butter is the preferred fat when making tarts out of pate brisee because
taste is highly important
some baked meringues are reffered to as sponges because they contain
cake flour
When creaming fat and sugar for a cake batter the mixer should be set at
medium speed
the best temperature for a cake batter emulsion is?
70 degrees
the process of creaming fat and sugar together is to
incorporate air
chemical leaveners in a cake function as
This ingredient functions as a tenderizer, a toughner, and a moistener
a cake is done if the center of the cake
springs back when touched, or is dry when a toothpick is inserted and removed
in cookie terms, softness is the opposite of
Wanda asked the baker why he double panned his last batch of cookies, his answer was
to prevent the bottoms from burning
Too low an oven temperature can cause the cookies to
This fat has the right consistancy to make a flaky pie crust, and make an easily workable dough
regular hydrogenated shortening
This ingredient help a pie crust brown more quickly
When making baked fruit pies the bottom dough should be
Pie crust should be rolled out to a uniform thickness of
Solid packed canned fruits contain
no water
The best flour to use in flaky pie crust is
Pastry Flour
A soggy bottom crust might be caused by
underbaked bottom crust, or soaking up moisture from filling
Prevent the outside edge of pudding/custard from overbaking before the inside is set by baking
in a water bath
The amount of_________ in a custard determines its firmness
The eggs in custard become completely cooked or coagulated by _______ degrees F
185 degrees
Why is the milk used in baked puddings should be scalded
reduces cooking time and helps product cook more evenly
_________ can be used for a base for a Souffle
pastry creams or sweetened white sauces...
A standard Souffle contains
base, flavoring ingredient, egg whites
Pared apples are dipped in a solution of _______ to prevent them from turning brown
lemon juice...
How many ounces are in 5 pounds of flour
Protecting the product from air, adding moisture retainers to the formula, and freezing are recommended ways to
slow staling
When an emulsion contains more water than the fat can hold, the mixture
breaks or curdles
Shortenings are primarily used in baking to
take the place of the missing fat...
What common bakeshop ingredient strengthens gluten structure and inhibits yeast growth
To create a dough that is at the proper temperature for fermentations, it is easiest to control the temperature of the
Properly developed yeast dough feels
smooth and elastic...
Yeast continues to grow until the dough
reaches 140 degrees...
what are the parts of the wheat kernel
bran, germ, and endosperm...
How do bakers create a loaf of bread with square slices
by placing in a pan with a lid (pullman)...
In the baker's percentage method, flour is always what percent
When starches absorb moisture, expand and become firm, they are said to
At which stage in the baking process does water evaporate
throughout the entire baking process...
How many Fluid ounces are in One U.S. gallon
How many ounces are 2.5 pounds
Which can be measured in a volume container
water milk and eggs...
What are the functions of fat in a baking process
add moistness and richness, increase keeping quality, add flavor, assist in leavening when used as a creaming agent...
What is step 12 in the "12 steps in yeast dough production"
Bakers prefer to use butter because it
adds flavor and influences texture because it melts in the mouth...
Frozen eggs should be defrosted
placed unopened in the refrigerator and held for 2 days or placed in a defrosting tank containing running water at 50-60 degrees...
To store yeast breads for a long period of time, they should be wrapped and
This yeast dough production step is the process of molding bread into desired shapes
makeup or panning ...
Not listed in the text as yeast dough mixing method
only 3 listed in text are straight dough, modified straight dough, and sponge...
Invert sugar has which of the following properties
resists crystallization, and holds moisture well...
function of sugar in baked goods
add sweetness and flavor, give crust color, create tenderness and fineness of texture, increase keeping quality, act as creaming agent, provide food for yeast...
function of whole eggs in baked goods
structure, leavening, emulsifying of fats, shortening action, moisture, flavor, nutritional value, color...
Salt is used in bread-making because it
strengthens gluten and inhibits yeast growth...
Meringue made by beating hot sugar syrup into egg whites is called
italian meringue...
Which type of sugar is used to make syrups
granulated sugar...
Meringue made by beating sugar into unheated egg whites is called
common or french meringue...
Why are quick breads generally mixed only slightly
for tenderness and only slight gluetin development...
Which term describes the elongated holes sometimes found in quick bread muffins
For which mixing method is the fat cut into the dry ingredients and the dough kneaded before makeup
biscuit method...
Chocolate cream is also known as
What is the key ingredient of meringues
egg whites...
The most accurate way to determine the doneness of a syrup is to
test the temperature with a candy thermometer...
Quick breads such as muffins and loaves use this to rise
chemical leaveners and steam...
The flavoring used most frequently in the bakeshop
biscuit method
a mixing method used to make biscuits, scones, and flaky doughs; it involves cutting cold fat into the flour and other dry ingredients before any liquid is added
muffin method
mixing method in which the mixing dry ingredients are combined with the mixed liguid fat and other ingredients.
creaming method
A mixing method that begins with the blending of softened fat and sugar. Resulting in a rich tender, cakelike product.
A batter or dough of yeast, flour, and water that is allowed to ferment and is then mixed with more flour and other ingredients to make a bread dough.
cell size of interior of a baked food product.
Bread flour
Strong hard wheat flour, such as patent flour, used for breads.
Pastry flour
A weak flour used for pastries and cookies.
An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
1 cup = _____ fl oz
= 8 fl oz
1 pint = _____ fl oz
= 16 fl oz
1 quart = _______ fl oz = ______ pts
= 32 fl oz = 2 pt.
1/2 gallon = _______ fl oz
= 64 fl oz
1 gal = ______ fl oz = _______ qts
= 128 fl oz = 4 qts
1 T= ______ t
= 3 t
2 T = _____ oz
= 1 oz
1 lb = _____ oz
= 16 oz
1 g = _____ mg
1000 mg
1 kg = ______ g
1000 g
Lean Dough
A dough that is low in fat and sugar. Contains less than 10% shortening and sugar.
Rich dough
A dough high in fat, sugar, and/or eggs. Contains more than 10-30% shortening and sugar.
Straight Dough Method
A mixing method for yeast goods in which all ingredients are mixed together at once. (dump and go!)
Slowing the fermentation or proof of yeast doughs by refrigeration.
Yeast products are brushed with a liquid using; water, starch paste, egg wash or commericial aerosol sprays.
Dough is placed on the workbench and covered to let the gluten rest.
Process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches of the dough to produce carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and alcohol.
Windowpane test
Demonstrates complete and proper gluten development. To apply the test, take a small amount, form a ball and stretch it to a thin translucent membrane.
12 Basic Yeast Dough Production
1. Scaling ingredients
2. Mixing
3. Bulk fermentation
4. Punch down
5. Scaling
6. Rounding
7. Benching
8. Make up and panning
9. Proofing
10. Baking
11. Cooling
12. Storing
Pour Batter
Batters liquid enough to pour.
Bakers % Formula when you don't know the % of the ingredient.
total weight of ingredient/ total weight of flour x 100 = % of the ingredient.
Killing of Yeast
Doughs contain other organisms, including bacteria and molds. Most of these, including yeast, die when the interior temperature of the item reaches about 140 degrees F (60C). When it dies, fermentation stops and no more carbon dioxide gas is released.
Maillard Reaction
The caramelization in baked goods that occurs between 212 & 350 F (100-175C), as a result of a reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids or protiens. It causes the sugar-protein bonds to brown at a lower temperature and creates different shades of color ranging from yellow-gold to rich brown. Named after its discoverer, the chemist Dr. Louis-Camille Maillard.
Make up and Panning
When making yeast doughs this is where the dough is shaped into loaves or rolls then placed in pans or on baking sheets.
When making yeast doughs this is a continuation process of yeast fermentation that increases the volume of the shaped dough.
When making yeast doughs, after scaling the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. Simplifies the later shaping of the dough and also helps retain gases produced by the yeast.
Yeast Dough Mixing
When making yeast doughs, methods combining the various stages that happen in a mixing bowl such as: pick-up stage, clean-up stage to create a dough where the gluten becomes smooth and elastic.
A result created by overmixing quickbreads where it produces tough interior and irregular shapes and large, elogated holes inside quickbreads.
Drop Batter
Batters thick enough to be dropped from a a spoon or scoop in lumps.