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39 terms

Psych of Music - Chapter 5

Test #2
the basic unit of duration and divides duration into equal segments
Metered beat
Beat indicated by a meter signature
True beat
Beat felt in response to music
Involves the grouping of beats, usually metrical beats
Malzel Metronome
The aspect of rhythm that makes prominent or emphasizes a beat
Isochronous intervals
Occurring at equal time intervals
Inter-onset interval
Inter-tap interval
Beats per minute
cycles per second
1/60 Hz
1 bpm = ___
Msec or ms
Beat perception and synchronization
Sensorimotor synchronization
"When music from all cultures of the world are considered, it is ___ that stands out as most fundamental. ___ is the organizer and the energizer. Without ___, there would be no music, whereas there is much music that has neither melody nor harmony." (Gaston, 1968)
Give order
Rhythm's primary function is to ____.
___ in its broadest sense is everything pertaining to the temporal quality (duration) of the musical sound.
Organizational, dynamic (energizing)
"Rhythm is the ____ and ____ force in music."
Organization Force
Rhythm is the organization of sound's durational attributes, which allows sound to become music.
Dynamic Force
Rhythm provides the forward movement of music thus making music a ____. Rhythm gives "life" to music, and a "feel" or "sense" of rhythm as the dynamic force within music facilitates interactions with music, both as a performer and a respondent.
Povel & Essens (1985)
Phenomenal accents as evoked by changes in IOI
Loudness, timbre, melodic contour, harmonic
Other means of providing accents include ____. (Parncutt, 1994)
Instinctive theories, physiological theories, motor theories, Rhythmic Response is Learned
In early noncognitive theories there are four classes of rhythm theories:
Instinctive theories of rhythm response
Which class of rhythm theory? Two fundamental factors in the perception of rhythm: (1) An instinctive tendency to group impressions in hearing, and (2) a capacity for doing this with precision and stress.
Seashore (1938)
Major proponent of the instinctive theory. He agrees that individuals differ in their rhythmic capacities, but he maintains that the capacity is an inherited trait, not a learned one.
Instinctive theories of rhythm response
Several studies suggest that training can improve rhythmic potential, thus disconfirming this theory, and suggesting that it is inadequate for explaining response to rhythm.
Physiological theories of rhythm response
Theories that suggest that rhythmic responses relate to the rates of recurring physiological processes.
Jaques-Dalcroze (1921)
Avid proponent of physiological theories of rhythm response. Supported the belief that the human heart rate is a basis for musical rhythm and tempo.
Parncutt (1987)
Suggests that prenatal conditioning (fetus hears sounds through mother's heartbeat and walking movements) might be the process by which infants develop rhythmic responses.
Are there many studies to support the heart rate theory?
Do not
Other studies ____ (do or do not) indicate that rhythmic aspects of physiological systems affect rhythmic responses.
Does not mean
The fact that there aren't many studies to indicate that rhythmic aspects of physiological systems affect rhythmic responses ___ (means or does not mean) that rhythmic aspects of music have no affect on physiological systems.
Iwanaga (1995)
A study that showed that when people chose their own tempos for a certain song, the most preferred tempo was close to the subjects' cycle of heart beats.
Motor theories of rhythmic response
Supports the belief that rhythmic behaviors depend on the action of voluntary muscles. The perception of rhythm or a "feeling for rhythm" is possible because we respond to our own sequential voluntary muscular activity.
Motor theories of rhythmic response
Considered to be a plausible theory, as research supports that neuromuscular movement does not function in isolation from the human brain; rather, music functions in conjunction with the brain and nervous system (Mursell, 1937)
Rhythmic Response is Learned
The best theory out of these four early noncognitive theories