an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred
a political and military system based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance and services.
person granted land in return for services
grant of land from a lord to a vassal
inheritance of a fief only by the oldest son
economic unit of the Middle Ages consisting of a large estate with manor house, fields and a village
portion of manor the lord kept for his own use
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
code of conduct for knights
a special Christian ceremony in which participants received graces from God
system of monasteries and convents in which Christians withdrew from the world to lead a life of prayer, fasting and self-denial
head of a monastery
church's punishment of an entire region by withholding some sacrament
church tax representing one tenth of a person's income collected from all Christians
purchase of a church office or job
church's efforts to eliminate heresy
advisors to the pope
most important members of the curia, they elected the popes
St. Francis of Assisi
founder of a preaching order of monks
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
self-contained community for people who have taken religious vows
A Christian soldier who fought to free the Holy Land from Muslim Turks in the Middle Ages. The word means "carrier of the cross"
any character from an ancient Germanic alphabet used in Scandinavia from the 3rd century to the Middle Ages
Scandinavian myth; any legend; long heroic narrative
a long narrow inlet of the sea between steep cliffs
ships used by the Vikings to raid and plunder villages; were intimidating; could hold lots of men
a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
a member of the ancient Germanic peoples who spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire in the 4th century
the northern family of Germanic languages that are spoken in Scandinavia and Iceland
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
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