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CIA AAS Baking and Pastry SA June 2014

12 steps in bread making

1)scaling 2)mixing 3)bulk fermentation 4)folding 5)diving 6)pre-shaping 7)bench rest 8)shaping 9)final fermentation 10)scoring 11)baking 12)cooling

Chemical leaveners

Baking soda, baking powder

Mechanical leavener

Incorporated air

Organic leavener


Pie dough ratio

3:2:1 flour, butter, water

Cookie dough ratio

1:2:3 sugar, butter, flour


100% flour, 50-60% water, 1/2% yeast, 24 hours


100% flour, 100% water, some yeast - 12-16 hours

Creaming method

Blending fat and sugar together to incorporate air

Pound cake

A rich cake containing a pound of each main ingredient, typically flour, butter, and sugar

Short dough

Contains high level of fat, producing a tender crumbly crust.

Steps for short dough

1)Combine sugar and fat, without incorporating air 2)add eggs gradually 3)add dry ingredients and mix til just combined 4)turn out dough, pancake, chill

Why do eggs do to batters and doughs?

Emulsify the structure


Helps loosen/liquefy a dough/batter. Ie water, fat, sugar


Helps develop a solid structure. Ie flour, eggs

Combination creaming method

Combines the creaming method with the foaming method

Rubbed-in dough

The process of rubbing the fat and flour together. Either mealy or flaky

How is rubbed dough baked?

Blind bake

What are the 3 different types of custards?? Give an example

Boiled, pastry cream
Stirred, creme anglaise
Baked, quich

Why do we paddle pastry cream?

To remove the lumps

Steps to make pate a choux

1)bring liquids, sugar and salt to a boil 2)add flour 3)cook for 3min 4)place in mixture and add eggs gradually 5)bake in a 400 degree oven then reduce to a 350 degree oven

What is pate a choux used for?

Eclairs, swans, cream puffs, Paris-Brest

Gato St honore

A base of puff pastry, with a ring of pate a choux filled with creme chibouste, topped with a ring of cream puffs, glued on with caramel sugar, filled again with chantilly cream.

Define fondant

Sugar, cooked with corn syrup, that is agitated constantly to get super fine crystalline structure.

What is fondant used for?

It is used as a center in chocolates and as a glaze in pastries

What is the highest temp you can heat fondant?


What are the 3 laminated doughs

Puff pastry, Danish, and crossant

What are the 2 different ways to make puff pastry

Blitz and lock-in

Blitz dough

Chunks of butter that is folded into flour using the 3 fold, 3 times, rest and repeat


You literally lock in the butter to the dough and do four 4 folds

What do we make with puff pastry

Cheese sticks, pralines, turn overs

What is the effect of salt

Denatures proteins

Lean dough

A basic dough made with the 4 most common ingredients in a bakery: flour, yeast, water, salt

Enriched dough

Dough that has been enriched in some way. Typically with milk, cream, butter, sugar, eggs

What is the bakers %

The relationship if ingredients to the flour, which is always 100%

Basic bread varieties

Challah, rolls, baggets, brioche

Why do we soak multigrain a before putting them I to the dough?

To soften then up and decrease the chance of breaking the gluten strands

Sour dough fermentation is caused by what?

Yeast and bacteria

Brioche method

1)combine liquids, yeast and a portion of the flour to create a sponge 2)place rest of flour on top of sponge and allow to rise 3)add eggs in increments to allow gluten development 4)slowly incorporate the butter. 5) bulk ferment 6)divid into 1.5oz and shape into brioche 7)proof, egg wash an bake

Steps to making chocolate

1)harvest 2)fermentation 3)drying 4)storing 5)roasting 6)cracking 7)grinding 8) refining 9)conching 10)tempering

Cocoa butter

The fat extracted from a cacao bean

What are the 2 methods to temper chocolate?

Tabling, seeding

Why do we temper chocolate?

To get a shine, snap, and stability

Ganash ratio

2:1 chocolate, cream

What are the three different meringues?

The cold, common, or French
The warm, or Swiss
The hot, or italian

What are the 3 different kinds of foaming method?


What are the 2 methods to cooking sugar?

Dry and wet sand

Why is the brix in desserts?

It measures the amount of sugar in relation to the volume of the dessert mix

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