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65 terms

CHAPTER 7 BONE TISSUES

STUDY
PLAY
True
Most blood cells are produced in the bones.
False
The femur (thighbone) is an irregular bone
False
An X-ray of a child's hand will show epiphyseal lines.
True
The hemopoietic tissue in a bone is otherwise known as myeloid tissue.
False
Concentric lamellae are connected with each other by lacunae
False
Osteogenic cells are bone stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts
True
Osteoid tissue is similar to bone except for a lack of minerals.
False
Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults
False
Bones grow in diameter by interstitial growth
True
Hypercalcemia causes depression of the nervous system
True
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to receptors on osteoblasts
True
Hypercalcemia is rare but hypocalcemia can result from a wide variety of causes
False
Closed reduction is the realignment of the parts of a broken bone involving surgery
False
Osteomalacia results in bone brittleness
True
Osteoporosis often leads to an exaggerated thoracic spinal curvature called kyphosis
store red blood cells
The skeleton does not
connective
Osseous tissue is a(an) ____________ tissue.
transitional epithelium
These are all tissues that make up a long bone except
rounded bones
The four groups of bones include all the following except
marrow cavity
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent?
epiphyseal line
21. This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?
articular cartilage
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?
an epiphysies
The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called
periosteum; endosteum
A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______________, whereas the internal surface is lined with _____________.
Osteoblasts
_____________ are bone-forming cells.
osteoblasts; osteocytes
When ____________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _____________.
lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes
This image shows the histology of osseous tissue. Label "2" represents ____________, which is(are) ____________.
Hydroxyapatite
Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
spongy bone.
Spicules and trabeculae are found in
yellow bone marrow.
Red bone marrow does not contain
Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
____________ provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas ____________ provide(s) some degree of flexibility.
Osteoclasts; osteocytes
___________ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ____________ have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
yellow bone marrow
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
osteoclasts
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
Central canals
_______________ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.
flat bones of the skull.
Intramembranous ossification produces the
hyaline cartilage.
Endochondral ossification is a precursor made of _____________ is replaced by bone.
metaphysis
The _____________ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
epiphyseal plate
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the
zone of cell proliferation
Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.
appositional growth
Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing
cartilage growth.
Bone elongation is a result of
mechanical stress on bone remodeling.
Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of
E. articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are
Resorption
_____________ is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.
the first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?
amino acids.
Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except
DNA synthesis.
Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except
lower blood calcium.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not
Calcitriol
____________ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone
cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate
Which of these is not an effect of calcitriol?
Removal of the thyroid gland
____________ does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia.
parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates __________ secretion, which leads to _____________.
spasms
Hypocalcemia can cause
abnormal calcification of a tissue.
Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means
an elevated level of osteoblast activity
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
the healing of a fracture.
A soft callus forms during
estrogen; osteoclast activity
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ____________.
comminuted
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a __________ fracture.
rickets; osteomalacia
The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called ___________ in children and ___________ in adults.
open
Bone protrudes through skin in a fracture called
is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease.
A pathologic fracture
hematoma formation soft callus formation hard callus formation bone remodeling
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture?
soft callus; hard callus
Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called ________, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called _________.
Osteoporosis
____________ affects more people than any other bone disease.