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Bakers percentage

Flour is always 100%

What does yeast produce?


What's yeast eat?

Sugar and starches

Inactive yeast temp


Lean dough

Dough with little to no fat

Enriched dough

Dough with fat added

Scaling (bread step)

Adjusting ingredients/weighing/consistency

Mixing Dough

Combine ingredients to allow ingredients to function properly

Bulk fermentation

Lean dough - alcohol production
Enriched dough- creates lightness

Folding over

Redistributes yeast
Expels c02
Helps gluten
Evens temp


Keeps weight consistent
Avoid small pieces
Portions dough


Smooth surface
Prevents bleeding
1st step to desired shape

Bench rest

Relaxes gluten
Ferments in bench


Expels gases
Tightens dough

Final fermentation

Proofer or covered
85-100 for yeast
For c02 for both doughs


For even and controlled expansion
Improves crumb structure

Steam/egg wash

Lean doughs get steam for shine and color
Egg wash enriched dough for shine


Crust forms and sugars caramelize


Improves shelf life
More yeast development


1:1 ratio wate to flour
No salt .05% yeast

Pat ferment (old dough)

2:1 flour to water


2:1 ratio water to flour
No salt .01% yeast

Sponge method

For enriched dough
Produces c02
Use all yeast at once

Sour dough method

Bacterial yeast

Flour contains


High gluten flour

High in protein
Bagels, puff pastry

Bread flour

Moderate protein
Soft rolls, nutritional breads

Pastry flour

Good protein
Pies, biscuits, muffins

Ap flour

Low in protein

Cake flour

Lowest in protein
Moist in molds

Boiled custards

Contains starches
Pastry cream

Baked custards

Creme brûlée
Half sugar in liquid half in eggs

Stirred custards

Creme Anglais
Vanilla sauce
Bring to 180

Ratio for custard

1 qt liquid
6-8 eggs


Cream lightened with merignue

Mousse line

Pastry cream with buttercream

Diplomat cream

Pastry cream with whip cream


Starch liquid eggs sugar that is boiled


Egg yolks, sugar, flavorings

Blending method

Liquid fats (oils)
Like banana bread

Rubbing method

3:2:1 flour: fat: liquid
All ingredients rubbed in
Mealy dough like scones

Cut in method

Flour and fat added and blended together than liquid
3:2:1 flour :fat: liquid

Pie dough

Reasons for foaming

Helps leaven products

Cold foaming method

Whip eggs with sugar
Fold in dry ingredients and melted fat

Whip cream
French meringue

Warm foaming

Eggs and sugar over double boiler stir to 120
Fold in dry ingredients
Fold in melted fat

Vanilla sauce

Separated foam mixing method

Eggs are separated and beaten separately with sugar
Fold in yolks with whites
Then dry ing. And fat

French meringue
Lady fingers

Steps for vanilla sauce

Have ice bath, wooden spoon, and strainer set up
Mix half sugar with liquid and other half with eggs
Bring sugar and liquid to boil
Temper half of liquid to egg mix
Pour remaining eggs to sauce pot
Stir bottom of pot with wooden spoon to not burn bottom
Bring to nappe
Strain in bowl that is in the ice bath


1:2 egg whites to sugar

Dry method

Cook sugar to desired color in small increments

Wet method

Sugar cooked to temp with water and acid

French meringue

Not cooked
Egg whites whipped with sugar

Swiss meringue

Egg whites cooked

Italian meringue

Cooked sugar to soft ball stage then added to whites

Pate a choux ratio



To layer fat and dough

Diamond lock in

Fold dough to diamond and fold like a gift

3 fold lock in

Roll out dough lengthwise
Place roll in third down
Fold 3 sides and fold over


Made with yeast


Higher fat percentage

Lock in

To make sure edges are secure to not let fat seep out

Three fold

Divide in thirds fold outer third over middle then fold other side


To melt agitate and cool chocolate to retain gloss and snap

Working temp for dark chocolate


Working temps for white and milk chocolate


Block method

A whole block of chocolate until working temp is reached

Tabling method

1/3 Chocolate poured on marble and spread back and forth until thickens
Add rest of chocolate until temp reached

Seeding method

Small pieces of chocolate are added and mixed until temp is reached

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