ap gov ch 8 vocab

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blanket primary
A primary in which voters can vote for the Democratic candidates, the Republican candidates, or some from each party
closed primary
A primary election in which voters must first declare to which party they belong
coattails
The tendency of lesser-known or weaker candidates to profit from the presence on the ticket of stronger candidate
direct mail
A means of soliciting funds from millions of people
general election
An election used to fill an elective office
gerrymandering
Drawing a district in some bizarre or unusual manner in order to create an electoral advantage
incumbent
The person currently in office
Independent
A voter describing herself or himself as neither a Democrat nor a Republican
independent expenditures
Ordinary advertising for or against candidates but not coordinated with or made at their direction
open primary
A primary in which voters can vote for the candidates of either the Democratic or the Republican party
malapportionment
The result of having districts of very unequal size
political action committee (PAC)
A group legally able to solicit campaign contributions from individuals within an organization and, under certain restrictions, to funnel these to candidates for office
position issue
An issue dividing the electorate on which rival parties adopt different policy positions to attract voters
presidential primary
A primary held to select delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties
primary election
An election intended to select a party's candidates for elective office
prospective voting
Voting for a candidate because one favors his or her ideas for addressing issues after the election
retrospective voting
Voting for the candidate or party in office because one likes or dislikes how things have gone in the recent past
runoff primary
A primary in which, to be successful, the candidate must receive a majority of all votes cast in that race
soft money
Can be given to the parties in limitless amounts so long as it is not used to back candidates by name
sophomore surge
The tendency for newly elected members of Congress to become strong in their districts very quickly
spots
Short television advertisements used to promote a candidate for government office
talking heads
Televised pictures showing nothing more than individuals speaking
valence issue
An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party with conditions or goals that the electorate universally supports or opposes
visual
A filmed episode showing a candidate doing something newsworthy
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