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Enviromental Science Test 3
Terms in this set (50)
The World Health Organization regards health as primarily a matter of ________ well-being.
Physical, mental and social
DDT accumulation in North American eagles, pelicans and other birds disrupted birds' calcium metabolism, causing
Undernourished parents often raise children who are undernourished because the parents
All of These:
Transfer genetic deficiencies to their children
Do not know any better
Cannot afford to feed their children properly
Do not have access to the information about nutrition
People who subsist on starchy foods such as cassava, potatoes and white rice
Often receive insufficient protein
Which of the following does NOT describe the status of the world's wild fisheries?
Fish farming has allowed wild fish to recover worldwide
Health organizations now use the ______________, a tool to ______________________.
DALY; judge the total impact of the disease rather than only measuring how many people die
_______________, rather than ______________ are becoming the leading causes of disability and premature death worldwide.
Chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease; infectious diseases such as malaria
Hazardous substances ______________ while toxins are ______________.
Are dangerous substances; poisonous substances
Food security has to do with
The ability of a population to obtain food on a day-to-day basis
A broad-spectrum biocide is designed to kill
A wide range of living organisms
An important role of the CRP is to
Pay farmers to take highly erodible land out of production
The parent material layer of a soil is composed of weathered
Toxic substances are dangerous because they
React or interfere with specific cell functions
Allergens are substances that
activate the immune system
Which of the following practices contributes the LEAST to antibiotic or pesticide resistance?
A person takes the full course of the appropriate antibiotic when she has a bacterial infection
Acute effects of a toxin appear
immediately after exposure
Vitamin A deficiencies are associated with
Most of the livestock grown in North America are
confined in CAFOs
Topsoil contains predominantly
Mixed organic material and mineral particles
The richest farming soils that form under the grasslands of central North America and under moist deciduous forests are the
Mollisols and alfisols
Soil organisms usually stay __________ the soil.
close to the surface of
In developed countries, the most recent increases in agricultural productivity have come from
Irrigation, increased fertilization and new crop varieties
Neurotoxins act by
Disrupting nerve cells
Why is it useful to classify pesticides by their chemical structure?
Similar chemical structures often relate to similar toxicological characteristics
Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by exposure to a(n)
If solubility is an important characteristic in toxic material movement in the environment and body, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Oil-soluble compounds accumulate in the body
Highly persistent toxic chemicals
retain their toxicity as they cycle through the food chain and environment
Wind erosion is most likely to cause problems in
Open, arid regions
Historically, the greatest threats to human health came from
Teratogens cause abnormal growth specifically in
Pest resurgence is part of the problem of pesticide resistance and happens when a pest organism
Adapts to the pesticide and produces tolerant offspring
The biomagnification of DDT demonstrates that
Higher trophic level organisms can concentrate toxins in a type of "inverse biological pyramid."
Bioaccumulation is a term that describes the way cells
Selectively absorb and store molecules
Biomagnification is a concentration of toxins
As predators consume and store toxins stored in the bodies of their prey
People can suffer malnourishment if they consume large amounts of ______ instead of _______.
Fat and sugar; vitamins and protein
The three crops that humans rely on for the majority of nutrients and calories are
Wheat, rice and maize (corn)
Which of the following is the most correct definition of soil?
A complex mixture of organic matter, minerals and living organisms
The stratified horizontal layers of soils are called soil
Neurotoxins act by
Disrupting nerve cells
If 100 cups of strong coffee contain a lethal dose of caffeine, why don't coffee drinkers eventually die from caffeine overdoses.
Our bodies metabolize the caffeine before lethal concentrations are reached
The pesticide treadmill occurs when
constantly increasing doses of pesticides are needed to control pests
Individuals represented by the middle of the dose/response curve (responding to doses of 20 ppm) are ______________ for that population.
About average in sensitivity
As a society, we usually focus attention on health risks that are
Most well publicized and frightening
High responder crops of the green revolution produce tremendous yields
In response to fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation
A chemical interaction in which one substance exacerbates the effects of another is termed
An LD50 is a dose of a toxic chemical that
Kills half of the population
Most people do their own personal risk assessments based upon
Personal biases and preferences as well as logic
What are two common diseases that result from protein deficiencies?
Marasmus and kwashiorkor
Spaces between sand particles give sandy soil
Which of the following CANNOT be found in soil?
All of these are found in soil:
Fungus and algae
Algae and bacteria
Insects and bacteria
Insects and fungus
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