CHAPTER 7 BONE TISSUES
Most blood cells are produced in the bones.
The femur (thighbone) is an irregular bone
An X-ray of a child's hand will show epiphyseal lines.
The hemopoietic tissue in a bone is otherwise known as myeloid tissue.
Concentric lamellae are connected with each other by lacunae
Osteogenic cells are bone stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Osteoid tissue is similar to bone except for a lack of minerals.
Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults
Bones grow in diameter by interstitial growth
Hypercalcemia causes depression of the nervous system
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to receptors on osteoblasts
Hypercalcemia is rare but hypocalcemia can result from a wide variety of causes
Closed reduction is the realignment of the parts of a broken bone involving surgery
Osteomalacia results in bone brittleness
Osteoporosis often leads to an exaggerated thoracic spinal curvature called kyphosis
store red blood cells
The skeleton does not
Osseous tissue is a(an) ____________ tissue.
These are all tissues that make up a long bone except
The four groups of bones include all the following except
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent?
21. This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?
The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called
A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______________, whereas the internal surface is lined with _____________.
_____________ are bone-forming cells.
When ____________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _____________.
lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes
This image shows the histology of osseous tissue. Label "2" represents ____________, which is(are) ____________.
Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
Spicules and trabeculae are found in
yellow bone marrow.
Red bone marrow does not contain
Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
____________ provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas ____________ provide(s) some degree of flexibility.
___________ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ____________ have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
yellow bone marrow
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
_______________ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.
flat bones of the skull.
Intramembranous ossification produces the
Endochondral ossification is a precursor made of _____________ is replaced by bone.
The _____________ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the
zone of cell proliferation
Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.
Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing
Bone elongation is a result of
mechanical stress on bone remodeling.
Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of
E. articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are
_____________ is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.
the first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?
Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except
Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except
lower blood calcium.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not
____________ is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone
cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate
Which of these is not an effect of calcitriol?
Removal of the thyroid gland
____________ does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia.
parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates __________ secretion, which leads to _____________.
Hypocalcemia can cause
abnormal calcification of a tissue.
Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means
an elevated level of osteoblast activity
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would expect
the healing of a fracture.
A soft callus forms during
estrogen; osteoclast activity
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ____________.
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a __________ fracture.
The result of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called ___________ in children and ___________ in adults.
Bone protrudes through skin in a fracture called
is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease.
A pathologic fracture
hematoma formation soft callus formation hard callus formation bone remodeling
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture?
soft callus; hard callus
Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called ________, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called _________.
____________ affects more people than any other bone disease.