insurance or managed care will pay for this type of treatment. Psychodynamic therapy and counseling make use of analytic principles (e.g., the unconscious mind) but rely on fewer sessions per week to make it a bit more practical. Psychodynamic therapists generally dis- pense with the couch and sit face to face as in other forms of counseling and therapy. Freud once commented in regard to the merits of the couch that he could not stand to be stared at for many hours during the day. Moreover, he felt the couch could enhance the free association process. (d)
216. Talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feelings is a curative process known as
a. catharsis and/or abreaction.
c. accurate empathy.
d. reflection of emotional content.
Hard-core analysts often prefer the word abreaction to the non- technical term catharsis. Other writers use the word catharsis to connote mild purging of emotion, and abreaction when the re- pressed emotional outburst is very powerful and violent. Freud and Breuer initially used the term to describe highly charged repressed emotions, which were released during the hypnotic process. When all is said and done, most exams will do as I have done here and use the terms in a synonymous fashion. Choice "c," accurate empathy means that the counselor can truly un- derstand what the client is feeling or experiencing. Reflection of emotional content (Choice "d") is accomplished when the coun- selor restates the client's verbalization in such a manner that the client becomes more aware of his or her emotions. Choices "c" and "d" are emphasized very heavily in the nondirective (later called Client-Centered and then Person-Centered) approach to counseling. Rogerians do not emphasize diagnosis or giving advice. (a)
217. Id, ego, superego is to structural theory as ____ is to topographical theory.
a. Child, Adult, Parent.
b. abreaction, catharsis, introspection.
c. ego ideal.
d. unconscious, preconscious, conscious.
First, let me explain why choice "a" is incorrect. Id, ego, and superego refer to Freud's structural theory of the personality while Child, Adult, and Parent is the structural model proposed by Eric Berne, father of transactional analysis. The question, nevertheless, does not ask you to compare the id, ego, and superego to another structural theory; it asks you to compare it to the components in the topographical theory. Remember, the one where the mind is seen as an iceberg? The term introspection introduced in choice "b" describes any process in which the client attempts to describe his or her own internal thoughts, feelings, and ideas. (d)
218. The most controversial aspect of Freud's theory is
b. the Oedipus complex.
c. the notion of the preconscious mind.
d. the interpretation of dreams.
This is known as the Electra complex when it occurs in females. Also be aware that the most important concept in Freud's theory is the unconscious mind. (b)
219. Evidence for the unconscious mind comes from all of these except
b. slips of the tongue and humor.
d. subjective units of distress scale.
Subjective units of distress scale (SUDS) is a concept used in forming a hierarchy to perform Wolpe's systematic desensitization: a behavior therapy technique for curbing phobic reactions, anxiety, and avoidance responses to innocuous situations. The SUDS is created via the process of introspection by rating the anxiety associated with the situation. Generally, the scale most counselors use is 0 to 100, with 100 being the most threatening situation. The counselor can ask a client to rate imagined situations on the subjective units of disturbance scale so that a treatment hierarchy can be formulated. Just for the record, slips of the tongue (choice "b"), or what Freud called "the psychopathology of everyday life," will be technically referred to as "para- praxis" on some exams. (d)
220. In a counseling session, a counselor asked a patient to recall what transpired three months ago to trigger her depression. There was silence for about two and one-half minutes. The client then began to remember. This exchange most likely illustrates the function of the
a. preconscious mind.
b. ego ideal.
c. conscious mind.
d. unconscious mind.
The rationale here is simple enough. The conscious mind is aware of the immediate environment. The preconscious mind is capable of bringing ideas, images, and thoughts into awareness with minimal difficulty (e.g., in this question the memory of what transpired several months ago to trigger the client's depression). Thus, the preconscious can access information from the conscious as well as the unconscious mind. The unconscious, on the other hand, is composed of material which is normally unknown or hidden from the client. Thus, if the hypothetical client in this question had said, "Isn't that strange I can't remember what happened to trigger the depression," the correct answer would be choice "d," the unconscious mind (assuming, of course, the memory loss was not due to biological factors). And—strictly for the sake of repetition—the ego ideal of the superego is the perfect self or ideal self that the person judges himself or herself against. (a)
221. Unconscious processes, which serve to minimize anxiety and protect the self from severe id or superego demands, are called
a. slips of the tongue.
b. ego defense mechanisms.
c. id defense processes.
d. latent dream material.
The id strives for immediate satisfaction, while the superego is ready and willing to punish the ego via guilt if the id is allowed to act on such impulses. This creates tension and a certain degree of pressure within the personality. The ego controls the tension and relieves anxiety utilizing "ego defense mechanisms." Simply put, ego defense mechanisms are unconscious strategies, which distort reality and are based on self-deception to protect our self-image. Although this concept has its roots in Freud's psychoanalysis, counselors of most persuasions now agree that defense mechanisms are relevant when studying the personality. Counselors who are not psychoanalytic, nevertheless, may not agree with the theoretical conceptualization that such behavior is the result of id, ego, and superego processes. (b)
222. Most therapists agree that ego defense mechanisms deny or dis- tort reality. Rationalization, compensation, repression, projec- tion, reaction formation, identification, introjection, denial, and displacement are ego defense mechanisms. According to the Freudians, the most important defense mechanism is
b. reaction formation
Freud saw defense mechanisms as an unconscious method a per- son uses to protect him- or herself from anxiety. The Freudians feel that repression is the kingpin or granddaddy of ego defense mechanisms. A child who is sexually abused, for example, may repress (i.e., truly forget) the incident. In later life, the repression that served to protect the person and "helped her through the distasteful incident at the time" can cause emotional problems. Psychoanalytically trained counselors thus attempt to help the client recall the repressed memory and make it conscious so it can be dealt with. This is called insight and is often curative. Choice "b," reaction formation, occurs when a person can't accept a given impulse and thus behaves in the opposite manner. Choice "c," denial, is similar to repression except that it is a conscious act. An individual who says, "I refuse to think about it," is displaying denial. Sublimation, in choice "d," is present when a person acts out an unconscious impulse in a socially acceptable way. Hence, a very aggressive individual might pursue a career in boxing, wrestling, or football. (a)
223. Suppression differs from repression in that
a. suppression is stronger.
b. repression only occurs in children.
c. repression is automatic or involuntary.
d. all of the above.
If you missed this one, review question 222. Some exams refer to suppression as denial. (c)
224. An aggressive male who becomes a professional boxer because he is sadistic is displaying
Again, if you missed this question review the question and answer for 222. A rationalization (choice "b") is simply an intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings. A student who says, "Hey, I'm glad I didn't get good grades, only nerds get good grades," is practicing classical rationalization. The person who rationalizes will tend to interpret his thoughts and feelings in a positive or favorable manner. The final choice, displacement—also a defense mechanism—occurs when an impulse is unleashed at a safe tar- get. The prototype example (which you could easily come across on a host of mental health exams) would be the man who is furious with his boss but is afraid to show it and so he comes home and kicks the family dog. One hopes that the family dog will have good enough sense to bite him back! (c)
225. An advertising psychologist secretly imbeds the word SEX into newspaper ads intended to advertise his center's chemical dependency program. This is the practice of
d. none of the above.
Okay, fess up: did you choose "a"? I'll bet you're not the only one! Let me say this in a way so you'll never miss this type of tricky question again: Sublimation is not the same as subliminal. Sublimation is a defense mechanism, while subliminal perception supposedly occurs when you perceive something unconsciously and thus it has an impact on your behavior. I say "supposedly" because the American Psychological Association (APA) has taken the position that subliminal perception is not effective. The opposite stance has been taken by Wilson Bryan Key who has writ- ten books such as Subliminal Seduction and Media Sexploitation in which he points out how advertisers and others have relied on this technique. So, a word to the wise: Read each exam question carefully. Here you will note that the question is describing a subliminal activity, yet the word subliminal is not an answer choice, making choice "d" the only correct answer. Choice "c," introjection, takes place when a child accepts a parent's, caretak- er's, or significant other's values as his or her own. In the case of this defense mechanism, a sexually abused child might attempt to sexually abuse other children. (d)
226. A man receives a nickel an hour pay raise. He was expecting a one dollar per hour raise. He is furious but nonassertive. He thus smiles and thanks his boss. That night he yells at his wife for no apparent reason. This is an example of
d a Type II error.
Here the man yells at his wife instead of kicking the family dog. This is displacement par excellence. Identification (choice "c") is also a defense mechanism, which results when a person identifies with a cause or a successful person with the unconscious hope that he or she will be perceived as successful or worthwhile. An- other possibility is that the identification with the other person serves to lower the fear or anxiety toward that person. Finally, a Type II or so-called beta error is a statistical term, which means that a researcher has accepted a null hypothesis (i.e., that there is no difference between an experimental group and a group not receiving any experimental treatment) when it is false. There are plenty more questions of this sort when you reach the sections on statistics and research methodology. (a)
227. A student tells a college counselor that he is not upset by a grade of "F" in physical education that marred his fourth year perfect
4.1 average, inasmuch as "straight A students are eggheads." This demonstrates
b. reaction formation.
c. sour grapes rationalization.
d. sweet lemon rationalization.
Remember the fable in which the fox couldn't secure the grapes so he said they were probably sour anyway? Well here's the hu- man equivalent affectionately known as the sour grapes variety of rationalization. "I didn't really want it anyway," is the way this one is usually expressed. Choice "d" depicts the "sweet lemon" variety of rationalization. Here the person tells you how won- derful a distasteful set of circumstances really is. Thus, in ratio- nalization the person either underrates a reward (sour grapes) or overrates a reward (sweet lemon) to protect the self from a bruised ego. (c)
228. A master's level counselor lands an entry level counseling job in an agency in a warm climate. Her office is not air conditioned, but the counselor insists she likes this because sweating really helps to keep her weight in check. This illuminates
a. sour grapes rationalization.
b. sweet lemon rationalization.
And here's a wonderful memory device. In our society we overrate the value of (or at least overeat) sweets in our diet. In the sweet lemon variety of rationalization the person overrates the situation. In this question the counselor is essentially saying, "Oh, gee, I just love to sweat, it keeps the water weight off of me and keeps my weight down." Right; and lemons taste sweet— dream on! (b)
229. A teenager who had his heart set on winning a tennis match broke his arm in an auto accident. He sends in an entry form to play in the competition which begins just days after the accident.
His behavior is influenced by
b. displacement of anger.
d. organ inferiority.
This is classic denial. The tennis player is failing to face reality. Organ inferiority (choice "d") is usually associated with the work of Alfred Adler, who pioneered a theory known as "individual psychology." (a)
230. _____is like looking in a mirror but thinking you are looking out a window.
b. Sour grapes rationalization.
Simply put, the person who engages in projection attributes un- acceptable qualities of his or her own to others. All of the answer choices are considered defense mechanisms. (c)
231. Mark is obsessed with stamping out pornography. He is unconsciously involved in this cause so that he can view the material.
a. reaction formation.
In reaction formation the person acts the opposite of the way he or she actually feels. An adult living with a very elderly parent, for example, may spend all his or her time caring for the parent when in reality the individual unconsciously would like to see the elderly person die. (a)
232. Ted has always felt inferior intellectually. He currently works out at the gym at least four hours daily and is taking massive doses of dangerous steroids to build his muscles. The ego defense mechanism in action here is
a. reaction formation.
Compensation is evident when an individual attempts to develop or overdevelop a positive trait to make up for a limitation (i.e., a perceived inferiority). The person secretly hopes that others will focus on the positives rather than the negative factors. (b)
233. Jane feels very inferior. She is now president of the board at a shelter for the homeless. She seems to be obsessed with her work for the agency and spends every spare minute trying to help the cause. When asked to introduce herself in virtually any social situation, Jane invariably responds with, "I'm the president of the board for the homeless shelter." Jane is engaging in
If this is unclear review the explanation under question 226. (d)
234. A client who has incorporated his father's values into his thought patterns is a product of
Yes, by the time you're finished wrestling with this set of ques- tions you will definitely know your defense mechanisms! Some- times introjection causes the person to accept an aggressor's values. A prisoner of war might incorporate the value system of the enemy after a period of time. (a)
235. The client's tendency to inhibit or fight against the therapeutic process is known as
A client who refuses to follow a counselor's directives such as a homework assignment or completing a battery of tests would be a typical example of resistance, or what counselors call the "resistant client." (a)
236. Freud has been called the most significant theorist in the entire history of psychology. His greatest contribution was his concep- tualization of the unconscious mind. Critics, however, contend that
a. he was too concerned with the totem and the taboo.
b. he failed to emphasize sex.
c. many aspects of his theory are difficult to test from a sci- entific standpoint.
d. he was pro female.
How can concepts like the id, ego, or unconscious conflicts be directly measured? The answer is that for the most part, they can't. This has been a major criticism of Freud's theory. Choice "a" alludes to Freud's writings on the totem (an object that rep- resents a family or group), the taboo, and the dread of incest. Freud felt that even primitive peoples feared incestuous relationships. The dread of incest is not instilled merely via modern societal sanctions. Freud's psychoanalysis is the oldest major form of therapy. (c)
237. The purpose of interpretation in counseling is to
a. help the therapist appear genuine.
b. make the clients aware of their unconscious processes.
c. make clients aware of nonverbal behaviors.
d. help clients understand feelings and behaviors related to childhood.
This is the kind of question that separates the men from the boys and the women from the girls. It is what is known as a "best answer" type of question. Although choices "c" and "d" are not necessarily incorrect, choice "b" is a textbook definition of inter- pretation. (b)
238. Organ inferiority relates mainly to the work of
a. C. G. Jung's analytical psychology.
b. Alfred Adler's individual psychology.
c. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory.
d. Josef Breuer's work on hysteria.
The term individual stresses the unique qualities we each pos- sess. Individual psychology is keen on analyzing organ inferiority and methods in which the individual attempts to compensate for it. It is interesting to note that Alfred Adler was a very sickly child. Because of rickets (a disease caused by the absence of vitamin D, the so-called sunshine vitamin), Adler could not walk until age 4. He was then the victim of pneumonia as well as a series of accidents. Thus, for Adler, the major psychological goal is to escape deep-seated feelings of inferiority. Could Adler's theory reflect his own childhood? You decide. (b)
239. When a client becomes aware of a factor in his or her life that was heretofore unknown, counselors refer to it as
a. individual psychology.
c. transference neurosis.
Insight is the "aha, now I understand," phenomenon. Technically, the term insight is equated with the work of the gestalt psycholo- gist Wolfgang Kohler. From 1913 to 1919 Kohler spent time on the island of Tenerife (the largest of the Canary Islands), where he studied chimpanzees and the great apes. In a somewhat land- mark experiment one of Kohler's subjects, a rather intelligent chimp named Sultan, needed to secure a dish of food placed outside the cage. The chimp had two sticks but neither would reach the food. Finally, via trial and error, the chimp put the two sticks together to create a longer stick and the problem was suddenly solved (insight took place). In another famous experiment a banana was suspended from the ceiling of the cage, and the chimp needed to stack boxes and stand on them to reach the banana. When the chimp saw the value of using the box or the stick as a tool, Kohler called it an insight experience. His 1925 book The Mentality of Apes took the information beyond the Canary Islands to its rightful place in the therapy room. Accord- ing to some theorists three types of learning exist: reinforcement (operant conditioning), association (classical conditioning), and insight. I can just hear you saying, "Okay Dr. Rosenthal, will I really need to know the cute little stories about the sticks and the bananas to pass my comprehensive exam?" Answer, "I certainly doubt it, but once in a while it's nice to learn something just for the sake of learning something fascinating." (d)
240. C. G. Jung, the founder of analytic psychology, said men operate on logic or the principle, while women are intuitive, operating on the principle.
a. Eros; Thanatos.
b. Logos; Eros.
c. reality; pleasure.
d. transference; countertransference.
