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Biology 1 Exam 3: Chapter 13-15
Terms in this set (65)
The core theme of biology, which explains both the unity and diversity of life, is
Aristotle believed that
Species are fixed (permanent) and perfect
Darwin found that many of the species on the Galápagos Islands
Resembled species on the nearest mainland
Lyell's book "Principles of Geology," which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?
Earth's surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting
Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's?
Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?
Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics
Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by
Which of the following assumptions or observations is not part of Darwin's idea of natural selection?
Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance
Which of the following thinkers argued that much of human suffering was the result if human populations increasing faster than food supply, an argument that later influenced Charles Darwin's ideas of natural selection?
Which of the following would prevent an organism from becoming a part of the fossil record when it dies?
It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi
Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of
Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?
The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale
A population is
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed
Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when
A population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations
The ultimate source of all new alleles is
Which of the following terms represents the frequency of heterozygotes in a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Imagine that you are studying a very large population of moths that is isolated from gene flow. A single gene controls wing color. Half of the moths have white-spotted wings (genotype WW or Ww) and half of the moths have plain brown wings (ww). There are no new mutations, individuals mate randomly, and there is no natural selection on wing color. How will p, the frequency of the dominant allele, change over time?
P will neither increase nor decrease; it will remain more or less constant under the conditions described.
Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called
The bottleneck effect
Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which if the following phenomena has left it's mark in this population?
If you had to choose, where would you rather get infected with a serious bacterial disease?
In a remote, sparsely populated area where the bacteria have not been exposed to antibiotic drugs.
Mothers and teachers have often said that they need another pair of eyes on the backs of their heads. And another pair of hands would come in handy in many situations. You can imagine that these traits would have been advantageous to our early hunter-gatherer ancestors as well. According to sound evolutionary reasoning, what is the most likely explanation for why humans do not have these traits?
Because these variations have probably never appeared in a healthy human. As tetrapods we are pretty much stuck with a four-limbed, two-eyed plan; natural selection can only edit existing variations.
Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?
A change in the gene pool of a population from one generation to the next.
Under the biological species concept, a species is a group of organisms that
Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.
Which provides the most general and correct description of the idea of a reproductive barrier?
A biological difference between two species that prevents them from successfully interbreeding.
Two populations of organisms belong to the same biological species when they
Encounter each other, mate, and produce viable, fertile offspring under natural conditions.
Which if the following types of reproductive barriers separate a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at dusk and the other at dawn?
Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of insect species that could interbreed except that one lives on goldenrod plants and the other on autumn daisies in the same general area?
Which if the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females' mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the other species?
Frequently, a group of related species will each have a unique courtship ritual that must be performed correctly for both partners to be willing to mate. Such a ritual constitutes a _____, _____ reproductive barrier.
The geographic isolation of a population from other members of the species and the subsequent evolution of reproductive barriers between it and the parent species describes _____ speciation.
Uplift and formation of a mountain range divides a freshwater snail species into two isolated populations. Erosion eventually lowers the mountain range and brings the two populations together again, but when they mate, the resulting hybrids all produce sterile young. This scenario is an example of
Speciation without geographic isolation is called _____ speciation.
Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be
Sympathetic speciation commonly occurs through _____ in plants, but is more likely to occur through _____ in animals.
Polyploid... Habitat differentiation and sexual selection
The emergence of many diverse species from a common ancestor is called
In their 30-year studies of Darwin's finches, the Grants have discovered that while the medium ground finch and cactus finch occasionally form hybrids, these hybrids
Can only survive during wet years when there plenty if small seeds.
The _____ suggests that speciation occurs in brief spurts.
Punctuated equilibrium model
One of the key contributors of the punctuated equilibrium model is that it helps explain
Why transitional fossils tend to be rare and certain common fossil species remain unchanged for long time spans.
One of the finest available sequences of fossils shows how horses have changed slowly and by subtle steps from small shrub-browsing ancestors to the large, grass-grazing modern horse. A large number of fossil species have been named, and it is often difficult to decide on the identity of a fossil horse because transitional forms are common. this record of evolution best fits the idea of
the gradual model of speciation
the "big bang" that produced the universe is thought to have occured
12 to 14 billion years ago
The earliest discovered fossils are of ______ dating back to _______ years ago.
prokaryotes... 3.5 billion
The findings of Pasteur and others have established that
life does not arise from nonliving matters today, but in the conditions of early Earth, such an event could have occurred.
Miller was the first to show that
amino acids and other organic molecules could have formed under conditions thought to resemble those of early Earth.
Which highly reactive gas was probably absent from the Earth's primitive atmosphere?
O2 (oxygen gas)
Miller-Urey-type experiments have shown that
complex organic molecules can be produced by physical processes from inorganic components.
A current leading hypothesis about the first system of inheritance in the earliest life forms involves
self-replicating RNA molecules aided by ribozymes
Some RNA molecules can function like enzymes. These particular enzymatic RNA molecules are called
The technique called radiometric dating is based on
the steady, clocklike decay of certain radioactive isotopes over time
the 14C:12C ratio can be used to date fossils that are up to approximately how old?
If an isotope has a half-life of 4 million years, and a fossil is 16 million years old, how much of the original isotope will be found in the fossil?
one-sixteenth of the original amount
The Mesozoic era is often called the age of reptiles. Which of the following also occurred this era?
the first mammals and flowering plants appeared on land
Geologists have evidence that over the past 1.5 billion years,
Earth's land masses have joined into a single continent and split back apart again on three occasions.
How is the merging of continents to form Pangaea believed to have altered Earth's environments at the end of the Paleozoic era?
Shallow coastal areas were drained, leading to the extinction of many marine species.
Which of the following lines of evidence suggests that lungfishes evolved while Pangaea was intact?
Fossil lungfishes have been found on every continent except Antarctica.
Over the past 500 million years, there have been ______ mass extinctions and each time, at least _______ of the species on Earth became extinct.
At the end of the ______, over 96% of marine species and many terrestrial species became extinct, possibly because intense volcanic activity warmed the Earth's climate.
Scientists evaluating the Cretaceous mass extinction have concluded that
the asteroid impact was probably the triggering event for the extinction.
remove well-adapted species and groups from the Earth, so that it may take millions of years for species diversity to recover.
Over the past 400 years, humans have documented the extinction of more than ______ species. This modern rate species extinction is estimated to be ____ the normal extinction rate seen in the fossil record.
1,000...over 100 times greater than
Anti-evolutionary thinkers sometimes argue that natural selection could not produce a complex structure like the vertebrae eye. They claim that all of the parts of the eye must have arisen at once, asking why natural selection would favor the development of part of an eye that is not yet capable of forming a focused image. Which of the following statements is consistent with a survey of eye structure in the molluscs?
There are many intermediate stages of eye complexity that fulfill different adaptive functions.
Structures that evolved from the same structure in a common ancestor are
The process through which species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment is known as
The similarities in function of hummingbird wings and the wings of a butterfly reflect
analogy but not homology
Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?
genus, family, order, class, phylum
How can a phylogenetic tree be used to make predictions?
Features shared between two groups are likely to have been present in their common ancestor.
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