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(low starch, high protein)
Off white or yellowish in color
Gritty texture or feel

Bread Flour

Higher protein amounts
More structure
Good for pizza dough and bagels

High Gluten Flour

(high in starch, high in protein)
Creamy in color
Smooth and fine feeling
Clumps when squeezed together in a fist

Pastry Flour

(high in starch, low in protein)
White in color
Soft and silky smooth feeling
Clumps when squeezed together in a fist

Cake Flour

a.k.a restaurant or hotel flour
(combination of hard and soft flours)

All-Purpose Flour

Made from durum wheat
Used to make pastas

Durum Flour (Semolina)

White flour with addition of baking powder and sometimes salt

Self-rising flour

Made from the entire wheat grain
Germ, endosperm and bran
Fat in germ can make flour go rancid quickly
Brownish in color
Different coarsenesses are available

Whole Wheat Flour

Oxidants are added to the raw flour



Exposed to the air and oxidizes on its own

Made from the rye grain
Low in protein
Has gliaden but not much glutenin
Usually mixed w/ wheat flour to make lighter loaf of bread
Grayish in color
Different coarsenesses and grades are available
High in pentosan gums
Interferes w/ gluten development and makes dough stickier than wheat doughs

Rye Flour

A microscopic one celled organism belonging to the fungi family

What is yeast

Needed for

What is yeast used for


Yeast dies at

Moisture (ex. water, milk, eggs, etc...)
Sugar (ex. starch, granulated, brown, raw, barley malt, rice syrup, honey, fruit, etc...)

Four components of yeast to live:

Adds moisture and richness
Increase keeping qualities
Assists leavening (ex. creaming, flakiness...)

Fats create

Melting of fats (90°F to 130°F)
Formation & expansion of gases
Killing of yeast & other microorganisms (140°F)
Coagulation of proteins (140°F-185°F)
Gelatinization of starches (105°F-200°F)
Escape of water vapor and other gases
Crust formation and browning (300°F)

What happens in the oven?

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