Logos implies logic, while eros refers to intuition. Choice "d" uses the terminology, transference and countertransference. In transference, the assumption is that the client will relate to the therapist or counselor as he or she has to significant others. The Freudians are fond of speaking of a "transference neurosis" in which the client is attached to the counselor as if he or she is a substitute parent. Countertransference (also commonly spelled with a hyphen) is said to be evident when the counselor's strong feelings or attachment to the client are strong enough to hinder the treatment process. (b)
241. Jung used drawings balanced around a center point to analyze himself, his clients, and dreams. He called them
b. projective drawings.
c. unconscious automatic writing.
d. eidetic imagery.
Jung, the father of analytic psychology, borrowed the term man- dala from Hindu writings in which the mandala was the symbol of meditation. In Jung's writings the mandala also can stand for a magic protective circle that represents self-unification. A bit mystical, isn't it? Perhaps that is why poets, philosophers, and those with an interest in religion often valued Jung's work more so than did psychiatrists. Choice "d" is a word you will often run across in child psychology and development tests. Eidetic imagery—which usually is gone by the time a child reaches ado- lescence—is the ability to remember the most minute details of a scene or a picture for an extended period of time. Laypersons will say that such a child has a "photographic memory." (a)
242. ______emphasized the drive for superiority.
c. Constructivist therapists.
d. Freud and Jung.
Okay, here's a prime example where I am using an incorrect answer, choice "c" to teach you key material. The newer con- structivist theories of intervention stress that it is imperative that we as helpers understand the client's view (also known as constructs) to explain his or her problems. Two popular classes of constructivist therapy include brief therapy, which examines what worked for a client in the past, and narrative therapy, which looks at the stories in the client's life and attempts to rewrite or reconstruct the stories when necessary. Alfred Adler, the father of individual psychology, initially felt that aggressive drives were responsible for most human behaviors. He then altered the the- ory slightly and said that the major factor was the "will to power." Finally, he concluded that it was the "striving for superiority" or a thirst for perfection that motivated behavior. (Note: The drive for superiority did not imply that the person wanted to dominate others or become a political figure or one of the ruling class).
243. The statement, "Sibling interaction may have more impact than parent/child interaction" describes
a. Sigmund Freud's theory.
b. Alfred Adler's theory.
d. Carl Jung's theory.
Adler, who broke with Freud in 1911, went on to found a num- ber of child-guidance clinics in which he was able to observe children's behavior directly. One criticism of Freud has been that his child development theories were not based on extensive research or observations of children's behavior. (b)
244. In contrast with Freud, the neo-Freudians emphasized
a. baseline measures.
b. social factors.
c. unconditional positive regard.
This is a must-know concept. It is hard to imagine a comprehensive exam that would not touch on this issue. Neo-Freudians such as Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Erich Fromm stressed the importance of cultural (social) issues and, of course, interpersonal (social) relations. Choice "a" is decidedly incorrect inasmuch as baseline is a be- haviorist term. (Remember the behaviorists—the rivals of the analysts!) Baseline—sometimes written as two words—indicates the frequency that a behavior is manifested prior to or in the ab- sence of treatment. Unconditional positive regard (Choice "c") is a concept popularized by the late great therapist Carl R. Rogers, who felt that the counselor must care for the client even when the counselor is uncomfortable or disagrees with the client's po- sition. In essence, the counselor accepts the client just the way he or she is without any stipulations. (b)
245. The terms introversion and extroversion are associated with
Introversion meant a turning in of the libido. Thus, an introverted individual is his or her own primary source of pleasure. Such a person will generally shy away from social situations if possible. Extroversion, on the other hand, is the tendency to find satisfaction and pleasure in other people. The extrovert seeks external rewards. The introversion-extroversion distinction deals with inward or outward directiveness. Why not try the simplest of memory devices to remember this principle? You can remember that the "in" as in introvert looks "in" or with "in" himself or herself for satisfaction. Of course, an extrovert would be the opposite and look to external factors like social situations. Another idea might be to equate the "e," the first letter in extroversion, with the "e" which is the first letter in external. (d)
246. The personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are associated with the work of
This test is literally given to several million persons each year! The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is said to be the most widely used measure of personality preferences and dispositions. The measure can be used to assess upper elementary children age 12 and over all the way through adulthood and yields a four- letter code, or "type," based on four bipolar scales. The bipo- lar preference scales are extroversion/introversion; sensing (i.e., current perception)/intuition (i.e., future abstractions and possibilities); thinking/feeling; and judging (i.e., organizing and controlling the outside world)/perceiving (i.e., observing events). (d)
247. One of Adler's students, Rudolph Dreikurs,
a. created the TAT.
b. was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice.
c. was a noted Freud hater.
d. created the hierarchy of needs.
Dreikurs also introduced Adlerian principles to the treatment of children in the school setting. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) mentioned in choice "a" is a projective test in which the client is shown a series of pictures and asked to tell a story. The TAT was introduced in Henry Murray's 1938 work Explorations in Personality. Murray called the study of the personality "personology." As for choice "c," I believe I'd go with Andrew Salter, who wrote The Case Against Psychoanalysis. Salter did ground- breaking work in behavior therapy, which led to the formation of assertiveness training. This information appeared in the 1949 classic Conditioned Reflex Therapy. In reference to choice "d," it was Maslow and not Adler who created the hierarchy of needs.
248. Adler emphasized that people wish to belong. This is known as
b. social connectedness.
c. the collective unconscious.
The Adlerian theory (choice "b") suggests that we need one an- other. The collective unconscious in choice "c" is a term coined by C. G. Jung, which implies that all humans have "collected" universal inherited, unconscious neural patterns. (b)
249. Adler was one of the first therapists who relied on paradox. Using this strategy, a client (who was a student in a counselor preparation program) who was afraid to give a presentation in front of his counseling class for fear he might shake and embarrass himself would be instructed to
a. exaggerate the behavior and really do a thorough job shaking in front of the class.
b. practice relaxation techniques for 10 to 20 minutes before the speech.
c. practice rational self-talk.
d. practice rational thinking.
Paradoxical techniques also are associated with the work of Victor Frankl, who pioneered logotherapy, a form of existential treatment. Paradoxical strategies often seem to defy logic as the client is instructed to intensify or purposely engage in the maladaptive behavior. Paradoxical interventions are often the direct antithesis of common sense directives such as choice "b." Paradoxical methods have become very popular with family therapists due to the work of Jay Haley and Milton H. Erickson. Currently, this technique is popular with family therapists who believe it reduces a family's resistance to change. Choices "c" and "d" are almost always associated with the so-called cognitive therapies, especially rational-emotive behavior psychotherapy.(a)
250. Jung felt that society caused men to deny their feminine side known as and women to deny their masculine side known as .
a. Eros; Thanatos
b. animus; anima
c. anima; animus
d. yin; yang
These terms were introduced in the section on human growth and development, but just for review purposes and for those who never studied Latin: You can remember that anima is the feminine term as it ends in "ma," and needless to say, it is com- mon to refer to one's mother as "ma." You could also remember animus is the male side of the personality as it ends in "mus" and reminds one of "muscles," which are generally a male attribute. Choice "d" notes the Chinese Taoist philosophy in which the yin is the passive feminine force in the universe, which is contrasted by the yang, the masculine force. (c)
251. Jung spoke of a collective unconscious common to all men and women. The material that makes up the collective unconscious, which is passed from generation to generation, is known as
a. a hierarchy of needs.
This is easy to remember if you keep the word archaic in mind. An archetype is actually a primal universal symbol, which means the same thing to all men and women (e.g., the cross). Jung perused literature and found that certain archetypes have appeared in fables, myths, dreams, and religious writings since the beginning of recorded history. (d)
252. Common archetypes include
a. the persona—the mask or role we present to others to hide our true self.
b. animus, anima, self.
c. shadow—the mask behind the persona, which contains id-like material, denied, yet desired.
d. all of the above.
The shadow noted in choice "c" is often called the dark side of the personality, though it is not necessarily negative. Jung noted that the shadow encompasses everything an individual refused to acknowledge. The shadow represents the unconscious oppo- site of the individual's conscious expression. Hence, a shy retired individual might have recurring dreams that he or she is very outgoing, verbal, and popular. In addition to dreams, the basic nature of the shadow is also evident when an individual engages in projection. The clinical assumption is made that projection will decrease and individuation will increase as therapy renders shadow behaviors conscious. (d)
253. A client is demonstrating inconsistent behavior. She is smiling but says that she is very sad about what she did. When her coun- selor points this out to her, the counselor's verbal response is known as
a. active listening.
c. accurate empathy.
Confrontation could also relate solely to verbal behavior. For ex- ample, a counselor might confront a client about what he says he is doing in his life versus what he is truly doing. The essence of confrontation is to illuminate discrepancies between the client's and the helper's conceptualization of a given situation. Choice "c," accurate empathy, occurs when a counselor is able to experience the client's point of view in terms of feelings and cognitions. Empathy is a subjective understanding of the client in the here-and-now. Summarization, mentioned in choice "d," transpires whenever a counselor brings together the ideas discussed during a period of dialogue. A counselor might also ask the client to summarize to be certain that he or she has actually grasped the meaning of an exchange. Some counselors believe that summarization should occur at the end of each ses- sion or after several sessions. (b)
254. During a professional staff meeting, a counselor says he is worried that if techniques are implemented to stop a 6-year-old boy from sucking his thumb, then he will begin biting his nails or stuttering. The counselor
a. is using the logic set forth in gestalt therapy.
b. is using Donald Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification.
c. is most likely a behaviorist concerned with symptom sub- stitution.
d. is most likely an analytically trained counselor concerned with symptom substitution.
The answer only can be choice "d" inasmuch as symptom sub- stitution is a psychoanalytic concept. According to the theory, if you merely deal with the symptom another symptom will man- ifest itself since the real problem is in the unconscious mind. Behaviorists do strive for symptom reduction and do not believe in the concept of symptom substitution. (d)
255. An eclectic counselor
a. is analytic.
b. is behavioristic.
c. attempts to choose the best theoretical approach based on the client's attributes, resources, and situation.
d. insists on including all family members in the treatment.
An eclectic counselor uses theories and techniques from several models of intervention, rather than simply relying on one. An eclectic counselor, for example, would not say, "I'm a Rogerian," or "I see myself as a strict behavior therapist." The eclectic coun- selor uses "the best from every approach." Research indicates that about 50% of all therapists claim to be eclectic, and a num- ber of studies indicate eclecticism is on the rise. (c)
256. The word eclectic is most closely associated with
a. Frederick C. Thorne.
It is very important to note that Thorne felt that true eclecticism was much more than "a hodgepodge of facts"; it needed to be rigidly scientific. Thorne preferred the term psychological case handling rather than psychotherapy, as he felt the efficacy of psychotherapy had not been scientifically demonstrated. (a)
257. A counselor who is obsessed with the fact that a client missed his or her session is the victim of
a. cognitive dissonance.
d. positive transference.
In countertransference the counselor's past is projected onto the client and the helper's objectivity suffers markedly. A counselor who falls in love with a client or feels extreme anger toward a client is generally considered a victim of countertransference. Choice "a," cognitive dissonance, suggests that humans will feel quite uncomfortable if they have two incompatible or inconsistent beliefs and thus the person will be motivated to reduce the dissonance. (c)
258. Lifestyle, birth order, and family constellation are emphasized by
d. Thorne and Lazarus.
Adlerians believe that our lifestyle is a predictable self-fulfilling prophecy based on our psychological feelings about ourselves. Adler stressed the importance of birth order in the family con- stellation (e.g., the firstborn/oldest child could be dethroned by a later child who gets most of the attention; thus the firstborn would be prone to experience feelings of inferiority). Firstborns often go to great lengths to please their parents. A second child will often try to compete with a firstborn child and often sur- passes the first child's performance. A middle child (or children) will often feel that he or she is being treated unfairly. Middle children are sometimes seen as being quite manipulative. The youngest child or baby in the family can be pampered or spoiled. The good news is that they often excel by modeling/imitating the older children's behavior. The concept of birth order has been criticized by some theorists such as Wayne Dyer, famous for his self-improvement book Your Erroneous Zones, which outsold every book written in the decade of the 1970s! (c)
259. A counselor who remarks that firstborn children are usually con- servative but display leadership qualities is most likely
a. a Freudian who believes in the unconscious mind.
b. an Adlerian that believes behavior must be studied in a social context; never in isolation.
c. Rogerian who stresses the importance of the therapeutic relationship.
d. a behavior modifier using a behavioral contract.
You can well imagine why the current family therapy movement has roots in Adlerian theory. Adlerians stress that clients long for a feeling of belonging and strive for perfection. Adlerians—like REBT practitioners—are didactic and use homework assign- ments. The Adlerian counselor often asks the client: What would life be like if you were functioning in an ideal manner? Then the counselor asks the client to act "as if' he or she did not have the problem. Now that's what I call a dramatic therapeutic strategy! (b)
260. Existentialism is to logotherapy as is to behaviorism.
Don't panic—this is simply an analogy type question. Let's think this one out together so you can discover how choice "b" checks in as the correct answer. The first word in the question gives us a significant clue. That is to say, "existentialism" is a type of philos- ophy. Now existentialism (the philosophy) is compared to "logo- therapy," which is a brand of psychotherapy. The question then mentions behaviorism, which is a type of psychology and more loosely defined as a brand of treatment. So, the question tells you that logotherapy grew out of the philosophy of existentialism and then asks you to fill in the blank with the philosophy which led to the formation of behaviorism. Skinner and his concept of operants are behavioristic to be sure; however, neither of them is a philosophy. The answer is associationism, which asserts that ideas are held together by associations. Now here's a super hint. Although associationism had its roots in an essay written by Aris- totle on the nature of memory, most exams will list John Locke, David Hume, James Mill, or David Hartley as the pioneers. My guess: Look for the name John Locke come exam time. (b)
261. B. F. Skinner's reinforcement theory elaborated on
a. Edward Thorndike's law of effect.
b. Adler's concept of lifestyle.
c. Arnold Lazarus's concept of the BASIC ID used in the multimodal therapeutic approach that is eclectic and ho- listic.
d. symptom substitution.
The "law of effect" simply asserts that responses accompanied by satisfaction (i.e., it pleases you) will be repeated, while those which produce unpleasantness or discomfort will be stamped out. Just a quick quip in regard to choice "c": Lazarus worked very closely with Joseph Wolpe—and thus his multimodal ap- proach—although it is very holistic, meaning that the approach emphasizes the whole person—has a strong behavioral treatment slant. The therapist focuses on seven key modalities or areas of the clients functioning: B=behavior including acts, habits, and reactions; A=affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood; S=sensations, including hearing, touch, sight, smell, and taste; I=images/the way we perceive ourselves, including memories and dreams; C=cognitions such as our thoughts, insights, and even our philosophy of life; I=interpersonal relationships (i.e., the way we interact with others); and D=drugs, that would include alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drug usage, diet and nutritional supplementation. (a)
262. Classical conditioning relates to the work of
a. E. G. Williamson.
b. B. F. Skinner.
d. Ivan Pavlov.
Interestingly enough, Pavlov won a Nobel Prize not for his work in classical conditioning but for his research on the digestive sys- tem. Choice "a," E. G. Williamson, is the father of the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint. Popular some years ago, especially with career counselors, this approach attempts to match the client's traits with a career. A word to the wise: Many exams will bill this as the "trait factor" approach. (d)
263. An association that naturally exists, such as an animal salivating when food is presented, is called
a. an operant.
d. acquisition period.
Let me see if I can make this simple for you so that every time you see some form of the word conditioned or conditioning you don't feel intimidated. From now on, whenever you see the word conditioned, substitute the word learned. When you see the word unconditioned substitute the word unlearned. Now this question becomes a heck of a lot easier, since salivating is an "unlearned" association. The dog need not sign up for a graduate course in behaviorism to learn this response. So, for review purposes: conditioned=learned; unconditioned=unlearned. Choice "d," the acquisition period, refers to the time it takes to learn or acquire a given behavior. If it takes a mentally challenged child two hours to learn to write his name, then two hours would be the acquisition period. (c)
264. Skinner's operant conditioning is also referred to as
a. instrumental learning.
b. classical conditioning.
c. cognitive learning.
d. learning via insight.
One possible memory device here would be that Skinner's last name has an "i" as does the word instrumental, whereas the word Pavlov doesn't. (a)
265. Respondent behavior refers to
c. a type of phobia.
