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delicate unpigmented hairs that covers the fetus

terminal hairs

long, course, pigmented h airs that replace lanugo on the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelids

vellus hairs

short, fine, unpigmented hairs that replace lanugo over most of the body

terminal hairs

the t ype of hair that replaced vellus hairs at puberty


portion of hair protruding above the surface of the skin

hair bulb

an expanded knob at the base of the hair root


central axis of the hair that consists of two or three layers of cells contraining soft keratin


forms the bulk of the hair; consists of cells containing hard keratin


outermost layer of the hair shaft and root, composed of a single overlapping layer of cells containing hard keratin

dermal root sheath

surrounds the epithelial foot sheath

epithelial foot sheath

layer of cells immeditely surrounding the foot of the hair


mass of undifferentiated epithelial cells inside the hair bulb that produces the hair and internal epithelial root sheath


produce the pigment responsible for hair color

arrector pili

smooth muscle cells that attach to the hair follicle dermal root sheath and the papillary layer of the dermis; cause hair to stand on end


white substance rich in lipids, which oils the hair and skin surface, prevents drying, and protects against bacteria

sebaceous gland

gland that opens into a hair follicle; produces sebum

merocrine sweat gland

gland that opens to the surface of the skin and secretes an isotonic fluid that is mostly water; involved with temperature regulation

apocrine sweat gland

gland that usually opens into a hair follicle; secretes an organic substance that is metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor

ceruminous gland

gland that produces ear wax

nail root

proximal portion of the nail that is covered by skin

nail fold

portion of the skin that covers the lateral and proximal edges of the nail

nail groove

holds the edges of the nail in place


cutible; the stratum corneum of the n ail fold that grows onto the nail body

nail bed

nail root and nail body attach to this structure

nail matrix

proximal portion of the nail bed; produces most of the nail


whitish, crescent-shaped area at the base of the nail; part of the nail matrix


disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands that involves testosterone and bacteria


viral infection of the epidermis

ringworm and athlete's foot

fungal infections that affect the keratinized portion of the skin

decubitus ulcers

disorder caused by ischemia and necrosis of the hypodermis

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