Chapter 7 - Energy Metabolism

What is catabolism?
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Stage 2 of metabolism/cellular respiration is what?breakdown of small molecules into metabolitesStage 3 of metabolism/cellular respiration is what?transfer of energy to a usable form for cellsMetabolism is what?the chemical changes that occur in living organismsWhat are the two metabolic pathways?-catabolic (breakdown of compounds) -anabolic (build up of compounds)The cell is the what of metabolism?work centerWhy is the mitochondria important?it is the site where most of the energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein is captured; known as the powerhouse of the cellWhat does ATP stand for?adenosine triphosphateWhy is ATP important?-it is a high energy compound that is the main direct fuel for the cells -production of ATP is the fundamental goal of metabolism's energy producing pathwaysNAD is what?electron/hydrogen transport vehicle NAD+ becomes NADH+HFAD is what?electron/hydrogen transport vehicle FAD becomes FADH2What are NAD and FAD?electron/hydrogen transport vehicles both can carry 2 hydrogens eachMetabolic reactions release high energy electrons (hydrogen). Why is this important?energy from these electrons are transferred into ATP bonds, but first NAD and FAD transport trucks must take the hydrogen/electrons to the ETPSimple overview of energy-yielding pathways... Glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids can all be broken down into?Pyruvate or Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoA enters the what cycle?KrebsWhat is the main function of Acetyl CoA?generates ATPWhen ATP is abundant, Acetyl CoA makes what?fatWhen ATP is low, Acetyl CoA does what?proceeds to the Krebs cycleGlucose is a ____ carbon unit6Glycerol is a ____ carbon unit3Fatty acids are a ____ to _____ carbon unit16 to 18Amino acids are a _______ carbon unittrick question. depends on the amino acid side group carbon unitsFatty Acid Oxidation occurs where and does what?occurs in the mitochondria fatty acids are taken apart 2 carbons at a time. 2 carbon fragments combine with CoA and Acetyl CoA is formedWhich macronutrient provides the most energy?lipids (9kcal/g)Most cells use what for fuel?fatty acidsGlucose is needed for what?brain, nerve and red blood cellsBrain and nerve cells weigh about how much?3 poundsBrain and nerve cells use around how much glucose each day?Half (500kcals or 150g of carbs daily)Gluconeogenesis occurs where?liverGluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.-the body protein (amino acids) are broken down due to the lack of glucose -fat breakdown doubles -produce ketone bodies -slows metabolism to reduce energy outputWhat happens during ketosis?loss of appetite, dramatic weight loss within first few daysWhat does the weight loss during ketosis consist of?loss of glycogen, protein, body fluids/water, and minerals FAT loss versus WEIGHT loss. you aren't losing any fat tissue during ketosis