Okay, so you didn't fall in love with my memory device for the last question. Never fear; here's another way to go about it. Pav- lov's theory involves mainly "reflexes," such as in the experiment where the dog salivates. The word reflex begins with an "r" and so does the word respondent. The bottom line: Pavlovian con- ditioning is respondent while Skinner's is instrumental/operant. (PS.: Please don't read this if you get confused easily, but the term respondent is generally accredited to Skinner, although it applies to the theoretical notions of Pavlovian conditioning.) (a)
266. All reinforcers
a. are plastic tokens.
b. tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur.
c. are secondary.
d. do not raise behavior since negative reinforcement lowers behavior.
I can't say this too strongly: All reinforcers—yep, both positive and negative—raise the probability that an antecedent (prior) behavior will occur. In a situation where we have positive rein- forcement, something is added following an operant (behavior). Now, this is going to sound a little complicated, but here goes. It is possible to use positive reinforcers to reduce or eliminate an undesirable target behavior. Here's how. Using a procedure known as "differential reinforcement of other behavior" (DRO), the counselor positively reinforces an individual for engaging in a healthy alternative behavior. The assumption is that as the alter- native desirable behavior increases via reinforcement, the client will not display the inappropriate target behavior as frequently. In the case of negative reinforcement, something is taken away after the behavior occurs. As for the incorrect choices, a second- ary reinforcer is a neutral stimulus, such as a plastic token, which becomes reinforcing by association. Thus, a plastic token could be exchanged for known reinforcers. (b)
267. Negative reinforcement requires the withdrawal of an aversive (negative) stimulus to increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur. Negative reinforcement is not used as often as positive reinforcement and
a. is really the same as punishment.
b. effectively lowers the frequency of behavior in young children.
c. is not the same thing as punishment.
d. is a psychodynamic conceptualization.
A comprehensive test that includes questions on behavior modi- fication but does not have a question similar to this one would be about as likely as an orange containing lemon juice. In case my analogy is a bit too sarcastic (or sour) for your taste, the salient point is that you must understand this concept. Negative rein- forcement is not punishment. All reinforcers raise or strengthen the probability that a behavior will occur; punishment lowers it. It doesn't take a master's or a doctorate in counseling to grasp the notion that when you were punished as a child the probabil- ity of that particular behavior generally decreased for a period of time. I say "for a period of time" since most behavior modi- fiers feel punishment temporarily suppresses the behavior. This seems to be the case in humans and, according to B. F. Skinner, in rats. This would certainly seem to dethrone choice "b" as the correct response. Advanced exam reminder: Some tests will discriminate between positive and negative punishment. Posi- tive punishment is said to occur when something is added after a behavior and the behavior decreases, while negative punishment takes place when a stimulus is removed following the behavior and the response decreases. (c)
a. is the same as negative reinforcement.
b. is much more effective than reinforcement.
c. decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
d. is used extensively in reality therapy.
A little review never hurt anybody. To set the record straight, behavior modifiers value reinforcement over punishment. Wil- liam Glasser, M.D., the father of reality therapy, lists eight steps for effective treatment, of which step 7 admonishes "not to pun- ish." (c)
269. In Pavlov's famous experiment using dogs, the bell was the ___________
, and the meat was the____
a. CS; UCS
b. UCS; CS
c. CR; UCS
d. UCS; CR
Ah, remember my memory device from the beginning of this book. It went like this: "In the U.S. we eat a lot of meat." In the Pavlovian experiment, the U.S. (which is sometimes written UCS) is the unconditioned (think unlearned) stimulus, or the meat. (a)
270. The most effective time interval (temporal relation) between the CS and the US
a. is irrelevant—it does not influence the learning process.
b. is 5 seconds.
c. is the .05 level according to social scientists.
d. is .5 or ½ of a second.
As the interval exceeds ½ second, more trials are needed for effective conditioning. How will you remember that the CS comes before the US? Just remember that "c" comes before "u" in the alphabet. Or better still, common sense would dictate that the reinforcer (the meat/US) would come after the bell (the CS) to reinforce it. Now I'm going to share something with you that will help you on difficult exam questions. When the CS is delayed until the US occurs, the procedure is known as "delay condi- tioning." If, however, the CS terminates before the occurrence of the US, it is termed "trace conditioning." Here's a slick and easy-to-use memory device. Trace begins with "t" and so does termination. In trace conditioning, the CS will terminate prior to the onset of the US (or UCS as it will be abbreviated on some exams). (d)
271. Many researchers have tried putting the UCS (i.e., the meat) before the CS (i.e., the bell). This usually results in
a. increased learning.
b. anger on the part of the dog.
c. experimental neurosis.
d. no conditioning.
Whether you put the cart before the horse, "u" before "c" in the alphabet, or the UCS before the CS, it just doesn't work. This is called backward conditioning. Generally backward conditioning is ineffective and doesn't work. Note: The exam you are taking could refer to the typical classical conditioning process where the CS comes before the UCS as "forward conditioning" to distinguish it from "backward conditioning." (d)
272. Several graduate students in counseling trained a poodle to salivate using Pavlov's classical conditioning paradigm. One day the department chairman was driving across campus and honked his horn. Much to the chagrin of the students, the poodle elicited a salivation response. What had happened?
a. experimental neurosis had obviously set in.
c. stimulus generalization or what Pavlov termed irradia- tion.
d. stimulus discrimination.
Rule 1 for handling those lengthy questions on your exam: ig- nore all the irrelevant information. Whether it was the depart- ment chairman driving across the campus or the dean of students riding his bicycle is about as relevant to answering the question as the price of tea in China! Stimulus generalization, also called "second order conditioning," occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS (the bell) produces the same reaction. Hence, a car horn, a piano key, or a buzzer on a stove timer could conceivably pro- duce the same reaction as the bell. Remember when I mentioned Little Albert's learned fear of white rats? The tendency for him to display fear with other furry white animals or a Santa Claus mask is illustrative of the principle of stimulus generalization. (c)
273. The department chairman found the poodle's response (see question 272) to his horn humorous. He thus instructed the graduate students to train the dog to salivate only to his car horn and not the original bell. Indeed the graduate students were able to perform this task. The poodle was now demonstrating
a. experimental neurosis.
d. stimulus discrimination.
Stimulus discrimination is nearly the opposite of stimulus gen- eralization. Here the learning process is "fine tuned," if you will, to respond only to a specific stimulus. In this example, the dog would be taught to salivate only when the department chairman sounds his horn. A piano key, a buzzer on a stove, or the original bell would not elicit (i.e., cause) the reaction. Stimulus discrimi- nation is at times referred to as "stimulus differentiation" in some of the literature. Pica, choice "c", is the tendency for humans to eat objects that are not food, such as chewing on a pencil or lead paint (the latter of which can cause irreversible brain damage). Some people believe pica is a psychological difficulty while other experts insist it occurs due to a lack of minerals in the diet. (d)
274. The department chair was further amused by the poodle's ten- dency to be able to discriminate one CS from another (see ques- tion 273). He thus told the students to teach the dog to salivate only to the horn on his Ford but not one on a graduate student's Chevrolet truck. In reality, the horns on the two vehicles sound- ed identical. The training was seemingly unsuccessful inasmuch as the dog merely took to very loud barking. In this case
a. experimental neurosis set in.
b. irradiation became a reality.
c. borderline personality traits no doubt played a role.
d. a covert process confounded the experiment.
"Stop it, you're driving this dog crazy," would be the correct re- sponse to this question. Pavlov termed this phenomenon "ex- perimental neurosis." When the differentiation process becomes too tough because the stimuli are almost identical, the dog will show signs of emotional disturbance. Reminder: On questions of this nature, some exams will refer to the CS as the NS, or "neutral stimulus," and the UCS as the "reinforcing" or "charged stimulus." (a)
275. In one experiment, a dog was conditioned to salivate to a bell paired with a fast-food cheeseburger. The researcher then kept ringing the bell without giving the dog the cheeseburger. This is known as
a. instrumental learning via shaping.
b. positive reinforcement.
c. extinction, and the salivation will disappear.
d. negative reinforcement.
This may be a doggy way to learn about classical Pavlovian re- spondent conditioning, but I believe it is effective. In this case the layperson might say that ringing a bell and not reinforcing the dog with a fast-food cheeseburger is animal cruelty. The pro- fessional will see it as extinction. Extinction occurs when the CS is "not" reinforced via the US. Most experts believe that the CR is not eliminated but is suppressed, or what is generally called "inhibited." The rationale for this position is that if the animal is given a rest, the CR (i.e., the salivation in this example) will reappear, though it will be weaker. This phenomenon has been called "spontaneous recovery." In Skinnerian or operant condi- tioning, extinction connotes that reinforcement is withheld and eventually the behavior will be extinguished (eliminated). (c)
276. John B. Watson's name is associated with
a. Little Hans.
b. Anna O.
c. Little Albert.
d. b and c.
The significance of the Little Albert case was that it demonstrat- ed that fears were "learned" and not the result of some uncon- scious conflict. (c)
277. During a family counseling session, a 6-year-old girl repeatedly sticks her tongue out at the counselor who is obviously ignoring the behavior. The counselor is practicing
a. negative reinforcement,
c. reciprocal inhibition.
A word to the wise experimenter or counselor: Some research demonstrates that when using extinction the behavior will get worse before it is eliminated. This tendency technically is called a response burst or an extinction burst. Fortunately, the "burst," or increase in the frequency of behavior, is temporary. In plain everyday English then, this counselor can expect the little girl's behavior—in this case sticking out her tongue—to get worse before it gets better. Ignoring a behavior is a common method of extinction as is the practice of time-out, where the client or student is isolated from reinforcement. Just for the record, the response burst is generally a major ethical consideration for therapists who are attempting to extinguish self-abusive or self- mutilating behaviors. Choice "b," chaining is also a behavioristic term. A chain is a sequence of behaviors in which one response renders a cue that the next response is to occur. When you are writing a sentence and place a period at the end it is a cue that you're next letter will be an uppercase letter. In behavior modi- fication simple behaviors are learned and then "chained" so that a complex behavior can take place. A chain is really just a series of operants joined together by reinforcers. (d)
278. In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on -------
, while behavior therapy emphasizes ------ .
a. instrumental conditioning; classical conditioning
b. Pavlovian principles; Skinnerian principles
c. Skinnerian principles; Pavlovian principles
d. a and c
Technically, behavior modification is Skinnerian (i.e., operant, instrumental), while behavior therapy is Pavlovian (i.e., classical, respondent). (d)
279. A behavioristic counselor decides upon aversive conditioning as the treatment of choice for a gentleman who wishes to give up smoking. The counselor begins by taking a baseline. This is accomplished
a. using hypnosis.
b. by charting the occurrence of the behavior prior to any therapeutic intervention.
c. using a biofeedback device.
The baseline indicates the frequency of the behavior untreated and is sometimes signified in the literature on a chart using an upper case letter A. (b)
280. The first studies, which demonstrated that animals could indeed be conditioned to control autonomic processes, were conducted by
a. E. Thorndike.
b. Joseph Wolpe.
c. Neal Miller.
d. Ivan Pavlov.
In a study that perhaps challenged a 100-year-old psychological doctrine, Miller and Banuazizi showed that by utilizing rewards rats could be trained to alter heart rate and intestinal contrac- tions. Prior to this experiment it was thought that automatic or "autonomic" bodily processes (such as heart rate, intestinal contractions, or blood pressure) could not be controlled. Today, counselors often use the technique of biofeedback (i.e., hook- ing the client to a sophisticated electronic device that provides biological feedback) to help clients control autonomic respons- es. Edward Thorndike, mentioned in choice "a," postulated the "law of effect," which is also known as "trial and error learning." This theory assumes that satisfying associations related to a given behavior will cause it to be "stamped in," while those associated with annoying consequences are "stamped out." And here is an important point: Practice per se does not ensure effective learn- ing. The practice must yield a reward. (c)
281. The significance of the Little Albert experiment by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner was that
a. a phobia could be a learned behavior.
b. it provided concrete proof that Skinner's model was cor- rect.
c. it provided concrete proof that Pavlov's model was cor- rect.
d. none of the above.
The psychoanalytic or Freudian theory espoused the notion that a fear was the result of an unconscious conflict. This is why ana- lytic psychology is often called "depth psychology." Something is assumed to be wrong deep below the level of awareness. (a)
282. John B. Watson is to cause as Mary Cover Jones is to
John B. Watson demonstrated that a phobic reaction was "learned," while Mary Cover Jones demonstrated that "learning" could serve as a treatment for a phobic reaction. Neurolinguis- tic programming (NLP) is the brainchild of linguistics profes- sor John Grinder and mathematician/computer expert John Bandler. These outsiders to the helping professions watched expert helpers, most notably, Virginia Satir, Milton H. Erickson, and Fritz Perls to discover what these therapists really did rather than what they said they did. (a)
283. In the famous Little Albert experiment, a child was conditioned to fear a harmless white furry animal. Historical accounts indicate that the child also began to fear a Santa Claus mask. This would demonstrate
a. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
b. stimulus generalization.
c. an adjustment reaction.
d. stimulus discrimination.
This is simple enough to remember, since in stimulus generaliza- tion the fear "generalizes." In other words, a Santa Claus mask is white and furry and somewhat similar to a furry white animal, and hence produces the same fearful reaction in the child. (b)
284. A counselor who says he or she practices depth psychology tech- nically bases his or her treatment on
a. Pavlov's dogs.
b. Mary Cover Jones.
c. John B. Watson.
d. Freud's topographic hypothesis.
The process of elimination can work wonders here. Even if you couldn't distinguish Freud's topographic theory from a hole in the ground you could answer this question by eliminating choic- es "a," "b," and "c" based on the fact that Pavlov, Jones, and Wat- son were pioneers in the behaviorist movement. (d)
285. When a counselor refers to a counseling paradigm, she really means
a. she is nondirective.
b. she is very directive.
c. a treatment model.
d. she is not a depth psychologist.
You must be familiar with the word paradigm, which is utilized excessively in this field. A paradigm is a "model." Choice "a" is used to describe a counselor who allows the client to explore thoughts and feelings with a minimum of direction. This ap- proach, which was initially popularized via the work of Carl R. Rogers, is also called the "Client-Centered" or the "Person-Cen- tered" approach. This is often contrasted with the directive posi- tion (choice "b") in which the therapist leads the client to discuss certain topics and provides "direct suggestions" about how the client should think, act, or behave. And here is a wonderful exam tip: Many tests will use the term active therapy or "active-direc- tive" therapy to delineate the directive paradigm. (c)
286. A man says, "My life has been lousy for the past six months." The counselor replies, "Can you tell me specifically what has made life so bad for the last six months?" The counselor is
a. using interpretation.
b. using summarization.
c. using concreteness.
d. using a depth psychology paradigm.
Concreteness is also known as "specificity" in some of the litera- ture. The counselor uses the principle of concreteness in an at- tempt to eliminate vague language. Choice "a," interpretation, is highly valued in analytic and psychodynamic modalities, although it is used in other schools of counseling. Interpretation is said to take place when the counselor uncovers a deeper mean ing re- garding a client's situation. Most counselor educators believe that the counselor must wait until counselor-client trust is established; otherwise the client is more likely to reject the interpretation. This notion-ihas been called "the timing of interpretation." (c)
287. A client who is having panic attacks is told to practice relaxing his jaw muscle for three minutes per day. The counselor here is using
b. a directive.
When used in the context of counseling, a directive is merely a suggestion. Choice "d" is a no-no in effective counseling. Par- roting is a misuse of paraphrasing. In parroting, the counselor restates the client's message back verbatim. The problem? Well, research shows parroting is for the birds! Clients who were the victims of parroting were bored and uncomfortable during the session, and sometimes felt angry toward the counselor. (b)
288. _----is a biofeedback device.
a. A bathroom scale
b. A DVD player
c. A digital clock
d. An analyst's couch
Biofeedback does not change the client, it merely provides the client and helper with biological information. A scale and a mirror are two simple examples. In counseling, biofeedback devices are used primarily to teach clients to relax or to control auto- nomic (i.e., automatic) nervous system functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, or hand temperature. (a)
289. Johnny just loves M&Ms but doesn't do his homework. The school counselor thus instructs Johnny's mom to give the child a bag of M&Ms every night after he finishes his homework. This is an example of
c. a Pavlovian strategy.
d. positive reinforcement.
