19 terms

Miller and Levine Chapter 1

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Science
an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
Observation
process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful, orderly way
Inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
Hypothesis
a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations in ways that support or reject it
Controlled Experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
independent variable
factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed; also called the manipulated variable.
Dependent Variable
the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable; also called the responding variable
Control Group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
data
information gathered from experimental observations
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and allows scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations.
Bias
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
Biology
the science that studies living organisms
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
Stimulus
a signal to which an organism responds
Sexual Reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
Asexual Reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
Biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist