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Angel food cake

Tall, light cake made without fat and leavened with a large quantity of whipped eggs.

Boiled or Foam icing

A coating for cakes made from whipped egg whites, meringue.

Butter cake

A type of creamed fat cake or high fat cake.

Butter cream

A type of icing that is made from sugar and fat and may contain either egg yolks or whites.

Cake comb

Serrated knife used to create patterns on cakes frosted with buttercream, fudge or ganache.

Chiffon cake

Similar to angel food cake; the addition of egg yolks and vegetable oil makes the chiffon cake richer and moister.

Creamed fat cakes

One of the two types of cake-making methods; it includes butter cakes and high-ratio cakes.

Crumb coat

A thin layer of icing spread on an assembled cake to seal loose surface crumbs.

Decorator's icing or royal icing

An uncooked mixture of powdered sugar and egg whites and can be tinted with edible food coloring.


D = m/v, the relationship between mass and volume. As sugar is dissolved in water, the heavier or denser the liquid becomes.


Flour, starches and milk solids absorb moisture.

Egg foam or Whipped egg cakes

Includes Genoise, sponge cakes, angel food and chiffon.

Flat or Water icing

An opaque white sugar glaze used to decorate Danish pastry and coffee cakes.


Ingredients that add a new taste to a food and alter its neutral flavors.


A sweet, thick, opaque sugar paste commonly used for glazing pastries such as Napoleons or used for making candies.


Also known as icing.


A blend of pure chocolate and cream which may also include butter, liqueur or other flavors.


A whipped egg cake where whole eggs are whipped with sugar and no chemical leaveners are used.

High ratio cake

One of the two types of creamed fat cakes.


A sweet decorative coating used as a filling between the layers or as a coating over the top and sides of a cake.


Air trapped when fat and sugar are creamed together.


Water, milk, juice and eggs bring moisture to the cake mixture.

Mousseline Buttercream or French buttercream

A cake icing or filling made with egg yolks into which a hot sugar syrup is beaten before butter and flavorings are added.

Pound cake

Original high fat, creaming cake; should have close grain and compact texture.

Ribbon stage

When whipped eggs fall from the beater in thick ribbons and slowly disappear into the surface.

Rolled fondant

Very stiff dough form of fondant used for covering cakes and making edible decorations.

Royal icing or Decorator's icing

An uncooked mixture of confectioner's sugar and egg whites that becomes hard and brittle when dry.

Side masking

Coating only the sides of the cake with garnish.

Specific gravity

Weight of a batter or ingredient divided by weight of water.

Sponge cakes

A whipped egg cake, made with separated eggs and leavened primarily with air.


Used to apply patterns of finely chopped garnishes, confectioner's sugar or cocoa powder to the top of the cake.


Sugar, fats and egg yolks tenderize cakes.

Thread glaze

A mixture of sugar and water cooked to 236°F (113°C), the thread stage. This type of glaze is used to create a crystallized coating on gingerbread cookies and other pastries.


Flour, milk and eggs provide protein, which helps structure.


A mixing method used by commercial bakeries to prepare large quantities of a very liquid cake batter with high sugar content.

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