The idea of any reinforcer (positive or negative) is to increase or strengthen the behavior. In this case something is added to the behavior so it would be "positive reinforcement." At first a behavior modifier will reinforce every behavior. This is known as a continuous schedule of reinforcement. After a while the client will be given a schedule of reinforcement that does not reinforce every desirable action. This process is sometimes referred to as "thinning," or an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. (d)
290. Genuineness, or congruence, is really
a. identical to concreteness.
b. selective empathy.
c. the counselor's ability to be himself or herself.
d. an archaic Freudian notion.
The counselor who is congruent is real and authentic. This is a counselor who is not playing a role and is not putting up a fa- cade. (c)
291. Empathy is
a. the ability to understand the client's world and to com- municate this to the client.
c. a and b.
d. the same as sympathy.
Robert Carkhuff is very well known for his creation of a 5-point scale intended to measure empathy, genuineness, concreteness, and respect. Many counselor educators consider empathy the most important factor in the counseling relationship. When us- ing the Carkhuff scale, a rating of 1 is the poorest and a rating of 5 is the most desirable. A rating of 3 is considered the minimum level of acceptance. Choice "d" is incorrect. Empathy is the abil- ity to experience the client's subjective world. Sympathy is com- passion. (a)
292. When something is added following an operant, it is known as a ---------------
, and when something is taken away it is called a ------------- .
a. negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
b. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
c. extinction; shaping
d. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
If you're getting sick of the word operant don't blame me, it's B.
F. Skinner's label. Any behavior which is not elicited by an obvi- ous stimulus is an operant. Most behaviors are indeed operants. Skinner differentiated operants from "respondents." A respon- dent is the consequence of a known stimulus. A dog salivating to food or the pupil in your eye enlarging when you walk into a dark room are examples of respondents. Now you know why Pavlov- ian conditioning has been called "respondent conditioning." (b)
293. After a dog is conditioned using the well-known experiment of Pavlov's, a light is paired with the bell (the CS). In a short period of time the light alone would elicit the salivation. This is called
b. token reinforcement.
d. higher order conditioning.
When a new stimulus is associated or "paired" with the CS and the new stimulus takes on the power of the CS, behaviorists refer to the phenomenon as "higher order conditioning." In this case, the light (which is a neutral stimulus) has taken on the power of the bell. Choice "b" occurs when a token (something which represents a reinforcer) is given after a desirable behavior. The token—which often just looks like a plastic coin—can be exchanged for the primary (i.e., actual) reinforcer. And here's a very helpful hint. Some exams refer to the items or activities which can be purchased with the tokens as "back-up reinforcers." (d)
294. A counselor decides to use biofeedback training to help a client raise the temperature in his right hand to ward off migraines. He would utilize
a. a temperature trainer.
b. EMG feedback.
c. EEG feedback.
d. EKG feedback.
Again, here is a question that separates the men from the boys and the women from the girls. To answer it correctly, you'd need a lucky guess or a smattering of knowledge regarding physiologi- cal alphabet soup nomenclature. The Menninger Clinic in Kan- sas discovered that a very high percentage of individuals could ward off migraine headaches via raising the temperature in their hand. The technique is simply known as biofeedback "tempera- ture training." (Yes, that's right, the most complex sounding choice is not always the correct choice!) In essence, a biofeed- back temperature trainer is just an extremely precise, high-priced thermometer. As for the wrong answers, EMG means electro- myogram and is used to measure muscle tension. A person who is tensing a given muscle group could have an EMG biofeedback device hooked directly to the problem area. The EEG or elec- troencephalogram is used to monitor brain waves. Counselors sometimes shy away from EEG feedback since other electrical devices nearby; such as an air conditioner or a fluorescent light can confound it. EEG training often focuses on the production of alpha waves, which is 8 to 12 cycles per second. An individual in an alpha state is awake but extremely relaxed. Lastly, EKG, or electrocardiogram, provides data on the heart. (a)
295. A counselor discovered that a client became nervous and often experienced panic attacks when she would tense her frontalis muscle over her eyes. The counselor wanted direct muscle feed- back and thus would rely on
a. the Jacobson relaxation method.
b. GSR feedback.
c. EMG feedback.
d. a simple yet effective mood ring.
No reason for a complex memory device here folks. Why not remember that the "M" in EMG refers to muscle? Edmund Ja- cobson (Choice "a") was a physiologist who developed a relax- ation technique in which muscle groups are alternately tensed and relaxed until the whole body is in a state of relaxation. Due to simplicity and efficacy, the Jacobson Method rapidly became the darling of the behavior therapy movement. Choice "b" is the acronym for galvanic skin response, which—although it is a method of biofeedback—provides electrical skin resistance. The role of GSR and emotion is still a bit vague and thus it is not a very popular form of biofeedback treatment. As far as choice "d" is concerned, a tad of common sense should tell you that if a $1.29 mood ring was really effective, no one would ever spend in excess of 90 bucks an hour for biofeedback training! (c)
296. According to the Premack principle, an efficient reinforcer is what the client himself or herself likes to do. Thus, in this proce- dure
a. a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher- probability behavior.
b. a higher-probability behavior is reinforced by a lower probability behavior.
c. a and b are paradoxically both effective.
d. none of the above.
For test purposes know the acronyms LPB (low-probability be- havior) and HPB (high-probability behavior). The principle as- serts that any HPB can be used as a reinforcer for any LPB. (a)
297. A counselor who wanted to teach a client to produce alpha waves for relaxation would utilize
a. EMG feedback.
b. GSR feedback.
c. EEG feedback.
d. EKG feedback.
EEG is used to secure feedback related to brain wave rhythms.
298. A reinforcement schedule gives the guidelines or rules for rein- forcement. If a reinforcer is given every time a desired response occurs, it is known as
a. an intermittent schedule.
b. an extinction schedule.
c. continuous reinforcement.
This is easy enough to remember. In continuous reinforcement you "continue" to provide the reinforcement each time the tar- get behavior occurs. Continuous reinforcement is not necessarily the most practical or the most effective. Most human behaviors are reinforced effectively via the principle of intermittent re- inforcement (choice "a"). In this format, the target behavior is reinforced only after the behavior manifests itself several times or for a given time interval. The exam you are taking may re- fer to intermittent reinforcement as "partial reinforcement," or thinning, which literally indicates that the behavior is only rein- forced a portion of the time. (c)
299. The two basic classes of intermittent reinforcement schedules are the ------ , based on the number of responses and the --------
, based on the time elapsed.
a. ratio; interval
b. interval; ratio
c. continuous; ratio
d. interval; continuous
The two basic classes of intermittent or partial reinforcement are ratio and interval. You can remember that "interval" is based on time rather than the number of responses, since in this soci- ety we use the phrase "time interval." (Note: The terms fixed and variable are often used with ratio and interval. "Fixed" implies that the reinforcement always takes place after a fixed time or number of responses, while "variable" implies that an average number of responses or times may be used.) (a)
300. The most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish is the
a. fixed ratio, for example giving a child an M&M for each five math problems she completes.
b. fixed interval, which describes the way most agency coun- selors are paid (e.g., one time per month, although the amount of work may vary from month to month).
c. variable interval.
d. variable ratio.
The memory device I use is VR, which reminds me of the vo- cational rehabilitation agency. I remember that this agency is better than an agency going by FI (fixed interval), etc. Perhaps you can think of a memory device based on something personal in your life. Just for the record, choice "b," fixed interval or FI, is the most ineffective of the bunch. (d)
301. Joseph Wolpe created systematic desensitization, a form of re- ciprocal inhibition based on counterconditioning. His strategy has been used in individual and group settings. When using his technique, the acronym SUDS stands for
a. standard units of dysfunction.
b. a given hierarchy of dysfunction.
c. subjective units of distress scale.
d. standard units of dysfunction scale.
The subjective units of distress scale, or SUDS for short, is used to help create choice "b," the anxiety hierarchy. In the SUDS, 0 is used to convey a totally relaxed state, while 100 is the most anxiety-producing state a client can imagine. The SUDS helps therapists keep the levels in the hierarchy equidistant from each other. Wolpe's systematic desensitization is a popular treatment of choice for phobias and situations which produce high anxiety. The procedure, nonetheless, is not extremely effective for cli- ents experiencing free-floating anxiety (i.e., a fear not connected to a given stimulus or situation). It is based on Pavlov's classi- cal conditioning paradigm. Special note is added for readers considering systematic desensitization for the reduction of test anxiety. Please be aware that it is not necessary or desirable to eliminate all anxiety in order to score well on your comprehensive exam. According to the "Yerkes- Dodson Law," a moderate amount of arousal actually improves performance! Thus, mild anxiety often can be a plus, since it keeps arousal at a moderate level. (High arousal is more appropriate for simple tasks rather than complex ones, such as a licensing exam.) So why bring the matter up? First, we do so to show you that a small amount of test anxiety could actually be beneficial, and second, because most major exams for psychology majors will include a question on the "Yerkes-Dodson Law." (c)
302. A stimulus which accompanies a primary reinforcer takes on re- inforcement properties of its own. This is known as
a. a primary reinforcer.
b. covert processing.
c. secondary reinforcement.
What's the most popular secondary reinforcer in the world? My guess: It is money. Money in and of itself isn't reinforcing. Can you eat it? Can you enjoy a conversation with it? Have you ever taken a five dollar bill out on a date? Money gets its power for the reinforcers you can acquire from having money. When a stimulus accompanies a reinforcer it can literally acquire reinforcement properties of its own like an actual or so-called primary rein- forcer. When this occurs it is termed as "secondary reinforce- ment." The classical example is the mother who feeds her baby while talking. Plastic tokens or gold stars that can be exchanged for an actual reinforcer (say a piece of pie or a trip to the base- ball game) are secondary reinforcers. Agencies that use tokens as a system of behavior modification are often dubbed as "token economies." In a short period of time the talking becomes a sec- ondary reinforcer and provides some degree of satisfaction for the child. Half of the battle to pass a test on behaviorism is to be familiar with the lingo, or what scholars call the "nomenclature" or naming process. Choice "b," covert, is a term which means that the behavior is not observable. In behavior therapy then, a covert process is usually a client's thought or a visualization. A "covert" behavior is roughly the opposite of an "overt" behavior, which is an observable behavior. Direct treatment of an overt behavior is called "in vivo treatment." (c)
303. A teenager in a residential facility has earned enough tokens to buy his favorite brand of candy bar. The candy bar is
a. a negative reinforcer.
b. a back-up reinforcer.
c. an average stimulus.
d. a conditioned reinforcer.
A backup reinforcer is the best answer here since by definition a backup reinforcer is an item or an activity which can be pur- chased using tokens. A strict behaviorist would assert that choice "d" is incorrect because backup reinforcers are often uncondi- tioned. (b)
304. An alcoholic is given Antabuse, which is a drug that causes nau- sea when paired with alcohol. This technique is called
a. systematic desensitization.
c. back-up reinforcement.
d. aversive conditioning.
The idea here is to pair the alcohol with an aversive, somewhat unpleasant stimulus to reduce the satisfaction of drinking it. Ethical dilemmas are common when using this technique. Some smoking clinics, for example, that used electric shock as a noxious aversive stimulus have been shut down. Imagine a client who comes to the clinic and experiences a heart attack from the treatment process! Some clients have died from Antabuse. Techniques like these are known as "in vivo aversive condition- ing" since they are not performed in the imagination. (d)
305. A counselor decides to treat a client's phobia of flying utilizing Wolpe's technique of systematic desensitization. The first step in the anxiety hierarchy items would be
a. imagining that she is calling the airlines for reservations.
b. imagining that she is boarding the plane.
c. imagining a flight in an airplane.
d. an actual flight in an airplane.
In systematic desensitization the order of the hierarchy is from least anxiety-arousing to the most anxiety-evoking items. Behav- iorists note that the ideal hierarchy has 10 to 15 evenly spaced items. Therefore, in everyday plain English, to a person who has a fear of flying, imagining a phone call to secure reservations is certainly less anxiety-producing than imagining a flight, boarding a plane, or soaring through the sky in a supersonic jet airplane.
306. A counselor utilizes role-playing combined with a hierarchy of situations in which the client is ordinarily nonassertive. Asser- tiveness trainers refer to this as
a. conscious rehearsal.
b. behavioral rehearsal.
c. fixed role therapy.
d. a and b.
The counselor in this case might also switch roles and model assertive behavior for the client. Choice "c," fixed role therapy, refers to the treatment model created by psychologist George
A. Kelly. In this approach the client is given a sketch of a person or a fixed role. He or she is instructed to read the script at least three times a day and to act, think, and verbalize like the person in the script. Kelly's approach is quite systematic and has been called the "psychology of personal constructs" after his work of the same name. (b)
307. Systematic desensitization consists of these orderly steps:
a. autogenic training, desensitization in the imagination, and construction of the hierarchy.
b. relaxation training, construction of anxiety hierarchy, in vivo desensitization, and desensitization in imagination.
c. relaxation training, desensitization in imagination, and construction of hierarchy.
d. relaxation training, construction of anxiety hierarchy, de- sensitization in imagination, and in vivo desensitization.
Several important points need to be mentioned here. The first is that your exam may refer to desensitization in imagination as "interposition." (Interposition is technically a perceptual term which implies that one item conceals or covers another. Thus, in this case, the relaxation obscures the anxiety of the imagined scene in the hierarchy.) The second point is that it is best if hier- archy items are evenly spaced using the SUDS. If items are too far apart, moving up the hierarchy could prove nearly impos- sible. On the other hand, if items are spaced too close together, then the helping process will be unusually slow, and behaviorists place a premium on rapid, efficacious treatment. Lastly, the "in vivo" stage implies that the client will actually expose himself or herself to the scary situations in the hierarchy. Experts believe that "in vivo" experiences should not begin until the client has been desensitized to 75% of the hierarchy items. (d)
308. -------------is behavioral sex therapy.
a. classical vegotherapy
b. orgone box therapy
c. conditioned reflex therapy
d. sensate focus
Sensate focus is a form of behavioral sex therapy developed by William H. Masters and Virginia Johnson of St. Louis, Missouri. Like Joseph Wolpe's systematic desensitization, this approach relies on counterconditioning. A couple is told to engage in touching and caressing (to lower anxiety levels) on a graduated basis until intercourse is possible. Choices "a" and "b" illuminate the work of Wilhelm Reich, who felt that repeated sexual gratifi- cation was necessary for the cure of emotional maladies. Reich's orgone box was a device the client would sit in to increase or- gone life energy. Ultimately the FDA outlawed the orgone boxes and Reich died in jail. Today scholars are still arguing whether Reich was a madman or a genius. Conditioned reflex therapy (choice "c"), created by Andrew Salter, set the stage for modern assertiveness training. Some call Salter, who hated the psycho- analytic model, the father of behavior therapy. (d)
309. A counselor has an obese client imagine that he is terribly sick after eating a high-caloric, high-fat meal. The client then imagines a pleasant scene in which his eating is desirable. This tech- nique is called
a. behavioral rehearsal.
b. in vivo sensitization.
c. covert sensitization.
d. in vivo desensitization.
Even if you did not know what any of the choices meant you could still get the question correct! Yes really! You could simply remember that the only answer that mentions the imagination is the one with the word covert. This would constitute an educated guess. Keep in mind when answering behavior therapy questions that the word desensitization means to make one less sensitive while the word sensitization implies that one is made more sen- sitive to a stimulus. A counselor who tells an alcoholic to imagine that a drink nauseates him would be relying on "covert sensiti- zation." The client is then instructed to imagine a relief scene such as an enjoyable feeling when the alcohol is removed and replaced with a glass of water. Giving a client Antabuse (men- tioned in earlier questions) could be used for "in vivo sensitiza- tion." (c)
310. One distinction between flooding (also known as "deliberate ex- posure with response prevention" in recent literature) and im- plosive therapy is that
a. implosive therapy is always conducted in the imagina- tion.
b. flooding is always conducted in the imagination.
c. flooding is always safer.
d. implosive therapy is physically more dangerous.
