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Baking and Pastries Final

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All Purpose Flour
A blend of soft and hard flours. Designed for use in a wide variety of foods.
Cake Flour
A fine, white flour, with low protein content.
Pastry Flour
A low protein flour usually milled from hard red winter wheat and usually not bleached.
Bread Flour
Flour with a high gluten content and is best suited to breadmaking.
Whole Wheat Flour
flour made by grinding the entire wheat berry including the bran
Wheat Germ
embryo of the wheat kernel. Often used instead of flour.
Self Rising Flour
All-purpose flour to which leavening agents and salt is have been added to
Rye Flour
has the same amt of PRO as wheat, but is of poor from the standpoint of quality for gluten dev
*compact,dense, and heavy
Cornmeal
The drying and grinding of a special type of corn called dent
Oats
Most Common Grain used in America, Lends texture, taste and nutrition.
Rice Flour
is also used as a thickening agent in recipes that are refrigerated or frozen since it inhibits liquid separation. Little protein (no gluten) Made from whole white or brown rice kernals.
Nut Flours
Finley ground nuts.
Brown Sugar
refined white sugar with molasses added
Corn syrup
Extracting corn kernals and treating it with enzyme acid to develop a sweet syrup
Fructose
a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits and vegitables
Glucose Syrup
a thick syrup extracted from the starch of cornn, potato, rice or wheat by hydrolysis
Granulated Sugar
also called fine granulated sugar ,the most use
Honey
Strong sweetener with fructose and glucose
Invert Sugar
dense sugar syrup produced by refining sugar with acid
Malt
a liquid sweetener from germinated barly or wheat grains
Maple Sugar
Mostly sucrose, but is from the sap of maple trees
Molasses
a thick, dark brown syrup created by boiling down raw sugar, liquid by product of sugar
Pearl Sugar
Large-grain sugar formed into opaque pellets for decorating cookies and breads.
Powdered Sugar
sugar granulated into a fine powder
Sanding Sugar
Granulated sugar with a large, carse crystal structure that prevents it from dissolving easily; used for decorating cookies and pastries
Superfine/ Castor Sugar
Granulated sugar with a smaller-sized crystal; dissolves quickly in liquids and produces light, tender cakes
Turbinado Sugar
This is basically regular white sugar with a little of the molasses added back in to give it a more natural or raw look. It is no better than white sugar and still spikes the blood sugar, robs the body of minerals and is not a whole food.
Clarified Butter
purified butterfat; the butter is melted and the water and milk solids are removed.
Lard
soft white semisolid fat obtained by rendering the fatty tissue of the hog
Oil
Extracted from plants
Salted Butter
Butter w/ up to 2.5% salt added. This changes the flavor of the butter and extends its keeping qualities
Shortening
Any fat that shortens gluten strands.
Unsalted butter
Little to no salt
Whipped Butter
Air incorporated
Buttermilk
the liquid that is left after taking the fat from cream to make butter
Clotted Cream
a thick cream with soft lumps in it, made especially in southwest England 55% milk fat
Cream
A rich liquid milk product comtaining approx. 35% fat
Cream Cheese
A soft cows milk cheese containing 35% fat
Creme Fraiche
slightly fermented cream that has been thickened by lactic acids and natural fermentation.
Dry Milk Powder
Made by removing virtually all the moisture from the pasteruized milk
Evaporated Milk
Whole milk which has approximately 60% of the water
Half and Half
milk product with 10.5% fat, does not whip well, half cream and half milk, used in drinks
Heavy Cream
Contains not less than 36% milk-fat. Whips easily and holds its whipped texture longer than other creams. Must be pasteurized, but is rarely homogenized. Used in the same ways as light whipping cream
Light Cream
18-30%
Light Whipping Cream
cream that has enough butterfat (30% to 36%) to be whipped
Mascarpone
A soft, white, fresh cream cheese originally from the Lombardy region of southern Italy.
Ricotta
soft Italian cheese like cottage cheese
Sour cream
Added lactic acid bacteria to pasturised homogenized light cream
Sweetened Condensed Milk
60% water removed
Whole Millk
Milk as it comes from the cow, 88% water
Yogurt
a custard-like food made from curdled milk
Arrowroot
a powdered starch made from a tropical root; used as a thickener, remains clear when cooked
Cornstarch
starch prepared from the grains of corn
Gelatin
a thickener derived from animal protein
Pecktin
Clear tender gels used to set jellies/ jams