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when an image demonstrates considerable differences between the densities, the image is described as:
On a basic AP exam of the knee, the central ray should be:
angled 5 degrees cephalad and centered to the inferior margin of the patella
When an image demonstrates only a few densities but there are large differences between the adjacent densities, the image is described as having:
Short scale contrast
What does it mean to say that radiographic film is "duplitized"?
there is emulsion on both sides of the film
Which of the following conditions contribute to increased recorded detail?
small focal spot size, long SID, and short OID
The cental ray on an AP lower leg is:
perpendicular to the center of the film entering the midshaft of the tibia
In order to better visualize the joint space in the AP projection of the knee, the central ray may be angled 5 degrees:
Which radiographic quality factor can be described as misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure?
Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light?
Which of the following describe the characteristic curve of a film with wide latitude and longer scale contrast?
a more horizontal and wide curve
If a radiographic image appears blurred, which exposure factor would be used to correct this problem?
decrease in exposure time (seconds)
the structures that should be seen in a basic toe should include:
all of the above (entire digit, metatarsalphalangeal joint spaces, distal half of the metatarsals)
this is caused by random distribution of photons and appears as grainy spots on the image:
on the AP projection of the ankle which of these items must be visible?
lateral malleolus and medial malleolus
the slope of the straight line portion of the sensitometric curve indicates the film's:
contrast and latitude
the steeper the straight line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
greater the film speed, higher the film contrast, narrower the exposure latitude
which of the following is true regarding the correct positioning of the ankle for a lateral projection:
the CR enters perpendicular to the medial malleolus
which of these is a function of the cassette:
protect film from exposure to light, prevent film from bending and scratching, hold and protect the intensifying screen
when comparing two intensifying screens of the same phosphor type, the screen with the smaller phosphor crystals will:
produce a radiographic image with more recorded detail
a change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:
decreased recorded detail
if the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem:
if the OID can not be minimized by positioning, magnification can be reduced by doing the following:
increase SID and use small focal spot
the cental ray using the Sunrise view of the knee is:
angled so that the central ray passes between the patella and the distal femur
for an AP of the foot the foot should be situated so that
the plantar surface of the foot is in contact with the cassette
if a films spectral sensitivity is not matched to a screen's spectral emission what is the consequences:
inappropriate matching of film and screen increases the exposure required to produce an image, thus unnecessarily increasing the patients exposure
if an image were made using 500 mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75 kVp what would the mAs be for this exposure:
when using a fast screen how would you reduce quantom mottle:
increase exposure time and increase mA
what is the knob like protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia near the proximal end of the shaft.
the articular surface of each femoral condyle is cushioned by a C shaped cartilage called the
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the axial projection of the calcaneus when the ankle is dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is perpendicular to the IR?
40 degree cephalic
for the axial view of the calcaneus the ankle must be dorsiflexed as much as possible and held in position.
what do the reducing agents of the developer do?
reduces exposed silver halide to black metallic silver
what does I AM EXPERT stand for
identification, anatomy, markings, exposure, processing, esthetic quality, radiation safety, troubleshooting
what is the protocol for the elbow
AP, LATERAL, AP OBLIQUE MEDIAL ROTATION, AP OBLIQUE LATERAL ROTATION
why would an AP projection of the wrist be done in addition to the routine views
to see the lunate and pisiform
what cause chemical fog
contaminated developer, developer too high, film in developer too long (all these above)
structural mottle is caused by
all of these: crystal thickness, crystal size, and uneven crystal distributions
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