Here's a superb memory device: implosive therapy begins with an "i" and so does the word imagination. Implosive therapy (the brainchild of T. G. Stampfl) is always conducted using the imagination and sometimes relies on psychoanalytic symbol- ism. Flooding, which is similar, usually occurs when the client is genuinely exposed to the feared stimulus. Flooding is also called "deliberate exposure with response prevention." Here is how flooding works. Take a man who is afraid of snakes because he feels they will bite him. Using flooding, the client would be exposed to the snake for nearly an hour without the dreaded snake bite. Research has demonstrated that in vivo procedures like flooding are extremely effective in cases of agoraphobia (a fear of open places) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Flooding and implosive therapy do not necessarily utilize relax- ation nor do they introduce the fearful stimuli gradually. Both techniques assume that avoiding the fear serves to intensify it and that anticipation of catastrophe (e.g., physical pain or loss of control) initially caused the symptom in question. Caution: flooding and implosive therapy do not work in every case. Cases have been cited in which the prolonged exposure to the feared stimuli actually tended to exacerbate the anxiety! (a)
311. Behavior therapists often shy away from punishment because
a. ACA ethics forbid the use of this technique.
b. NBCC ethics prohibit the use of operant conditioning.
c. extinction works more quickly.
d. the effects of punishment are usually temporary and it teaches aggression.
The great behavior modifier B. F. Skinner did not believe pun- ishment was very effective. He felt that after the punishment was administered the behavior would manifest itself once again. Positive measures are seen as more effective than punishment. If punishment is used, remember that it does not cause the per- son (or other animal for that matter) to unlearn the behavior, and it should be used along with positive reinforcing measures.(d)
312. A neophyte counselor discovers that her clients invariably give yes and no answers to her questions. The problem is most likely that
a. the counselor is sympathetic rather than empathetic.
b. the counselor is utilizing too many closed-ended ques- tions.
c. the counselor's timing is poor in terms of interpretation.
d. she is summarizing too early in the counseling process.
A closed-ended question can be answered with "yes" or "no." If a counselor asks, "Is your depression lifting?" the client can easily respond with a "yes" or a "no." Counselors prefer open-ended questions, which produce more information. If the aforemen- tioned counselor wanted to rephrase the question in an open- ended manner, she could ask, "Can you tell me about the things in your life you find so depressing?" (b)
313. A client remarks that he was just dumped by his girl friend. The counselor responds, "Oh, you poor dear. It must be terrible!
How can you go on living?" This is an example of
b. accurate empathy.
This is sympathy, not to mention some of the most horrendous therapy one could imagine! Sympathy often implies pity, while accurate empathy is the ability to experience another person's subjective experience. Just for the record EMDR, choice "a," stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, a technique created by Francine Shapiro to deal with traumatic memories. In the spring of 1987 Shapiro—then a graduate psy- chology student—accidentally noticed that disturbing memories began to abate when she was moving her eyes back and forth while strolling through the park. She then tested her theory on other clients having them follow her finger to induce the eye movements. Prior to Wolpe's death he noted that this model could be beneficial. However, as of this date, it is not extremely popular with most therapists. (d)
314. A neophyte counselor is afraid he will say the wrong thing. He thus keeps repeating the client's statements verbatim when he responds. This is known as
a. desirable attending behavior.
b. parroting and is not recommended.
c. level 3 on the empathy scale.
d. paradoxical intention.
In the movie Final Analysis Richard Gere takes a young woman to dinner and explains how easy it is to be a therapist. You sim- ply listen to the client, he basically explains to his dinner com- panion, and then you repeat their final words. Sorry, Rich, but the tinsel town version could be a tad oversimplified. The client doesn't really need to pay big bucks for this type of help; parrot- ing can be accomplished simply by talking into a digital recorder. If you parrot a client, the client's response may be something like, "Yes, I just said that!" Parroting can cause the client to feel angry and uneasy. In the counseling profession, the term attend- ing (choice "a") refers to behaviors on the part of the counselor which indicate that he or she is truly engaged in active listening skills. Examples would be good eye contact or the old standby "umhum." Choice "c" is another must-know concept for nearly any major counseling test. Robert R. Carkhuff suggests a "scale for measurement" in regard to "empathic understanding in in- terpersonal processes." In a nutshell it reads like this: Level 1— Not attending or detracting significantly from the client's verbal and behavioral expressions. Level 2—Subtracts noticeable affect from the communication. Level 3—Feelings expressed by the client are basically interchangeable with the client's mean- ing and affect. Level 4—Counselor adds noticeably to the cli- ent s affect. Level 5—Counselor adds significantly to the client's feeling, meaning even in the client's deepest moments. If all of this sounds like a foreign language because you've never heard it before, you can now remove the cotton you placed in your ears during your graduate days, or better still, pick up a copy of Carkhuff s 1969 book Helping and Human Relations. (b)
315. Viktor Frankl is the Father of logotherapy, which is based on existentialism. Logotherapy means
a. healing through meaning.
b. healing through the unconscious.
c. logic cures.
d. all of the above.
Frankl also has been thought of as the Father of paradoxical intention. Paradoxical intention is implemented by advising the client to purposely exaggerate a dysfunctional behavior in the imagination. You might find it a bit paradoxical (no pun intend- ed) that a technique which comes from logotherapy—which is clearly a brand of helping based on existential philosophy—is now generally categorized as a behavioristic technique. Recent- ly, counselors have gone beyond the paradoxical imagination and actually prescribe that the client engage in the dysfunctional be- havior. (For example, a person with OCD or obsessive-compul- sive disorder might be instructed to wash his or her hands 51 times per day instead of the usual 45 times.) (a)
316. All of these philosophers are existentialists except
a. Plato and Epictetus.
b. Sartre, Buber, Binswanger, and Boss.
c. Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Tillich.
d. Heidegger, Dostoevsky, and Jaspers.
Existentialism is considered a humanistic form of helping in which the counselor helps the client discover meaning in his or her life by doing a deed (e.g., an accomplishment), experiencing a value (e.g., love), or suffering (e.g., Frankl discovered that even being held hostage in a concentration camp could not take away his dignity). Existential counseling rejects analy- sis and behaviorism for being deterministic and reductionistic. The existential viewpoint developed as a reaction to the analytic and behavioral schools and stresses growth and self-actualization. Frankl stressed that individuals have choices in their lives and one cannot blame others or childhood circumstances for a lack of fulfillment. The name Epictetus (in choice "a") is often quoted in regard to rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), created by New York clinical psychologist Albert Ellis. In the first century A.D., the Stoic philosopher Epictetus said, "Men are disturbed not by things, but of the view which they take of them." This statement captures the major premise of REBT. Important exam hint: REBT was formerly known as rational- emotive therapy (RET). The exam you are taking may not be up- dated and thus could indeed still be calling this approach RET.
317. Although behavior therapy purports to be highly scientific, it has been criticized on the grounds that it is reductionistic, sim- plistic, and does not deal with underlying causes. Existential therapy, on the other hand, has been criticized for
a. being too short-term.
b. overemphasizing techniques.
c. ignoring group strategies.
d. being too vague regarding techniques and procedures.
Existential counseling is more of a philosophy of helping than a grab bag of specific intervention strategies. Critics charge that it is not a systematic approach to treatment. The behaviorists assert that it is abstract and not scientific. The approach rejects traditional diagnosis and assessment procedures. (d)
318. Existentialists focus primarily on
a. the teenage years.
b. the client's perception in the here-and-now.
c. childhood traumas.
d. uplifting childhood memories.
The focus is on what the person can ultimately become. The present and even the future are emphasized. The key to change is seen as self-determination. (b)
319. Existential counselors as well as Rogerian Person-Centered counselors adhere to what Buber called the I-Thou relationship, which asserts that
a. the counselor is seen as a highly trained expert with an- swers.
b. the relationship is vertical.
c. the relationship is horizontal.
d. empathy is not necessary.
A horizontal relationship (e.g., I-Thou) assumes equality be- tween persons. In a vertical relationship the counselor is viewed as an expert. Choice "d" is incorrect, as the existentialists stress nonthreatening empathy as necessary for successful therapy. (c)
320. Frankl is an existentialist. So are
a. Ellis and Perls.
b. Perls and Stampfl.
c. Yalom and May.
d. Janov and Beck.
Rollo May introduced existential therapy in the United States. Irvin Yalom, another existentialist, is noted for his work in group therapy. In his book, Love's Executioner, he reveals his ap- proach to treatment with some of his most intriguing clients. Other names that appear in the answer choices to this question include: Fritz Perls, the Father of gestalt therapy; Albert Ellis, who pioneered REBT; Arthur Janov, noted for his primal scream therapy; and Aaron T. Beck, whose cognitive therapy resembles REBT; if the name Stampfl doesn't ring a bell, review question
321. Existentialists speak of three worlds, the Umwelt or the world, the Mitwelt or the world, and the Eigenwelt or the world.
a. unconscious; preconscious; conscious
b. id; ego; superego
c. self-identity; relationship; physical
d. physical; relationship; identity
Try this if you are searching for a memory device. Mitwelt has the prefix "mi," which sounds like "my" as in "my wife" or "my brother" or "my son"; the "my" shows possessiveness indica- tive of a "relationship." Eigenwelt sounds suspiciously like the word identity. By a process of elimination you would not need a memory device for the remaining term Umwelt (the physical and biological system). (d)
322. Frankl's experience in Nazi concentration camps taught him
a. the value of S-R psychological paradigms.
b. that you can't control the environment, but you can con- trol your response.
c. that blaming others can be truly therapeutic.
d. how to blame the environment for our difficulties.
From 1942 to 1945 Frankl was a prisoner in German concen- tration camps, including Auschwitz and Dachau. Several of his relatives died in the camps. Frankl felt, nonetheless, that suffer- ing would be transformed into achievement and creativity. (b)
323. Existential counselors emphasize the clients'
a. free choice, decision, and will.
c. slips of tongue.
d. latent dream symbolism.
Logotherapists often use the term noogenic neurosis, which is the frustration of the will to meaning. The counselor assists the client to find meaning in life so the client can write his or her own life story by making meaningful choices. When exploring the meaning of life some anxiety is normal. Moreover, death is not seen as an evil concept but rather an entity which gives meaning to the process of life. (a)
324. Existential theorists speak of phenomenology, which refers to the client's internal personal experience of events, and ontology, which is
a. mental visualization for the treatment of cancer.
b. the impact of cancer on emotions.
c. a cancerous growth in the brain.
d. the philosophy of being and existing.
The metaphysical study of life experience is called ontology. Please do not confuse this with "oncology" (hinted at in choice "c"), which is the medical study of tumors. (d)
325. Viktor Frankl is to logotherapy as William Glasser is to
a. rational therapy.
b. reality therapy.
c. rational-emotive imagery.
Frankl is the father of logotherapy; Glasser is the Father of reality therapy. Rational imagery, choice "c," is a technique used by rational-emotive behavior therapists in which the client is to imagine that he or she is in a situation which has traditionally caused emotional disturbance. The client then imagines changing the feelings via rational, logical, scientific thought. Choice "d" refers to rational behavior therapy (some exams call it rational self-counseling), created by psychiatrist Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., who studied with Albert Ellis. This approach relies on REBT; however, the client performs a written self-analysis. Maultsby claims the technique is well-suited to problems of substance abuse, and it is highly recommended as a method of multicultural counseling. (b)
326. Reality therapy has incorporated
a. control theory, later referred to as choice theory.
b. rational imagery.
c. TA principles.
Reality therapy exam questions often use the abbreviation BCP, which means that perception controls our behavior. Choice theory asserts than the only person whose behavior we can control is our own. According to control/choice theory, our behavior is our best attempt to control our world to satisfy our wants and needs. The final choice, rolfing, is not a traditional form of talk therapy but rather a type of deep muscle massage which is assumed to have an impact on the person's emotional state. Hint: Exams should be using the new term choice theory. Neverthe- less, some might still be using the old term control theory. (a)
327. All of these statements regarding reality therapy are true except
a. the client's childhood is explored.
b. excuses are not accepted.
c. the unconscious is avoided.
d. therapy is concerned primarily with the here-and-now.
According to choice theory the person's childhood may have contributed to the problem. However, the past is never really the problem. The client's childhood is usually not explored, and if the client brings it up, the reality therapist will often try to emphasize childhood successes, feeling that an analysis of the difficulties could actually reinforce maladaptive patterns. Reality therapy is a present moment form of counseling which focuses on the here-and-now. According to a strict behaviorist, the envi- ronment controls behavior. According to Glasser, the individual controls the environment. (a)
328. A counselor who repeats what a client has stated in the counselor's own words is using
Communications experts agree that paraphrasing has taken place when a client's thoughts and feelings are restated in the counselor's own words. Contracting (choice "a") with a client in a verbal or written manner is a technique favored by behavior therapists. In reality therapy, a plan is created to help the client master his or her target behaviors. (c)
329. Most experts would agree that ----- is most threatening for clients as well as counselors.
a. paraphrasing by the counselor
b. open-ended questions
c. role rehearsal
Veteran counselors believe that some of the most valuable ver- balizations occur after a period of silence. Silence gives the cli- ent time to assimilate the counseling process and is helpful in nondirective therapies because it coaxes the client to direct the session. (d)
330. When the past is discussed in reality therapy, the focus is on
b. irrational internal verbalizations.
c. transference issues.
d. successful behaviors.
Glasser believes that dwelling on past failures can reinforce a negative self-concept, or what reality therapists have termed the "failure identity." (d)
331. Glasser's position on mental illness is that
a. it is best explained by DSM guidelines.
b. diagnostic labels give clients permission to act sick or ir- responsible.
c. it is best explained by ICD categories.
d. it is the result of a deep internal conflict.
Reality therapy has little use for the formal diagnostic process, or what is known in clinical circles as "nosology." The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM) and the International Classification of Disease (ICD) provide the guidelines for diagnosis of clients. Glasser rejected this traditional medical model of disease. (b)
332. The relationship that the therapist has with the client in reality therapy is
a. detached but very empathic.
b. like that of a warm caring mother.
c. like that of a friend who asks what is wrong.
d. friendly, nevertheless punishment is used when it is appropriate.
Unlike the detached psychoanalyst, the reality therapist literally makes friends with the client. This is the first of eight steps uti- lized in this model. Step 7 is refusing to use punishment, making choice "d" a no go here. (c)
333. Glasser's theory was popularized in educational circles after he wrote
a. Choice Theory.
b. The Interpretation of Dreams.
c. Positive Addiction.
d. Schools Without Failure.
Glasser also authored choices "a" and "c" as well as his original 1965 classic, Reality Therapy, and an update of the theory in his 2000 book Reality Therapy in Action. Choice "b" has nothing to do with reality therapy but generally is quoted as Freud's most influential work, often dubbed as "the Bible of Psychoanalysis."
334. Glasser suggested eight steps in the reality therapy process. The final step asserts
a. that the client and counselor be persistent and never give up.
b. that some problems will not respond to any known plan of action.
c. that counselors should contract with the client for no more than five counseling sessions.
d. that a client who does not respond to the first seven steps is most likely a borderline personality.
Even when the client wants to give up, the therapist does not. Glasser's theory has been criticized on the basis that it is too sim- plistic. Unlike most of the other schools of thought discussed in this guide, Reality therapy has not been included in some texts and dictionaries of psychology. (a)
335. According to Glasser, a positive addiction might be
c. playing the office football pool.
d. playing professional football.
