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middle colonies

known as the bread colonies because they produced an abundance of grain

Jonathan Edwards

most famous sermon was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"; colonial America's foremost theologian


sparsely populated land on the edge of a settlement

Great Awakening

the name of the great revival of the 1700's in America

George III

King of Great Britain 1760 to 1820; tried to bring the colonists into subjection

Seven Years' War

another name for the French and Indian War

Why were the New England colonies poorly suited for agriculture?

long winters, a short growing season, and rocky terrain


the idea that the colonists should supply English factories with raw materials and then buy the goods they produced

Paul Revere

a renowned Boston silversmith remembered for his midnight ride to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

William Billings

1st professional musician and composer born in America (founded singing schools)

Benjamin Franklin

1706-90, American statesman, diplomat, author, scientist, and inventor. He encouraged the founding of public libraries.

Cotton Mather

Puritan theologian, who urged the inoculation against smallpox.

Benjamin Banneker

mathematician, natural historian, and astronomer who built an all-wood clock

John Winthrop

1588-1649 First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Said the colonies were "subordinate" to England.

Proclamation of 1763

law forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains; made all previous land grants null and void

Quartering Act

March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

Stamp Act

Law passed by Parliament in 1765 that taxed printed materials and legal documents in the 13 Colonies

Colonial Era

the period including the founding of Jamestown in 1607 to the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775


wrote the first classical musical in America


a paddle-shaped board that contained the alphabet and Lord's Prayer

School not founded by a religious denomination

Philadelphia Academy

George Whitefield

a leader in America's Great Awakening; preached to crowds of up to 20,000 people

Fort Duquesne

the French name for the English fort they captured at the beginning of the French and Indian War

General Braddock

led the British troops in the French and Indian War

David Brainerd

best-known missionary to the Indians

John Wesley

organized the Methodist denomination in England

Cumberland Gap

natural pass in the Appalachian Mountains that allowed settlers to travel west

New England Primer

most widely used textbook in colonial america


a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training

Poor Richard's Almanac

A popular almanac, written by Benjamin Franklin, containing meteorological and astronomical information, proverbs, sound advice, and good humor


title given to the chief executive officer of a colony

Virginia Rangers

the local militia unit led by George Washington

French and Indian War

the war that helped prepare the colonists for the War for Independence by uniting them in defense of their homes and families


a craftsman who shod horses and forged tools, farm implements and wagon parts

What were the 3 types of colonial government?

royal colonies, proprietary colonies, and self-governing colonies

Royal Colonies

governed by the king, including Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia

Proprietary Colonies

the king granted a tract of land to a nobleman, including Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware

Self-governing Colonies

governed their own affairs, including Rhode Island and Connecticut

Poor Richard's Almanac

A popular almanac, written by Benjamin Franklin.

Stamp Act

A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and legal documents sold in the American Colonies

Ethan Allen

led the "Green Mountain Boys" to take over Fort Ticonderoga

Olive Branch Petition

attempt by the Continental Congress to reconcile the colonies with the king

Proclamation of 1763

law forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains

Checks and Balance

The system that ensures none of the 3 branches of government has too much power

Benedict Arnold

American patriot who became a traitor and helped the British in the War for Independence

So help me, God

last words of Washington's oath to office

St Augustine

The 1st Permanent European settlement in the US

Nathan Hale

a soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British, famous quote:, "i only regret that i have but one life to lose for my country"

Harvard College

First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.


First permanent English settlement in North America

Ponce de Leon

discovered Florida


meeting place for the Second Continental Congress

Martin Luther

nailed the 95 theses to the church door in Wittenburg and sparked the Protestant Reformation

John Adams

Vice President under George Washington; second American President; father of American Conservatism

Dr. Samuel Prescott

One of the riders who helped Paul Revere spread the word about the British advancement


the name given to the President's advisers

Patrick Henry

patriot who declared "Give me liberty or give me death"

Boston Port Bill

Closed Boston Harbor temporarily

Alexander Hamilton

first Secretary of the Treasury

Pierre L'Enfant

laid out the original plans for Washington DC

Thomas Jefferson

candidate for the Democratic-Republican party in 1796; 3rd American president; 1st Secretary of State

James Madison

father of the Constitution

Henry Lee

earned the nickname"Light-Horse Harry" because of his cavalry victories.

David Brainerd

best known missionary to the Indians

Jonathan Edwards

great American intellect and theologian; best known for Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

William Bradford

wrote History of Plymouth Plantation, Governor of Plymouth Colony

William Billings

famous for his "singing schools"

federal republic

government divided between national and state powers; how the United States was founded


how he Americans disguised themselves int he Boston Tea Party


German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.

Federalist party

1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.

Great Awakening

great revival that swept across America in the18th century


the year the Protestant Reformation began

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)

shot heard round the world

The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.


A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war.

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778

Bunker Hill

1st major battle of the War for Independence (Revolutionary War)


The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The war was over, and colonists had won!

Swamp Fox

the nickname given to Francis Marion because of his clever guerilla warfare

Common Sense

the famous pamphlet by Thomas Paine that promoted the patriot cause

July 4, 1776

the day the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress

Treaty of Paris

the peace treaty that ended the American Revolution (War for Independence)

Bill of Rights

the first 10 amendments to the Constitution

John Paul Jones

American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792); famous for saying "I have not yet begun to fight"

New England Primer

the most widely-read textbook in colonial America

What are some weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

9 states had to approve a measure before it could be passed by Congress; all 13 states had to approve a bill to amend the Articles; the central government had no executive or judicial branches; Congress lacked the power to tax and perform other essential duties

Name the 3 branches of government and describe the function of each

Legislative-- makes laws; Executive-- enforces laws; Judicial-- interprets laws.

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