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89 terms

History 1-7

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middle colonies
known as the bread colonies because they produced an abundance of grain
Jonathan Edwards
most famous sermon was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"; colonial America's foremost theologian
frontier
sparsely populated land on the edge of a settlement
Great Awakening
the name of the great revival of the 1700's in America
George III
King of Great Britain 1760 to 1820; tried to bring the colonists into subjection
Seven Years' War
another name for the French and Indian War
Why were the New England colonies poorly suited for agriculture?
long winters, a short growing season, and rocky terrain
mercantilism
the idea that the colonists should supply English factories with raw materials and then buy the goods they produced
Paul Revere
a renowned Boston silversmith remembered for his midnight ride to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
William Billings
1st professional musician and composer born in America (founded singing schools)
Benjamin Franklin
1706-90, American statesman, diplomat, author, scientist, and inventor. He encouraged the founding of public libraries.
Cotton Mather
Puritan theologian, who urged the inoculation against smallpox.
Benjamin Banneker
mathematician, natural historian, and astronomer who built an all-wood clock
John Winthrop
1588-1649 First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Said the colonies were "subordinate" to England.
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains; made all previous land grants null and void
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Stamp Act
Law passed by Parliament in 1765 that taxed printed materials and legal documents in the 13 Colonies
Colonial Era
the period including the founding of Jamestown in 1607 to the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775
Moravians
wrote the first classical musical in America
hornbook
a paddle-shaped board that contained the alphabet and Lord's Prayer
School not founded by a religious denomination
Philadelphia Academy
George Whitefield
a leader in America's Great Awakening; preached to crowds of up to 20,000 people
Fort Duquesne
the French name for the English fort they captured at the beginning of the French and Indian War
General Braddock
led the British troops in the French and Indian War
David Brainerd
best-known missionary to the Indians
John Wesley
organized the Methodist denomination in England
Cumberland Gap
natural pass in the Appalachian Mountains that allowed settlers to travel west
New England Primer
most widely used textbook in colonial america
apprentice
a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training
Poor Richard's Almanac
A popular almanac, written by Benjamin Franklin, containing meteorological and astronomical information, proverbs, sound advice, and good humor
governor
title given to the chief executive officer of a colony
Virginia Rangers
the local militia unit led by George Washington
French and Indian War
the war that helped prepare the colonists for the War for Independence by uniting them in defense of their homes and families
blacksmith
a craftsman who shod horses and forged tools, farm implements and wagon parts
What were the 3 types of colonial government?
royal colonies, proprietary colonies, and self-governing colonies
Royal Colonies
governed by the king, including Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia
Proprietary Colonies
the king granted a tract of land to a nobleman, including Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware
Self-governing Colonies
governed their own affairs, including Rhode Island and Connecticut
Poor Richard's Almanac
A popular almanac, written by Benjamin Franklin.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and legal documents sold in the American Colonies
Ethan Allen
led the "Green Mountain Boys" to take over Fort Ticonderoga
Olive Branch Petition
attempt by the Continental Congress to reconcile the colonies with the king
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Checks and Balance
The system that ensures none of the 3 branches of government has too much power
Benedict Arnold
American patriot who became a traitor and helped the British in the War for Independence
So help me, God
last words of Washington's oath to office
St Augustine
The 1st Permanent European settlement in the US
Nathan Hale
a soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British, famous quote:, "i only regret that i have but one life to lose for my country"
Harvard College
First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America
Ponce de Leon
discovered Florida
Philadelphia
meeting place for the Second Continental Congress
Martin Luther
nailed the 95 theses to the church door in Wittenburg and sparked the Protestant Reformation
John Adams
Vice President under George Washington; second American President; father of American Conservatism
Dr. Samuel Prescott
One of the riders who helped Paul Revere spread the word about the British advancement
Cabinet
the name given to the President's advisers
Patrick Henry
patriot who declared "Give me liberty or give me death"
Boston Port Bill
Closed Boston Harbor temporarily
Alexander Hamilton
first Secretary of the Treasury
Pierre L'Enfant
laid out the original plans for Washington DC
Thomas Jefferson
candidate for the Democratic-Republican party in 1796; 3rd American president; 1st Secretary of State
James Madison
father of the Constitution
Henry Lee
earned the nickname"Light-Horse Harry" because of his cavalry victories.
David Brainerd
best known missionary to the Indians
Jonathan Edwards
great American intellect and theologian; best known for Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
William Bradford
wrote History of Plymouth Plantation, Governor of Plymouth Colony
William Billings
famous for his "singing schools"
federal republic
government divided between national and state powers; how the United States was founded
Indians
how he Americans disguised themselves int he Boston Tea Party
Hessians
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Federalist party
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.
Great Awakening
great revival that swept across America in the18th century
1517
the year the Protestant Reformation began
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
shot heard round the world
The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778
Bunker Hill
1st major battle of the War for Independence (Revolutionary War)
Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The war was over, and colonists had won!
Swamp Fox
the nickname given to Francis Marion because of his clever guerilla warfare
Common Sense
the famous pamphlet by Thomas Paine that promoted the patriot cause
July 4, 1776
the day the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress
Treaty of Paris
the peace treaty that ended the American Revolution (War for Independence)
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792); famous for saying "I have not yet begun to fight"
New England Primer
the most widely-read textbook in colonial America
What are some weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
9 states had to approve a measure before it could be passed by Congress; all 13 states had to approve a bill to amend the Articles; the central government had no executive or judicial branches; Congress lacked the power to tax and perform other essential duties
Name the 3 branches of government and describe the function of each
Legislative-- makes laws; Executive-- enforces laws; Judicial-- interprets laws.