Negative addictions like alcoholism and drug abuse are often mentioned in mental health literature. Glasser stressed that people can be addicted to positive behaviors and this helps to instill self-confidence. A positive addiction must be a noncompetitive activity which can be performed alone for about one hour each day. Moreover, the person can see that performing the activity will lead to personal improvement. Lastly, the person needs to be capable of performing the activity without becoming self- critical. (a)
336. When a counselor reviews what has transpired in past counseling sessions he or she is using
When a counselor summarizes, he or she is bringing together a number of ideas. This summarization also could deal strictly with the material in a single session of counseling. Summariza- tion constitutes a "synthesis" regarding the general tone or feel- ing of the helping process. Ivey recommends summarization at two or three points during each session and at the close of the session. Summarization is really the ability to condense the ma- terial to capture the essence of the therapeutic exchange. (c)
337. Glasser felt the responsible person will have a identity.
The individual who possesses a success identity feels worthy and significant to others. Identity is a person's most important psy- chological need. A person who is irresponsible, and thus frus- trated in an attempt to feel loved and worthwhile, will develop a failure identity and a faulty perception of reality. The client is encouraged to assume responsibility for his or her own happi- ness (i.e., by learning to fulfill personal needs without depriving others of their need fulfillment). (b)
338. William Glasser, M.D., is to reality therapy as Albert Ellis, Ph.D., is to
a. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT).
b. Transactional analysis (TA).
c. Assertiveness training (AT).
d. Gestalt therapy.
Analytically trained New York clinical psychologist Ellis is the Father of REBT, which assumes that the client's emotional dis- turbance is the result of irrational thoughts and ideas. The cure is a high dose of rational thinking. (a)
339. In Albert Ellis's rational-emotive behavior therapy, the client is taught to change cognitions, also known as
b. internal verbalizations.
d. a and b.
The credo here is a simple one: Talk sense to yourself. When you change your thinking you can change your life. (d)
340. The philosopher most closely related to REBT would be
b. Epictetus, a stoic philosopher who suggested we feel the way we think.
Epictetus said: "People are disturbed not by things, but by the views they take of them." In addition to Epictetus, Ellis also men- tioned Alfred Korzybski, the founder of general semantics, and Karen Horney, who first recognized the "tyranny of the shoulds" when reflecting on the creation of Ellis's REBT theory. Ellis was quick to quote a statement from Hamlet: "There's nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so." Buber and Jaspers are associated with existential therapy, while Locke's work closely resembled what later came to be known as behaviorism. (b)
341. REBT suggests the ABC theory of personality in which A is the___________, B is the _________, and C is the____ .
a. affect; belief; control
b. activating event; belief system; emotional consequence
c. affect; behavior; control
d. authenticity; belief; emotional consequence
What constitutes an irrational and unhealthy "belief system?" Ex-analyst Albert Ellis (please emphasize ex inasmuch as Ellis felt that psychoanalysis was slow and often very ineffective) gave these examples of irrational thinking: it is absolutely necessary to be loved or approved of by every significant person in your life; you must be thoroughly competent in all areas of your life to consider yourself worthwhile; some people are bad and wick- ed and thus should be punished for their actions; it is awful or catastrophic when things are not the way you want them to be; unhappiness is caused externally by other things and people; an individual's past determines his or her happiness; it is terrible if a perfect solution to every problem cannot be found; and, you need someone stronger than yourself to lean on. (b)
342. The ABC theory of personality postulates that the intervention that occurs at D, leads to E, .
a. the dogmatic attitude; effective behavior
b. direct living; evaluation
c. disputing the irrational behavior at B; a new emotional consequence
d. the emotional disease; a new emotional consequence
Some of the literature by Ellis refers to E as "an effective new philosophy of life." The theory, then, is that you create your own present emotional and behavioral difficulties. And talk about optimistic: Ellis believes that no matter how bad life seems, you always—that's right, always—have the power to ameliorate in- tense feelings of despair, anxiety, and hostility. (c)
343. A counselor instructs her client to read A Guide to Rational Liv- ing by Albert Ellis and Robert Harper. This is an example of
Bibliotherapy is the use of books or writings pertaining to self- improvement. A Guide to Rational Living, affectionately known as "the Guide", is Ellis's best known work. The title of his 1988 work, How to Stubbornly Refuse to Make Yourself Miserable about Anything—Yes, Anything! captures the essence of his theory. To state that Ellis is a prolific writer would be to put it mildly. He has published over 500 papers and written about 50 books! Choice "c" uses the term musturbation, coined by Ellis. Musturbation occurs when a client uses too many shoulds, oughts, and musts in his or her thinking. Some exams may refer to this as "absolutist thinking." (a)
344. Shoulds and oughts are according to Ellis.
When a preference becomes a dogmatic must or a should, then you can bet that the client is in for a case of emotional disturbance. Choice "c" is a word commonly used in REBT. Awfulizing or catastrophizing is the act of telling yourself how difficult, terrible, and horrendous a given situation really is. And by the way, if you marked choice "b" you better sign up for a sex ed course. Ellis, also known for his work in sexology, humorously insists that musturbation is more pernicious than masturbation.
345. A client says, "I lost my job and it's the most terrible thing in the world." This client is engaging in
a. rational self-talk.
b. self-induced empathy.
c. cognitive restructuring.
d. awfulizing and terriblizing, also known as catastrophiz- ing.
Choice "d" would occur at point B, the belief system, in the ABC model of personality. Choice "c," cognitive restructuring, usu- ally refers to Donald Meichenbaum's approach, which is simi- lar to REBT. Restructuring takes place when the client begins thinking in a healthy new way using different internal dialogue. Choice "a" is the most inappropriate answer since Ellis consid- ers awfulizing or terriblizing "irrational" unhealthy behavior. (d)
346. Bibliotherapy is a form of
a. psychodynamic intervention.
Yes, homework. I'm sure the word rings a bell if you think back to graduate school. In the context of counseling, homework takes place whenever the counselor gives the client an assign- ment which is to be done outside the counseling session. Bib- liotherapy is a prime example. Therapies that basically "teach" the client (e.g., REBT) are known as "didactic" models of treat- ment. (b)
347. Ellis feels that is at the core of emotional disturbance.
a. a trauma before age 5
b. a current traumatic activating event
c. irrational thinking at point B
d. repression of key feelings
Choice "a" is really somewhat humorous in light of the fact that Ellis noted that at a very early age he decided his mother wasn't eligible for any prizes of mental health. While a more analyti- cally inclined therapist might have viewed Ellis's childhood as traumatic, Ellis merely told himself that his mother was a fallible human being and he did not have to be disturbed by her behav- ior. Ellis believes you can be happy even if you are the survivor of numerous childhood traumas. For test purposes please keep in mind that Ellis, Glasser, and the behaviorists put little stock in the notion of transference. (c)
348. Therapeutic cognitive restructuring really refers to
a. refuting irrational ideas and replacing them with rational ones.
b. keeping a journal of irrational thoughts.
c. allowing the client to purge feelings.
d. uncovering relevant unconscious material.
This is the process of changing your thoughts ergo your feelings via self-talk, or what Ellis often called internal verbalizations. REBT clients often receive emotional control cards from their therapist that delineate irrational ideas and what one can think rationally to combat these unhealthy thoughts. The act of chang- ing the client's mode of thinking is sometimes called cognitive disputation. REBT therapists also use imaginal disputation (i.e., imagery to help with the process) and urge clients to behave in different patterns (i.e., behavioral disputation). (a)
349. Ellis most likely would not be impressed with a behaviorist's new animal study related to the psychotherapeutic process since
a. he does not believe in the scientific method.
b. the study would not take transference into account.
c. Ellis thoroughly dislikes hypothesis testing.
d. only man thinks in declarations (internal sentences that can cause or ward off emotional discord).
As far as choice "a" is concerned it is incorrect inasmuch as Ellis firmly believed that his theory promotes scientific thinking, and lower animals may be incapable of such thought. Ellis described what he called the ABC theory of personality. At point A, there is an activating event; at point B, the person's belief system; and at point C, the emotional consequence. According to Ellis, most therapies can be faulted for not emphasizing irrational beliefs at point B. Such theories wrongly assert that A causes C. (d)
350. Internal verbalizations are to REBT as are to Glasser's Choice Theory.
b. pictures in your mind
c. lack of punishment
d. a therapeutic plan
A matter of semantics? Perhaps. Glasser insists that behavior is internally motivated and we choose our actions. (b)
351. Albert Ellis is to REBT as Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., is to
d. S-R research.
Maultsby is the Father of rational-behavior therapy, which is sim- ilar to REBT but emphasizes a written self-analysis. Maultsby's technique is said to work well for multicultural counseling and group therapy. In group work the counselor has a didactic or a teaching role in which participants are taught to apply the tech- niques to their own lives. The leader encourages equal group participation for all members and gives reading assignments (i.e., bibliotherapy) between the sessions. All in all, the leader is high- ly directive and uses RBT as a model for self-help. Like REBT, RBT utilizes rational-emotive imagery on a regular basis. Choice "d" describes an old abbreviation of stimulus-response behavioral psychology. REBT and RBT are not fond of this model be- cause it asserts that a stimulus (or what Ellis has basically termed an activating event at point A) causes a response (or what Ellis calls the consequence at point C). The S-R model, according to Ellis, is guilty of leaving out B, the client's belief system. Thus, although Ellis might concede that the S-R paradigm explains rat behavior, it is inadequate when applied to human beings. The S-R model also has been called the "applied behavior analysis" or "radical behaviorism" by B. F. Skinner. Radical behaviorism makes the assumption that the environment maintains and sup- ports behavior and that only overt behaviors are the subject of treatment. The treatment? You guessed it—Skinnerian operant conditioning, of course. (a)
352. Aaron T. Beck, an ex-psychoanalytic therapist who created the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), developed an approach known as cognitive therapy. Although cognitive therapy is similar to REBT, Beck insisted that
a. dysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad though not necessarily irrational.
b. the Oedipus complex is central to the treatment process.
c. cognitive therapy is contraindicated in cases of phobia.
d. cognitive therapy is contraindicated in cases of anxiety.
Choices "c" and "d" are incorrect. Beck's contention was that depression is the result of a cognitive triad of negative beliefs re- garding oneself, one's future, and one's experience. Beck's model has indeed been shown to be applicable in cases of phobia and anxiety. Since Beck disliked the term irrational ideas, he em- phasized "rules" or "formulas of living" which cause unhappi- ness, and he suggested new rules which the client can test. His daughter Judy Beck is now helping to popularize this approach. Note: Some exams use the word metacognition to describe an individual's tendency to be aware of his or her own cognitions or cognitive abilities. (a)
353. The cognitive therapist most closely associated with the concept of stress inoculation is
a. Albert Ellis.
b. Donald Meichenbaum.
c. Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr.
d. Aaron T. Beck.
Meichenbaum's approach is called "Self-Instructional Therapy." Implementation of his so-called stress-inoculation technique has three basic phases. First the client is involved in an "educational phase." Here the client is taught to monitor the impact of inner dialogue on behavior. Next clients are taught to rehearse new self-talk. This is the "rehearsal phase." Finally, the "application phase" is where new inner dialogue is attempted during actual stress-producing situations. Counselor educators often classify approaches which dwell on cognition, while emphasizing behav- ioral strategies for change (e.g., REBT, RBT, self-instructional therapy) as "cognitive-behavioral approaches" to helping. (b)
354. Eric Berne created transactional analysis (TA). The model was popularized via his books Games People Play and What Do You Say After You Say Hello? TA therapists are most likely to incorporate in the treatment process.
a. Meichenbaum's self-instructional therapy
b. reality therapy
c. gestalt therapy
Choice "c," the correct answer, may seem to make about as much sense as trying to mix water and oil since TA, from a pure standpoint of classification, is a cognitive approach, while gestalt is experiential. The well-known counselor educator Gerald Co- rey suggested that this marriage made in therapeutic heaven was actually positive inasmuch as gestalt therapy emphasized the af- fective exploration that was missing from TA, which was too in- tellectual. In other words, one emphasized what was missing in the other. (c)
355. Berne suggested three ego states: the Parent, the Adult, and the Child (P-A-C). The Parent ego state is composed of values inter- nalized from significant others in childhood. TA therapists speak of two functions in the Parent ego state, the .
a. Nurturing Parent and the Critical Parent
b. Critical Parent and the Repressed Parent
c. Reactive Parent and the Active Parent
d. Passive Parent and the Active Parent
The Parent ego state is the synthesis of the messages received from parental figures and significant others, incorporated into the personality. Also known as the "exteropsyche," it bears a very strong resemblance to Freud's superego. When a counselor analyzes out of which ego state a client is primarily operating, it is known as "structural analysis." When a counselor analyzes an ego state within an ego state (e.g., the Critical Parent or the Nurturing parent) it is known as "second order structural analysis." A statement like, "Get some rest honey, you've been studying the NCE material for a long time and you deserve the rest," is an example of the Nurturing Parent. The Nurturing parent is sympathetic, caring, and protective. The critical parent, on the other hand, might remark, "You should get off your duff and study that NCE material; how in the heck do you plan on passing?" The Critical Parent is the master of the shoulds, oughts, and musts. On occasion, you will see the parent broken down into another part, the Prejudicial Parent. The Prejudicial Parent is opinionated with biases not based on fact. "Women should always wear dresses to work," or "a real man enlists in the marines," would be examples. The death or absence of a parent can result in what TA counselors call an "Incomplete Parent state." (a)
356. The Adult ego state
a. contains the "shoulds" and "oughts."
b. is the seat of feelings.
c. is like Freud's superego.
d. processes facts and does not focus on feelings.
The Adult corresponds to Freud's ego. It is also known as the "neopsyche." It is rational, logical, and does not focus on feelings. Choices "a" and "c" describe the Parent ego state. (d)
357. The Child ego state is like the little kid within. The child may manifest itself as
a. the Natural Child.
b. the Adapted Child.
c. the Little Professor.
d. all of the above.
The Child state, sometimes called the "archaeopsyche," re- sembles Freud's id. The Natural Child is what the person would be naturally: spontaneous, impulsive, and untrained. The little professor is creative and intuitive. The Little Professor acts on hunches, often without the necessary information. The adapted child learns how to comply to avoid a parental slap on the hand. Messages we receive from parents to form the ego states are called "injunctions" and cause us to make certain early life deci- sions. Hence, if an early message was, "I wish you would have never been born," then the decision might be, "If my life gets very stressful, I'll just kill myself." Hint: Describing the client using the P-A-C conceptualization is known as "structural analy- sis." (d)
358. TA is a cognitive model of therapy which asserts that healthy communication transactions
a. occur where vectors of communication run parallel.
b. are known as crossed transactions.
c. are always between the Child and Adult ego states.
d. are always empathic.
Choice "a" is a "complementary" transaction in which you get an appropriate, predicted response. The "crossed transaction" (note choice "b") would occur when vectors from a message sent and a message received do not run parallel. (For example, I send a message from my Adult to your Adult and you respond from your Adult to my Child.) Crossed transactions result in a dead- lock of communication or a host of hurtful feelings. This principle probably won't be difficult to remember. We generally say it is not a good thing when individuals work at "cross" purposes. In TA a "crossed transaction" is not conducive to healthy communication. Note: See "Graphical Representations" (chapter 13). TA therapists often use diagrams or pictorial representations in the treatment process. (a)
359. TA life positions were made famous by Tom Harris's book, I'm OK—You're OK. The title of the book illuminates a healthy life position. The life position tells the counselor how a person goes about receiving strokes or recognition. A person categorized by the position "I'm OK—You're Not OK";
a. is generally self-abusive.
b. blames others for misery.
c. generally engages in self-mutilation.
d. is generally suicidal.
Tom Harris suggested four basic life positions. Choices "a," "c," and "d" are indicative of the "I'm Not OK—You're OK" position. A self-abusive person is sometimes known as a "masochistic per- sonality" in the literature. In an extreme case this position would lead the person to suicide. According to Harris the "I'm OK— You're OK" orientation is what successful winners choose. The "I'm OK—You're Not OK" is the position taken by adolescent delinquents and adult criminals. Such persons feel victimized and are often paranoid. In extreme cases this person may see homicidal behavior as an acceptable solution to life's problems. The "I'm Not OK—You're Not OK" is the most pessimistic po- sition. This position could result in schizoid behavior and, in a worst case scenario, the tendency to kill someone else and then take one's own life. (b)
360. A man yells at his wife and then slaps her, stating that she does nothing around the house. The woman begins crying and he puts his arm around her to comfort her. He then begins crying and says that he doesn't know how he can continue doing all the housework because it is too difficult. A TA therapist who ana- lyzes the situation using Karpman's triangle would say
a. the man is stuck in the "I'm Not OK—You're Not OK" life position.
b. the Critical Parent is dominating.
c. the man is obviously an adult child of an alcoholic.
d. the man has moved from the persecutor, to the rescuer, to the victim role.
