33 terms

Pharmacology Chapter 19 Analgesics, Sedatives and Hypnotics

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Opiods
similar properties to drugs formed from opium such as morphine and nonopiods.
Nonopiods
include all other analgesics such as acetaminophen (also known as Tylenol) and non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ASA and Ibuprofen
Sedatives and hypnotics
are used in the treatment of individuals who are having difficulty getting or staying asleep
Opioids (name)
1. codeine
2. hydrocodone (Vicodin)
3. meperidine (Demerol)
4. morphine (MS Contin, MSIR)
5. oxycodone (Percodan, Oxycontin, Tylox)
6. methadone (Dolophine)
7. Darvon, Darvocet
8. fentanyl (Duragesic)
9. Dilaudid
Purpose Opioids
Used to alter the perception of pain
Side Effects Opioids
Sedation
Confusion, euphoria, restlessness, agitation
Headache
Dizziness
Urinary retention
Respiratory depression
Physical and /or emotional dependence
Contraindications or Cautions Opioids
Head injury
CNS depression
Hepatic and renal disease
COPD
Pregnancy, lactation
Children
Older adults
Debilitated
Addiction-prone
Suicidal
Alcoholic
Hypersensitivity
Opioid Antagonist
1. Narcan
Purpose Opioid Antagonist
Treatment of opioid overdose
Side effects Opioid Antagonist
Life-threatening withdrawals in addicted persons
Contraindications or Cautions Opioid Antagonist
Dependency on opiates
Can only be used after withdrawal
Nonopioid Analgesics
1. aspirin (combinations)
2. acetaminophen (Tylenol, combinations)
3. tramadol (Ul-tram)
Purpose Nonopioid Analgesics
Relief of mild to moderate pain
Reduce inflammation
Reduce fever
Side effects Nonopioid Analgesics
Prolonged bleeding time
Bleeding and bruising
Gastric distress, ulceration, and bleeding
Tinnitus
Contraindication or cautions Nonopioid Analgesics
GI bleed
Ulcer
Bleeding disorders
Renal and hepatic disorders
Anticoagulant therapy
Asthma
Children with influenza-like symptoms
Pregnancy, lactation
Patient Education Nonopioid Analgesics
Do not take with alcohol
May increase or decrease the effects of some medications
Acetaminophen
For pain and fever only; not antiinflammatory
Side effects Acetaminophen
Severe liver toxicity
Renal insufficiency
Tramadol
For pain only
Side effects Tramadol
Rash
Dizziness
Hypotension
Contraindications or cautions Tramadol
Increased intracranial pressure
Seizures
Age less than 16 years
Pregnancy, lactation
Renal and hepatic disease
Adjuvant Analgesics
1. tricyclics (Elavil, Tofranil)
2. anticonvulsants (Tegretol)
3. gabapentin (Neurontin)
Purpose Adjuvant Analgesics
Used to enhance analgesic effect with opioids and nonopioids
Side effects Adjuvant Analgesics
Dry mouth
Sedation
Orthostatic hypotension
Tachyarrhythmias
Contraindications or Cautions Adjuvant Analgesics
BPH
Glaucoma
Cardiac conditions
Patient Education
Rise slowly from recumbent positions
Report side effects to physician
Do not take with alcohol
Check for interactions with other medications
Side effects Anticonvulsants
Sedation
GI distress
Nystagmus
Diplopia
Gingivitis
Hypotension
Contraindication or Cautions Anticonvulsants
Psychiatric conditions
Pregnancy
Cardiac conditions
Sedative-Hypnotic Nonbarbiturates
1. chloral hydrate
2. estazolam (Prosom)
3. temazepam (Restoril)
4. zolpidem (Ambien)
5. zaleplon (Sonata)
Purpose Sedative-hypnotic nonbarbiturates
Promote sleep
Side Effects Sedative-hypnotic nonbarbiturates
Nausea, vomiting
Diarrhea
Dizziness
Ataxia
Contraindications or Cautions Sedative-hypnotic nonbarbiturates
Hypersensitivity
Severe liver impairment
Severe renal impairment
Older adults
Debilitation
Addiction-prone
Mental disorders
Pregnancy, lactation
Children
COPD
Sleep apnea
Side effects Benzodiazepines
Confusion
Headache
Hangover
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