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All Purpose Flour

A blend of soft and hard flours. Designed for use in a wide variety of foods.

Cake Flour

A fine, white flour, with low protein content.

Pastry Flour

A low protein flour usually milled from hard red winter wheat and usually not bleached.

Bread Flour

Flour with a high gluten content and is best suited to breadmaking.

Whole Wheat Flour

flour made by grinding the entire wheat berry including the bran

Wheat Germ

embryo of the wheat kernel. Often used instead of flour.

Self Rising Flour

All-purpose flour to which leavening agents and salt is have been added to

Rye Flour

has the same amt of PRO as wheat, but is of poor from the standpoint of quality for gluten dev
*compact,dense, and heavy


The drying and grinding of a special type of corn called dent


Most Common Grain used in America, Lends texture, taste and nutrition.

Rice Flour

is also used as a thickening agent in recipes that are refrigerated or frozen since it inhibits liquid separation. Little protein (no gluten) Made from whole white or brown rice kernals.

Nut Flours

Finley ground nuts.

Brown Sugar

refined white sugar with molasses added

Corn syrup

Extracting corn kernals and treating it with enzyme acid to develop a sweet syrup


a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits and vegitables

Glucose Syrup

a thick syrup extracted from the starch of cornn, potato, rice or wheat by hydrolysis

Granulated Sugar

also called fine granulated sugar ,the most use


Strong sweetener with fructose and glucose

Invert Sugar

dense sugar syrup produced by refining sugar with acid


a liquid sweetener from germinated barly or wheat grains

Maple Sugar

Mostly sucrose, but is from the sap of maple trees


a thick, dark brown syrup created by boiling down raw sugar, liquid by product of sugar

Pearl Sugar

Large-grain sugar formed into opaque pellets for decorating cookies and breads.

Powdered Sugar

sugar granulated into a fine powder

Sanding Sugar

Granulated sugar with a large, carse crystal structure that prevents it from dissolving easily; used for decorating cookies and pastries

Superfine/ Castor Sugar

Granulated sugar with a smaller-sized crystal; dissolves quickly in liquids and produces light, tender cakes

Turbinado Sugar

This is basically regular white sugar with a little of the molasses added back in to give it a more natural or raw look. It is no better than white sugar and still spikes the blood sugar, robs the body of minerals and is not a whole food.

Clarified Butter

purified butterfat; the butter is melted and the water and milk solids are removed.


soft white semisolid fat obtained by rendering the fatty tissue of the hog


Extracted from plants

Salted Butter

Butter w/ up to 2.5% salt added. This changes the flavor of the butter and extends its keeping qualities


Any fat that shortens gluten strands.

Unsalted butter

Little to no salt

Whipped Butter

Air incorporated


the liquid that is left after taking the fat from cream to make butter

Clotted Cream

a thick cream with soft lumps in it, made especially in southwest England 55% milk fat


A rich liquid milk product comtaining approx. 35% fat

Cream Cheese

A soft cows milk cheese containing 35% fat

Creme Fraiche

slightly fermented cream that has been thickened by lactic acids and natural fermentation.

Dry Milk Powder

Made by removing virtually all the moisture from the pasteruized milk

Evaporated Milk

Whole milk which has approximately 60% of the water

Half and Half

milk product with 10.5% fat, does not whip well, half cream and half milk, used in drinks

Heavy Cream

Contains not less than 36% milk-fat. Whips easily and holds its whipped texture longer than other creams. Must be pasteurized, but is rarely homogenized. Used in the same ways as light whipping cream

Light Cream


Light Whipping Cream

cream that has enough butterfat (30% to 36%) to be whipped


A soft, white, fresh cream cheese originally from the Lombardy region of southern Italy.


soft Italian cheese like cottage cheese

Sour cream

Added lactic acid bacteria to pasturised homogenized light cream

Sweetened Condensed Milk

60% water removed

Whole Millk

Milk as it comes from the cow, 88% water


a custard-like food made from curdled milk


a powdered starch made from a tropical root; used as a thickener, remains clear when cooked


starch prepared from the grains of corn


a thickener derived from animal protein


Clear tender gels used to set jellies/ jams

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