Karpman suggested that only three roles are necessary for ma- nipulative drama: persecutor, rescuer, and victim. A drama is similar to a TA "game," yet it has a greater number of events and the person switches roles during the course of the interaction. In TA, a game is a transaction with a concealed motive. Games prevent honest intimate discussion, and one player is always left with negative feelings. Games have a predictable outcome as a result of ulterior transactions. An ulterior transaction occurs when a disguised message is sent. Hint: The act of looking at the consequences of games is known as "game analysis." (d)
361. A TA counselor and a strict behaviorist are both in the same case conference to staff a client. Which technique would the two most likely agree on when formulating a plan of action?
a. the empty chair technique.
b. an ego state analysis.
d. formal assertiveness training.
Using choice "a," the empty chair technique, the person imag- ines that another individual is in a chair in front of him or her, and then the client talks to the person. The technique is popular in TA as well as in the gestalt model. Contracting, nevertheless, is the only technique listed that is used readily by TA and behav- ior therapists. (c)
362. A game is composed of transactions which end in a bad feeling for at least one player. Games are said to prevent true intimacy. Which other statement is true of games?
a. In a first-degree game someone gets seriously hurt.
b. In a first-degree game the harm is minimal, but the level of harm is quite serious in a third-degree game.
c. For a game to occur, three people must be involved.
d. Games always involve parallel vectors of communication.
It is easy to remember that the higher the number the greater the hurt. For example, a second-degree game is more hurtful than a first-degree. In the first-degree game the hurt is innocuous; in the second-degree game the hurt is more serious; while in third-degree games the hurt can be permanent or on occasion deadly. And, oh yes, as far as choice "d" is concerned: Some exams will refer to parallel vectors of communication as "complementary transactions." (b)
363. Unpleasant feelings after a person creates a game are called
b. life scripts.
c. the little professor.
d. an analysis of variance.
When a client manipulates others to experience a childhood feeling, the result is called a "racket." (Note: in TA the experience of trying to secure these feelings is known as "collecting trading stamps.") Choice "b," or the life script, is a person's ongoing drama which dictates how a person will live his or her life. Claude Steiner has written extensively on scripts. His book, Scripts People Live, suggests three basic unhealthy scripts: no love, no mind, and no joy. It is like a theatrical plot based on early parental messages (often called injunctions in TA). Choice "d," abbreviated ANOVA, is a statistical technique used to deter- mine differences between two or more means. Hold your horses, we'll get to statistics soon enough. Does domestic violence have a script? Well, I guess the answer is kind of, sort of. According to Dr. Leonore Walker, who researched women in abusive relationships, there is a cycle of violence with three phases. First, there is a tension building phase where arguments erupt very easily. Many women have dubbed this as the "walking on eggshells phase." Then there is the battering or acute incident phase where the actual fight or abuse sexual abuse, or worse yet homicide occurs. Finally, there is a makeup phase often referred to as the honeymoon phase characterized by romantic moonlight dinners, the "I'll never do it again" lines, and the deliveries from the local flower shops. As time goes by the couple goes through the phases more rapidly and the honeymoon phase may not even exist. (a)
364. A life script is actually
a. an ulterior transaction.
b. an ego state.
c. a life drama or plot.
d. a series of parallel transactions.
The process of ferreting out the client's script is called "script analysis." Some popular life script categories include: the never scripts, or a person who never feels he or she will succeed; the always scripts, of individuals who will always remain a given way; after scripts, that result in a way a person believes he or she will behave after a certain event occurs; open ended scripts, in which the person has no direction or plan; until scripts, in which the client is not allowed to feel good until a certain accomplish- ment or event arrives; and desirable scripts/less desirable scripts. Steiner, mentioned in the previous answer, analyzes the script of TA pioneer Eric Berne in his book! Ulterior transactions (choice "a") contain hidden transactions as two or more ego states are operating at the same time. For example, a man may say to a woman, "Would you like a ride in my new car?" She says. "Yes, I'd love to." This seems like a healthy (i.e., parallel) trans- action from his Adult to her Adult ego state, and she responds in the same manner. He may, however, have a secret, covert, ulterior message if he is a game player. The ulterior message which goes from his Child to hers could be, "Wanna make out in my car?" Her ulterior answer—her Child to his Child—is, "Sure, I'd love to make out with you." (c)
365. Eric Berne is to TA as Fritz Perls is to
a. the empty chair technique.
b. Gestalt therapy.
c. the underdog.
d. the top dog.
Berne is the Father of TA, while Frederick S. Perls created Ge- stalt therapy. In some books he is called Fritz Perls or "Fritz." All the other concepts apply to Gestalt therapy. Perls saw the "top dog" as the critical parent portion of the personality which is very authoritarian and quick to use "shoulds" and "oughts." The "underdog" was seen as weak, powerless, passive, and full of excuses. These splits in the personality would wage civil war within the individual. In Gestalt therapy, the empty chair tech- nique could be employed so the individual could work on these opposing feelings. That is to say, the person could be the top dog in one chair and the underdog in the other. (b)
366. Empathy and counselor effectiveness scales reflect the work of
a. Perls and Berne.
b. Ellis and Harper.
c. Frankl and May.
d. Carkhuff and Gazda.
In an attempt to isolate the factors associated with positive therapeutic outcomes, counselor educators generally state that the counselor must possess distinct qualities. In the literature these are known as the "core dimensions." According to research by Truax and Mitchell, an effective counselor is authentic and genuine, not phony; gives positive regard through acceptance; and has accurate empathic understanding. As mentioned earlier, the Carkhuff scale rates the counselor from 1 to 5. The higher the rating the better the counselor is facilitating client growth. Gazda suggested a "Global Scale for Rating Helper Responses." On this scale a 1.0 response does not attend to the client's needs. The counselor may discredit or even scold the client. In case I haven't made myself clear, this is a response which is not helpful in any sense. A 2.0 response, although better than a 1.0, is superficial and deals only partially with surface feelings. The 3.0 response does facilitate growth. Although a 3.0 response is limited primarily to surface feelings, the counselor does not distort the content in his or her reflections. A 4.0 is evident when the counselor goes beyond reflection and deals with underlying feelings and meaning. (d)
367. The acronym NLP is an abbreviation of
a. Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming.
b. New language programs forcomputer therapy.
c. New language psychotherapy software.
d. neurological psychotherapy.
This model (choice "a"), supposedly based somewhat on what Milton H. Erickson, Fritz Perls, and Virginia Satir really did in their sessions, makes some incredible claims, such as the ability to cure a longstanding phobia in less time than it takes to con- duct a typical counseling session! Perhaps the two most popular techniques used by NLP practitioners are "refraining" and "anchoring." When using refraining the counselor helps the client to perceive a given situation in a new light so as to produce a new emotional reaction to it (e.g., a glass of water is not half empty; it is really half full). In anchoring, a desirable emotional state is evoked via an outside stimulus such as a touch or a sound or a specific bodily motion. This is similar to classical conditioning or the concept of a posthypnotic suggestion (i.e., a suggestion which works after you leave the hypnotist's office). A client with a phobia of cats, for example, might squeeze his left arm when he came in contact with a cat, and this would bring out an emotion other than fear. If you are taking an exam which is slanted toward this model, then you must read Structure of Magic I and Structure of Magic II by Bandler and Grinder. This approach has been very popular with business people (especially salespersons) and emphasizes the importance of eye movements in determining a person's "representational system" for storing information, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling. I have no doubt that the fellow who has made the most money from this approach, however, is not a licensed therapist but rather info-mercial king Anthony (Tony) Robbins, who expanded on NLP and whose various Personal Power tape series have outsold any other motivational product in history. Tony—a dynamic speaker by any standard—sports a high school education. (a)
368. A gestalt therapist is most likely going to deal with a client's projection via
a. playing the projection technique.
b. the empty chair technique.
c. converting questions to statements.
d. a behavioral contract.
Choices "a," "b," and "c" are all techniques used frequently in gestalt therapy, but remember that you are searching for the best answer. Projection is an ego defense mechanism in which you see something in others that you cannot accept about your- self. Gestalt hits this head-on, and in "playing the projection" the counselor literally asks you to act like this person you dis- like. Choice "c" would work thusly: A client might say, "Don't all people in a group feel scared during the initial session of group counseling?" The client is asked to turn the question into an "I statement," in this case, "I feel scared during this initial session of group counseling." In gestalt this is known as "taking respon- sibility for a feeling or situation." Often, the gestalt counselor literally asks the client to say this. For example, "I feel scared during this initial session of group counseling and I take respon- sibility for being scared." (a)
369. A client says she has a tingling sensation in her hands each time she talks about the probability of marriage. A gestalt therapist would most likely
a. ask the client to recount a dream.
b. urge the client to engage in thought-stopping.
c. prescribe relaxation homework.
d. urge the client to stay with the feeling.
Gestalt Therapy is concerned primarily with the here-and-now. When a client tries to avoid a feeling the counselor urges the client to face it or "stay with the feeling" if you will. Perls be- lieved this is necessary for growth. Choice "a," dream work, is an integral part of the gestalt approach to counseling. The client is told to recount the dream "as if it is happening in the pres- ent." Everything—yes everything—in the dream is considered a projection of the self. So if the client is being chased by a mean old man in the dream, the client might be asked to "become the mean old man." The gestalt model emphasizes experience rather than interpretation, which makes it especially attractive for group intervention. (d)
370. Gestalt therapists sometimes utilize the exaggeration experi- ment which most closely resembles
a. successive approximation.
b. paradox as practiced by Frankl, Haley, or Erickson.
c. free association.
d. paraphrasing with emotional reflection.
As opposed to the other three therapists (in choice "b"), Perls emphasized the exaggeration in regard to present moment verbal and nonverbal behavior in the here and now. A gestalt therapist might say, "What is your left hand doing?" (In gestalt, "what" questions are seen as more valuable than "why" questions.) After the client responds, the therapist might add, "Can you exaggerate that movement in your left hand?" Choice "a" is an operant behavior modification term which suggests that a behavior is gradually accomplished by reinforcing "successive steps" until the target behavior is reached. This technique also is known as "shaping" or "shaping using successive approximations." (b)
371. A client who is undergoing gestalt therapy states, "It is difficult to get a job in New York City," would be asked by the counselor to
a. go to the O*NET website (http://www.online.onetcenter. org) which is the replacement for the DOT and is now the nation's primary source of occupational information.
b. change the verbalization to an "I" statement.
c. read the OOH.
d. take the Strong Interest Inventory (SII).
A goal of gestalt is to eliminate "it talk" and replace it with "I statements." The other choices all relate to career counseling. The DOT or Dictionary of Occupational Titles, was a popular career counseling book which listed over 20,000 job titles. As mentioned above, it has been replaced via O*NET. The OOH stands for the Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the U.S. Department of Labor and revised every two years. The work attempts to depict projected job trends. It also delineates earnings, necessary training and education for a job, as well as working conditions and what workers in a given job actually do. The Strong (formerly the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory or SCII) is the most popular interest inventory, and it is based on the theory of John Holland. (b)
372. Gestalt Therapy, a paradigm that focuses on awareness in the here-and-now incorporates
b. Aaron Beck's Cognitive Therapy, which asserts that mal-adaptive thinking creates emotional disturbance and thus clients should record dysfunctional thoughts.
c. Conditioned Reflex Therapy.
d. Client-Centered Therapy.
Psychodrama incorporates role-playing into the treatment pro- cess. A client, for example, might act out an especially painful incident in his or her life. Psychodrama was invented by Jacob L. Moreno, who first coined the term group therapy in 1931. Gestalt therapists emphasize experiments and exercises. (a)
373. According to gestalt therapists, a client who is angry at his wife for leaving him, and who makes a suicide attempt would be en- gaging in
b. a panic reaction.
Retroflection is the act of doing to yourself what you really wish to do to someone else. The psychoanalysts often say that the per- son who wishes to kill him- or herself really wants to kill some- one else. True? Perhaps. Statistics now indicate that in cases of suicide, 4 out of every 100 begin with the person killing someone else! (c)
374. Gestalt means
a. a group.
b. a form, figure, or configuration unified as a whole.
c. a dyad.
d. visual acuity.
Although there is no exact English translation, choice "b" rough- ly describes the nature of the concept. Gestalt also can imply that the integrated whole is greater than the sum of its parts.(b)
375. Perls suggested which must be peeled away to reach emotional stability.
a. four layers of neurosis
b. three layers of neurosis
c. two layers of neurosis
d. five layers of neurosis
Perls likened the process of therapy to that of peeling an onion. The person has a phony layer, a phobic layer (fear that others will reject his or her uniqueness), an impasse layer (the person feels struck), the implosive layer (willingness to expose the true self), and the explosive layer (person has relief due to authenticity. (d)
376. In Gestalt therapy unexpressed emotions are known as
a. unfinished business.
b. the emerging gestalt.
c. form/figure language.
d. the top dog.
Here is a key term in Gestalt therapy. When an unexpressed feeling of resentment, rage, guilt, anxiety, or other emotion interferes with present situations and causes difficulties, it is known as "unfinished business." Just in case it comes up on your exam, Perls borrowed the term gestalt from the system of psychology proposed by Max Wertheimer of Germany in the 1920s which emphasized that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. The original gestalt psychologists studied perceptual phenomena (e.g., figure/ground relationships). The three most common principles relating to gestalt psychology are first, "insight learning" (discussed earlier in this book) as discovered by Wolfgang Kohler. Second, Bluma Zeigarnik's well-known "Zeigarnik ef- fect" which suggests that motivated people tend to experience tension due to unfinished tasks, and thus they recall unfinished activities better. Thus, if you sincerely care about the outcome of a task, you will have better recall of that task if it remains incomplete, than if completed. (This certainly is a bit like the concept of "unfinished business" in gestalt therapy.) Third, Wertheimer's "phi-phenomenon," wherein the illusion of movement can be achieved via two or more stimuli which are not moving; for ex- ample a neon sign that has a moving arrow. (a)
377. Gestalt therapy emphasizes
a. cognitive-behavioral issues.
b. transference issues.
c. traumatic childhood memories.
d. awareness in the here-and-now and dream work.
Choice "a" is incorrect. The gestalt mode does not believe that a client can "think" one's self out of unhappiness. The person must experience awareness for growth. (d)
378. The gestalt dialogue experiment generally utilizes the concepts of
a. behavioral self-control.
b. choice theory.
c. top dog, underdog, and the empty chair technique.
d. the rehearsal experiment.
The exam you are taking could refer to choice "c" as "games of dialogue." In addition to the top dog/underdog split in the per- sonality, empty chair dialogue also could be used for other op- posing tendencies, such as feminine versus masculine attributes. Gestalt assumes that anxiety is often actually "stage fright." By this the gestalt therapist assumes the client has internally re- hearsed a situation and is worried that his or her "performance" will not be up to snuff. This "rehearsal" is said to get in the way of spontaneity and healthy personal experimentation. The rehearsal technique especially lends itself to group work as group members can share their rehearsals with one another, and thus awareness of stage fright (e.g., worrying about not saying or do- ing the right thing) and fear of not being accepted by others can be illuminated. And if you marked choice "b," review the questions on reality therapy, as choice theory is associated with this brand of treatment. Glasser's Choice Theory postulates that behavior is really an attempt to control our perceptions to satisfy our genetic needs—survival, love, and belonging, power, free- dom, and fun. (c)
379. Critics assert that gestalt therapy is an effective treatment that
a. often fails to emphasize the importance of dreams.
b. ignores nonverbal behavior.
c. often fails to emphasize cognitive concerns.
d. uses the making the rounds technique that is not appro- priate for group work.
