CIA baking and pastry skills development

CIA AAS Baking and Pastry SA June 2014
12 steps in bread making
1)scaling 2)mixing 3)bulk fermentation 4)folding 5)diving 6)pre-shaping 7)bench rest 8)shaping 9)final fermentation 10)scoring 11)baking 12)cooling
Chemical leaveners
Baking soda, baking powder
Mechanical leavener
Incorporated air
Organic leavener
Pie dough ratio
3:2:1 flour, butter, water
Cookie dough ratio
1:2:3 sugar, butter, flour
100% flour, 50-60% water, 1/2% yeast, 24 hours
100% flour, 100% water, some yeast - 12-16 hours
Creaming method
Blending fat and sugar together to incorporate air
Pound cake
A rich cake containing a pound of each main ingredient, typically flour, butter, and sugar
Short dough
Contains high level of fat, producing a tender crumbly crust.
Steps for short dough
1)Combine sugar and fat, without incorporating air 2)add eggs gradually 3)add dry ingredients and mix til just combined 4)turn out dough, pancake, chill
Why do eggs do to batters and doughs?
Emulsify the structure
Helps loosen/liquefy a dough/batter. Ie water, fat, sugar
Helps develop a solid structure. Ie flour, eggs
Combination creaming method
Combines the creaming method with the foaming method
Rubbed-in dough
The process of rubbing the fat and flour together. Either mealy or flaky
How is rubbed dough baked?
Blind bake
What are the 3 different types of custards?? Give an example
Boiled, pastry cream
Stirred, creme anglaise
Baked, quich
Why do we paddle pastry cream?
To remove the lumps
Steps to make pate a choux
1)bring liquids, sugar and salt to a boil 2)add flour 3)cook for 3min 4)place in mixture and add eggs gradually 5)bake in a 400 degree oven then reduce to a 350 degree oven
What is pate a choux used for?
Eclairs, swans, cream puffs, Paris-Brest
Gato St honore
A base of puff pastry, with a ring of pate a choux filled with creme chibouste, topped with a ring of cream puffs, glued on with caramel sugar, filled again with chantilly cream.
Define fondant
Sugar, cooked with corn syrup, that is agitated constantly to get super fine crystalline structure.
What is fondant used for?
It is used as a center in chocolates and as a glaze in pastries
What is the highest temp you can heat fondant?
What are the 3 laminated doughs
Puff pastry, Danish, and crossant
What are the 2 different ways to make puff pastry
Blitz and lock-in
Blitz dough
Chunks of butter that is folded into flour using the 3 fold, 3 times, rest and repeat
You literally lock in the butter to the dough and do four 4 folds
What do we make with puff pastry
Cheese sticks, pralines, turn overs
What is the effect of salt
Denatures proteins
Lean dough
A basic dough made with the 4 most common ingredients in a bakery: flour, yeast, water, salt
Enriched dough
Dough that has been enriched in some way. Typically with milk, cream, butter, sugar, eggs
What is the bakers %
The relationship if ingredients to the flour, which is always 100%
Basic bread varieties
Challah, rolls, baggets, brioche
Why do we soak multigrain a before putting them I to the dough?
To soften then up and decrease the chance of breaking the gluten strands
Sour dough fermentation is caused by what?
Yeast and bacteria
Brioche method
1)combine liquids, yeast and a portion of the flour to create a sponge 2)place rest of flour on top of sponge and allow to rise 3)add eggs in increments to allow gluten development 4)slowly incorporate the butter. 5) bulk ferment 6)divid into 1.5oz and shape into brioche 7)proof, egg wash an bake
Steps to making chocolate
1)harvest 2)fermentation 3)drying 4)storing 5)roasting 6)cracking 7)grinding 8) refining 9)conching 10)tempering
Cocoa butter
The fat extracted from a cacao bean
What are the 2 methods to temper chocolate?
Tabling, seeding
Why do we temper chocolate?
To get a shine, snap, and stability
Ganash ratio
2:1 chocolate, cream
What are the three different meringues?
The cold, common, or French
The warm, or Swiss
The hot, or italian
What are the 3 different kinds of foaming method?
What are the 2 methods to cooking sugar?
Dry and wet sand
Why is the brix in desserts?
It measures the amount of sugar in relation to the volume of the dessert mix