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Content from week 1-4. Ingredients, Baking Terminologies, Quick Breads, Measurement conversions, Mixing methods

biscuit method

a mixing method used to make biscuits, scones, and flaky doughs; it involves cutting cold fat into the flour and other dry ingredients before any liquid is added

muffin method

mixing method in which the mixing dry ingredients are combined with the mixed liguid fat and other ingredients.

creaming method

A mixing method that begins with the blending of softened fat and sugar. Resulting in a rich tender, cakelike product.


A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.


cell size of interior of a baked food product.

Bread flour

Strong hard wheat flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.

Pastry flour

A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.


An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.

1 cup = _____ fl oz

= 8 fl oz

1 pint = _____ fl oz

= 16 fl oz

1 quart = _______ fl oz = ______ pts

= 32 fl oz = 2 pt.

1/2 gallon = _______ fl oz

= 64 fl oz

1 gal = ______ fl oz = _______ qts

= 128 fl oz = 4 qts

1 T= ______ t

= 3 t

2 T = _____ oz

= 1 oz

1 lb = _____ oz

= 16 oz

1 g = _____ mg

1000 mg

1 kg = ______ g

1000 g

1 centiliter (cl) = _____ milliliters (ml)

= 10 milliliters (ml)

1 deciliter (dl) = _____ centiliters (cl)

= 10 centiliters (cl)

1 liter (L)= ____ deciliters (dl)

= 10 deciliters (dl)

1 liter (L) = ____ milliliters (ml)

= 1000 milliliters (ml)

Rolled-in dough

Fat is incorporated into the dough in many layers by using a rolling and folding procedure.

Lean Dough

A dough that is low in fat and sugar. Contains less than 10% shortening and sugar.

Rich dough

A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs. Contains more than 10-30% shortening and sugar.

Laminated dough

Contains more than 30% shortening and less than 15% sugar.

Straight Dough Method

A mixing method for yeast goods in which all ingredients are mixed together at once. (dump and go!)

Modified Straight Dough Method

A mixing method similar to the straight dought method, except that the fat and the sugar are mixed together to ensure uniform distribution used for rich doughs.


Combine the flour and water and mix on low speed until the flour is moistened. Rest 30 minutes to ensure the water has completely hydrated the flour.


Slowing the fermentation or proof of yeast doughs by refrigeration.

Oven spring

Rapid rising in the oven due to the production and expansion of trapped gas as a result of the oven heat.


Yeast products are brushed with a liquid using; water, starch paste, egg wash or commericial aerosol sprays.


Dough is placed on the workbench and covered to let the gluten rest.


Process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches of the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and alcohol.

Windowpane test

Demonstrates complete and proper gluten development. To apply the test, take a small amount, form a ball and stretch it to a thin translucent membrane.

Pick up stage

1st mixing phase where the flour and dry ingredients are hydrated or combined with liquid ingredients.

Clean up stage

2nd mixing phase, where all dry ingredients are hydrated and form a rough dough. The dough forms enough to pull away from the bowl into a compact mass.

Final development stage

When the rough and undermixed dough where gluten becomes smooth and elastic.

12 Basic Yeast Dough Production

1. Scaling ingredients
2. Mixing
3. Bulk fermentation
4. Punch down
5. Scaling
6. Rounding
7. Benching
8. Make up and panning
9. Proofing
10. Baking
11. Cooling
12. Storing

Pour Batter

Batters liquid enough to pour.


A yeast bread shaped like a doughnut, with a dense chewy texture and shiny crust. A uniqu double-cooking technique is employed first by boiling the dough circles and then baking them. This popular Jewish bread was introduced to America in late 19th century by Eastern European immigrants. Served traditionally with cream cheese and cured salmon (lox).

French Bread

Any range of sizes and shapes of crusty white bread, by law made from only flour, water, yeast and salt. The baguete is the most well known.

English Muffin

A small, round yeast pastry formed in an English muffin ring and baked on a griddle. It is recommended to split open the muffin with a fork in order to reveal its nooks and crevices that are characteristic of this product. Usually toasted before serving.

Pullman loaf

A long, narrow rectangular loaf of bread. It was named after the inventor of the railroad Pullman car, George Mortimer Pullman, because the finished loaf resembels a long, narrow car. It gets it shape by being baked in a pan which has a lid that slides over the top, forcing the dough to conform to the shape of the pan. The finished bread has a soft, even golden brown crust with a tender white crumb.


The Italian word for "slipper" referring to a slipper-shapped rustic bread made from a very wet dough, wth large amounts of either Poolish or biga. It has a golden brown crisp and thin crust witha soft interior that has big holes.


A square or rectangular, rustic Italian bread. It should be 1-1 1/4 inches thick, with a substantial golden brown crust and tender, large holed crumb. It is generally baked in a flat sheet pan and is characteristic dimpled top can be sprinkled with coarse salt, olive oil, herbs, cheeses, and/or other items. The name is derived from the Latin word for "hearth", referring to how the breads were baked before the advent of ovens.


A bread shape made by slitting an oval piece of dough with long alternating cuts on either side, then pulling them open prior to baking. It is somewhat flat and thin. The name derives from the Latin, focus, which means "fireplace", because it was originally cooked on a hot hearthstone. It is sometimes called latter bread because the openings have a ladder-like appearance.


Rich Yeast risen dough containing a large amount of eggs and butter: a product made from this dough.

Bakers % Formula when you don't know the % of the ingredient.

total weight of ingredient/ total weight of flour x 100 = % of the ingredient.

Killing of Yeast

Doughs contain other organisms, including bacteria and molds. Most of these, including yeast, die when the interior temperature of the item reaches about 140 degrees F (60C). When it dies, fermentation stops and no more carbon dioxide gas is released.

Maillard Reaction

The caramelization in baked goods that occurs between 212 & 350 F (100-175C), as a result of a reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids or protiens. It causes the sugar-protein bonds to brown at a lower temperature and creates different shades of color ranging from yellow-gold to rich brown. Named after its discoverer, the chemist Dr. Louis-Camille Maillard.

Make up and Panning

When making yeast doughs this is where the dough is shaped into loaves or rolls then placed in pans or on baking sheets.


When making yeast doughs this is a continuation process of yeast fermentation that increases the volume of the shaped dough.


When making yeast doughs, after scaling the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. Simplifies the later shaping of the dough and also helps retain gases produced by the yeast.


When making yeast doughs, this is a process performed after fermentation is completed, the dough is folded over to compress it and to give it additional slight development to the gluten. It expels the CO2, redistributes the yeast for further growth, and relaxes the gluten and equalizes temperature.

Yeast Dough Mixing

When making yeast doughs, methods combining the various stages that happen in a mixing bowl such as: pick-up stage, clean-up stage to create a dough where the gluten becomes smooth and elastic.

Bakers % formula: When you dont know the weight of the ingredients.

Formula: Weight of Flour x % of the ingredient = Weight of ingredient.

Step 1: Turn the percentages into their decimal form.
Step 2: Multiply the percent in decimal form for each ingredient by the weight of the flour.

Ex: Butter = 30% and Bread Flour is 40 oz.
Step 1: Butter = .30 x 40 = 12 oz


A result created by overmixing quickbreads where it produces tough interior and irregular shapes and large, elogated holes inside quickbreads.

Drop Batter

Batters thick enough to be dropped from a a spoon or scoop in lumps.

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