Quite the antithesis of REBT and related cognitive therapies, gestalt is considered a bit, well, anti-intellectual if you will. Perls once asserted that if you lose your mind you can come to your senses! In gestalt therapy the emphasis is on increasing psychological as well as bodily awareness. Another charge is that it is too confrontational if practiced in the manner Perls demonstrated. Today gestalt therapists are a bit gentler, softer, and less abrupt than Perls. Confrontation occurs when the therapist points out discrepancies or incongruencies between the client's verbal and nonverbal behaviors. The "mak- ing the rounds" strategy mentioned in choice "d" alludes to a popular group exercise in which the client is instructed to say the same message to everyone in the group. And oh yes, the word affective in the question means emotional. Some experts have branded gestalt and existential psychotherapy as "affective" paradigms since they urge clients to purge emotions in order to feel better about themselves. Gestalt has traditionally been a popular modality for group work. (c)
380. Most experts would agree that the peak period of competition between the various schools of counseling and therapy (e.g., ge- stalt, behavioristic, reality therapy, etc.) was during
a. the late 1970s.
b. the late 1960s.
c. the 1980s.
d. the mid-1950s.
In the 1950s, counseling—not testing—became the key guid- ance function. Moreover, the 1950s marked a golden age for de- velopmental psychology. In the late 1960s the field was literally inundated with competing psychotherapies. In the 1970s bio- feedback, behavior modification, and crisis hotlines flourished. And in the 1980s professionalism (e.g., licensing and improve- ment in professional organizations) was evident. (b)
381. The relationship a client has with a gestalt therapist would most likely progress than the relationship a client would have with a Rogerian counselor.
c. at the same pace.
d. a and b.
Because gestalt therapists are generally rather confrontational, theorists assume that the client/counselor relationship will prog- ress at a slower rate. If you marked choice "d" I'd like to suggest that you read the answers more carefully. Answer "d," is a syn- thesis of choice "a" and "b," and choices "a" and "b" are contra- dictory. (b)
382. The school of counseling created by Carl R. Rogers, Ph.D., has undergone three name changes. Initially it was called ______ then____ , and in 1974 it changed to_____.
a. nondirective counseling; client-centered therapy; the person-centered approach.
b. directive; nondirective; cient-centered.
c. person-centered; Rogerian, nondirectived.
d. client-centered; person-centered; nondirective.
A word to the wise: Expect to see any of these names in regard to questions on Rogers's theory. The initial name, nondirective counseling, was intended to set the approach apart from the directive and analytic models which were popular during the 1940s. In 1951, the process took on its new name, client-centered therapy, which emphasized Rogers' theory of personality and, of course, the fact that the client was not viewed as a "sick patient." In 1974, the approach took on its current name, per- son-centered, to emphasize the power of the person and Rogers's growing interest in group behavior. Hint: Although I've just given you three key names for this approach, Rogers's method could also be known as "self theory." When his approach is used in career counseling the role of the self-concept in terms of career choice is illuminated. (a)
383. Rogers' approach is characterized as a(n) approach.
a. existential or humanistic
c. cognitive behavioral
Some exams will call humanistic psychology "third force psychol- ogy" because it was a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanaly- sis, the two initial forces at the time. In regard to choices "b" and "c," it can be pointed out that cognitive approaches are generally more directive and do not give the client/counselor relationship as much emphasis as the Rogerians. (a)
384. Which statement is true of the person-centered approach?
a Reflection is used a lot yet the counselor rarely gives ad- vice.
b. Advice is given a lot.
c. Reflection is rarely utilized.
d. Closed-ended questions keep the sessions moving at a fast pace.
A strict Rogerian would generally not give the client specific techniques for behavioral change or instruct the person "how to think." Giving advice is one of the most debated issues in counseling. Some texts classify advice giving (along with preaching, lecturing, and excessive questioning) as a nonhelpful behavior. In fact, many experts insist that lecturing/preaching is merely a variation of advice giving and can abet a power struggle between the counselor and the client. Advice giving in the initial sessions can keep a client from working through his or her feelings. Never- theless, in crisis or emergency situations, advice giving is generally considered an appropriate intervention. Multi- cultural experts wisely point out that some groups (e.g., certain Asian cultures) view counseling as a last resort in which immediate direction is given to the client. In such cultures Rogerian counseling is clearly not the treatment of choice. When I was writing my book Favorite Counseling and Therapy Techniques I asked a famous person-centered ther- apist to contribute. He wrote me back and said, "I'm a Rogerian, I don't do techniques." (a)
385. In the person-centered approach, an effective counselor must possess
a. the skill to be confrontational.
b. the ability to give advice.
c. the ability to do formal psychological testing.
d. empathy, congruence, genuineness, and demonstrate un- conditional positive regard to create a desirable "I-Thou relationship."
Rogerians speak of "conditions for growth" and a therapeutic atmosphere which produces a "climate for growth." The coun- selor helps produce the climate via genuineness (or congruence, which indicates the counselor can be real in the relationship), unconditional positive regard (nonjudgmental acceptance or nonpossessive warmth), and empathic understanding. Rogers has an optimistic view concerning the nature of men and women, believing that they have an inborn tendency toward self-actual- ization. Overall, the research does not support the notion that these therapeutic factors are necessarily related to positive ther- apeutic outcomes. Some studies indicate that the client's traits have an even greater impact on the success of psychotherapy.
386. Rogers viewed man as
a. basically evil.
b. driven by instincts.
c. a product of reinforcement.
d. positive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environment.
Here is a wonderful little review regarding the manner in which the major modalities of counseling look at mankind. Expect to see several questions of this ilk on any major exam: (d)
Individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualization.
Berne (Transactional Analysis)—
Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, though in- tervention can change this script.
Deterministic; people are controlled by biological instincts; are unsocialized, irrational; driven by unconscious forces such as sex and aggression.
Ellis (Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy)—
People have a cul- tural/biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently.
People are not bad or good. People have the capac- ity to govern life effectively as "whole." People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.
Glasser (Reality Therapy)—
Individuals strive to meet basic physi- ological needs and the need to be worthwhile to self and others. Brain as control system tries to meet needs.
Adler (Individual Psychology)—
Man is basically good; much of behavior is determined via birth order.
Jung (Analytic Psychology)—
Man strives for individuation or a sense of self-fulfillment.
Skinner (Behavior Modification)—
Humans are like other animals: mechanistic and controlled via environmental stimuli and rein- forcement contingencies; not good or bad; no self-determina- tion or freedom.
Person produces and is a product of conditioning.
Existential view is that humans are good, rational, and retain freedom of choice.
Through education and scientific data, man can become himself. Humans are born with potential for good or evil. Others are needed to help unleash positive potential. Man is mainly rational, not intuitive.
387. A person-centered therapist would
a. treat neurotics differently from psychotics.
b. treat all diagnostic categories of the DSM using the same principles.
c. use more closed-ended questions with adjustment reactions.
d. use contracting with clients who are not making prog- ress.
The person-centered model puts little stock in the formal pro- cess of diagnosis and psychological assessment. People are peo- ple, and when they are labeled they are debased to "patients." Moreover, traditionally, strict adherents to this model do not ask a large number of questions (choice "c"). (Some years ago it was considered a cardinal sin if a graduate student serving a counsel- ing practicum asked a client a question while engaging in the practice of person-centered counseling. Today, the practice of asking clients questions is more common; nevertheless, open- ended questions are highly recommended whenever possible.) Choice "d," contracting, is more popular with behavioristic counselors and "directive" methods rather than "nondirective" strategies. (b)
388. Rogers emphasized congruence in the counselor. Congruence occurs when
a. external behavior matches an internal response or state.
b. the counselor uses silence.
c. the counselor reflects emotion.
d. the counselor summarizes at the end of the session.
When the counselor has the ability to be "real" in the relation- ship, we say that he or she is genuine or congruent. Rogers insists that three key factors are needed for an effective helping climate. The counselor's attitude must include genuineness (again, also called congruence), unconditional positive regard (also referred to as nonpossessive warmth), and empathic understanding. Congruence is a condition where the counselor is very aware of his or her own feelings and accurately expresses this to the client. Of the three elements, Rogers suggested that congruence—which really implies that the counselor is genuine, authentic, and does not put on a professional front—is the most important of the three elements. (a)
389. Rogers felt that for client change to occur.
a. conditions must be in accordance with the problem.
b. three conditions are necessary.
c. nine conditions are necessary.
d. two conditions are necessary.
If you missed this one, take a break. You've been studying too long. When you're refreshed, review the answer to question
390. Person-centered counseling would prove least effective with:
a. a bright verbal male.
b. a bright verbal female.
c. a graduate student who had a knowledge of phrenology.
d. a client who is not very verbal.
In choice "c," the term phrenology refers to an early pseudosci- entific psychological doctrine which asserted that one's person- ality could be determined by the shape and configuration of the skull. (d)
391. Critics of the Rogerian approach feel that
a. it does not emphasize relationship concerns.
b. some degree of directiveness is needed after the initial phase of counseling.
c. more confrontation is necessary, though Rogers did en- courage caring confrontations.
d. b and c.
I have heard counselors humorously say that Rogerian counseling is like a joke without a punch line! Many counselors now believe that some degree of directiveness is needed after the relationship is built; otherwise treatment merely goes in circles. Some books and exams refer to the process after the relationship is built as the "action phase" of counseling. J. O. Prochaska is very critical of the research which supposedly indicates the ef- fectiveness of the Rogerian model, as some of the studies lacked a control group, failed to take the placebo effect into account, did not use the best statistical technique, or relied on self-re- ports of the client. (d)
392. Counselors who work as consultants
a. generally adhere to reality therapy.
b. generally adhere to one single theory.
c. generally adhere to consultation theory.
d. generally do not adhere to one single theory.
Now hear this! I fully expect that you will see several questions on your exam related to consultation. Many counselors tell me they have never studied this topic. Read this answer over sev- eral times. Choice "c" is not the best answer inasmuch as no integrated theory of consultation exists at this time. Consultation can target organizational concerns or service delivery. Several major consultation models exist. First is Caplan's psychodynamic mental health consultation in which the consultant does not see the client directly but advises the consultee (i.e., the individual in the organization who is receiving the consultant's services). This model is interesting because it recommends that the con- sultant—not the counselor/consultee—be ethically and legally responsible for the client's welfare and treatment. Second is the "behavioral consultation'' or "social learning theory model" asso- ciated with Bandura, in which the consultant designs behavioral change programs for the consultee to implement. Third is the process consultation model by Edgar Schein, which is said to be analogous to the "doctor-patient" model. The consultant is paid to diagnose the problem (i.e., the consultee is not certain what it is) and prescribe a solution. The focus is on the agency or or- ganization, not the individual client. With process consultation, the focus is not—I repeat—is not on the content of the prob- lem, but rather the process used to solve the problems. Schein also mentions the purchase of expertise model in which the con- sultee says: "Here's the problem; you fix it." This is similar to the doctor-patient model except that the consultee knows what is wrong. Fourth is triadic consultation in which the consultant works with a mediator to provide services to a client. (d)
393. Counseling generally occurs in a clinical setting while consultation generally occurs in a ____ setting.
c. continuing care
Here again, the other answer choices are not necessarily incorrect; it is just that this choice "b" is the best answer. Counselors generally focus on a person or a group, while consultants focus more on issues. Another key factor is that in consultation work, empathy—although important—is overshadowed by genuine- ness and respect. (b)
394. Attending behavior that is verbal is also called
a. verbal tracking.
Here is a nice little memory device. The word attending is simi- lar to the word attention. Attending behavior occurs when you give your clients your complete attention. Helpful "nonverbal" behavior would include leaning forward slightly, eye contact, and appropriate facial expression, such as smiling. Nonhelpful nonverbals would be frowning, yawning, sitting far away from the client, repeatedly closing your eyes, shaking a finger at the client, acting as if you are in a hurry, or talking extremely fast or slow. Some exams may speak of task-facilitative behavior versus abstractive behavior in regard to the process of attending. When the counselor's thoughts are in relation to the client, this is said to be task-facilitative. When the counselor is thinking about his or her own concerns (e.g., how much money he or she is making that day or where to go for lunch), then it is seen as abstractive behavior. (a)
395. The counselor's social power is related to
b. expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.
c. sex and age.
d. degree of directiveness.
Some exams will call social power "social influence." My memo- ry technique here is what I call the "EAT" formula; the "E" is for expertness, the "A" for attractiveness, and the "T" for trustwor- thiness. The three factors first made an impact on the counseling profession in 1968 when Stanley Strong wrote a landmark article which suggested that counselors perceived as expert, attractive, and trustworthy would not be discredited by the client. Expert- ness here refers to the manner in which the client perceives the counselor rather than the way the counselor perceives himself or herself. A counselor's self-perception is technically known as "competence." E. Fuller Torrey, author of The Death of Psy- chiatry, suggested that a wall full of degrees and an impressive office can help to insure that the counselor will be perceived as an expert. Thus, a counselor who is seen as an expert may not actually be competent. Attractiveness implies that positive feelings and thoughts regarding the counselor are helpful. One hypothesis states that if the client and counselor have had similar experiences, the client will view the counselor as attractive. Cli- ents who say, "I like my counselor," are demonstrating that the counselor has been perceived as attractive. The chemical depen- dency model (CD), in which a recovering addict helps a practic- ing addict, is based on this principle. In regard to trust, it is felt that a violation of confidentiality will nearly always eliminate this factor. (b)
Key areas that often cause problems for the counselor's self-image are
a. choice of a modality and a learning disability.
b. age and the lack of a doctoral degree.
c. lack of NCC.
d. competence, power, and intimacy.
Competence, power, and intimacy are all factors that impact the counselor's "social influence." Competence reflects a counselor's feelings regarding his or her adequacy. A counselor who feels in- competent could directly or indirectly (e.g., tone of voice or body posture) communicate this to the client. In counseling, power is seen as a positive trait used to enhance the client's growth. Counselors struggling with their own feelings in regard to a lack of power may become rigid, coercive, or even belligerent toward the client. Others may become overly nondirective. A counselor who has personal issues revolving around intimacy also could be extremely nondirective or afraid to confront clients for fear of rejection. Clearly, such a counselor stays at arm's length from clients and could personally benefit from treatment. (d)
397. A counselor who is genuine
a. does not role-play someone he or she is not, so as to be accepted by the client.
b. does not change his or her true values from session to ses- sion.
c. is not empathic.
d. a and b.
Gerard Egan stressed that clients are indeed more open and ex- pressive with counselors who seem genuine. Egan is well-known for his books which teach a systematic approach to effective helping (e.g., The Skilled Helper). Note: Egan has referred to competence in some of his literature as "accomplishment-com- petence," feeling that an accomplishment (e.g., helping abate a client's depression) can impact upon one's feelings of com- petence, or the client's perception of the helper's expertise. In other words, the counselor must be able to deliver the goods and truly help the client. (d)
398. Allen E. Ivey has postulated three types of empathy—
a. positive, negative regard, and cognitive.
b. reflective, micro-empathy, and forced choice.
c. basic, subtractive, and additive.
d. micro-empathy, basic, and level 8 empathy.
In basic empathy the counselor's response is on the same level as the client's. In the case of subtractive empathy, the coun- selor s behavior does not completely convey an understanding of what has been communicated. Additive empathy is most desir- able since it adds to the client's understanding and awareness.
created a program to help counselors learn accurate empathy.
a. Truax; Carkhuff
b. Rogers; Berenson
c. Rogers; Brill
d. Carkhuff; Satir
Robert Carkhuff has been quoted time and time again for his statement that, "all helping is for better or worse." Or as he says, "no helpee is left unchanged by any helping interaction." (a)
400. The human relations core for effective counseling includes
a. power, competence, and trustworthiness.
b. expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.
c. empathy, positive regard (or respect), and genuineness.
d. self-image, self-talk, and attending behavior.
Choice "b" (remember?) is the social influence core. The pur- pose of this question is to make certain you are able to distin- guish between the social influence core and the human relations core. (c)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology | Sdorow, Rickabaugh, Betz
Psychology: Exam 4
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NCE practice test
Substance Abuse Counseling
chapter 6 groups.
chapter 4. social & cultural foundations
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lifestyle and Career Development
Encyclopedia of Counseling: Theories of Counseling and the Helping Relationship
Encyclopedia of Counseling: Social and Cultural Foundations
Counseling Families, Diagnosis, and Advanced Concepts