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Baking and Pastry Fundamentals Final

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Creaming Method
Versatile mixing method. Used in cookies, tarts, cakes and icings. Contains Sugar, fat, eggs and flour.
Best Temperature for fat in creaming method is
65-70 F
Characteristics of creamed and fat sugar mixture
Homogeneous, lighter in color, increased volume.
What attachment is used for creaming method?
Paddle
Two cut in methods
Flakey and Mealy
What is the importance of butter in the cut in method?
Determines the final texture by the size of the fat in the dough.
What is the number one rule involving the cut in method?
KEEP IT COLD!
Ingredients of cut in
Flour, Flavorings, Fat and Liquids.
For flakey dough, how big should the fat be?
Size of a walnut
For mealy dough, how big should the fat be?
Size of a pea
Cut in method
Cut the cold fat into cubes, work fat with flour, keep cold then form a well in the middle and incorporate dough carefully.
Pie filling methods
Uncooked fruit, precooked fruit, custard, cream
Example of Uncooked fruit
Classic Apple Pie.
Example of Cooked fruit in Pies
Fruit / Fillings cooked on stove. Thickened with a starch slurry. Cherry
Example of Custard in pies
Pumpkin and pecan pie. Shell is blind baked.
Example of Cream Pies
Banana cream and chocolate cream.
Filling is a boiled custard.
Shell is pre baked.
Cold butter is used in pie dough to
Help create layers
What is the basic pie ratio
3-2-1
What does the 3 in basic pie dough ratio refer to
Flour
What does the 2 in basic pie dough ratio refer to
Fat
What does the 1 in basic pie dough ratio refer to
Liquid
What are the two foaming methods
Warm foaming, separated foaming
What are the uses of the warm foaming method?
Greater volume, more stability
What are the ingredients of the warm foaming method?
Eggs, sugar, cake flour, flavoring, fat
Separated foaming method
Most stable foaming method, where eggs are whipped into two foams and folded together.
When do you spread or pipe for the separated foaming method?
IMMEDIATELY!
Pre cooking
Process of initially cooking ingredients to pre-gelatinize starch, evaporate moisture, and dissolve sugar. Used in pate a choux and cream puffs
Ingredients for pre cooking method
Water, milk, butter, salt, flour, eggs
What should the consistency of your choux resemble?
Toothpaste
How do you know if choux is baked?
Even browning on top and slightly less color on the side walls
What would be the difference in using water instead of milk in choux?
The product will be lighter in color
How do you add eggs in pate a choux?
In parts, scraping after each addition.
What attachment is used for the pate a choux?
Paddle
Why do we use the pre cooked method in the making of choux?
To pre-gelatinize the starches.
Blending method is used for
Quick breads and muffins
What leavener is used in the blending method?
Chemical
What are the dimensions of a julienne cut?
1/8 x 1/8 x 1-2 inches
What are the dimensions of a Batonnet cut?
1/4 x 1/4 x 1-2 inches
What are the dimensions of a brunoise cut?
1/8 x 1/8 x 1/8
What are the dimensions of a small dice?
1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4
How do you convert from ounces to grams?
Multiply by 28.35
1 pound is how many grams?
454 grams
Pate a choux ratio
2:1:1:2 ; 2 parts liquid, 1 part fat, 1 part flour, 2 parts eggs
Meringue Ratio
2 parts sugar, 1 parts egg whites
Baking Temperature for Genoise
325 in deck oven
Baking Temperature for Custards (pot de creme)
325, low and slow
Baking Temperature for Chiffon Cake
350 in deck
Folding Method for Puff Pastry
4-3-4-3
Folding Method for Croissants
4-3-3
What is the process of aerating ice cream called?
Overrun
What happens when you freeze ice cream base while warm?
You get large ice crystals
What are the components of sorbet?
Fruit Puree, Sorbet Syrup
What are the two methods of tempering chocolate?
Seeding and Tabling
What is the working temperature of chocolate?
88-90 F
Three leavening agents
Biological, chemical, mechanical; yeast, baking powder, air
Whole eggs can whip to how many times
4 times
Egg whites can whip to how many times
8 times
What temperature do you bake pate a choux?
375-400
How many ounces in a gallon?
128 oz
What temperature do you bake pies
375 F
What temperature do you bake biscuits?
325 F
What is the leavening agent in pate a choux?
Steam