Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Exam 3 BIO
Terms in this set (96)
The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through __
Consider this pathway: epinephrine → G-protein-coupled receptor → G-protein → adenylyl cyclase → cAMP. The second messenger in this pathway is ________.
When a lipid insoluble signaling molecule binds at the cell surface it triggers a _________
A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormone's ________.
Hormones are chemical substances produced in one organ that are released into the bloodstream and affect the function of a target organ. For the target organ to respond to a particular hormone, it must ________.
have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone molecule
What does it mean to say that a signal is transduced?
The physical form of the signal changes from one form to another.
One characteristic of life and living systems is that they are able to adapt. In general, cells interact with other cells and their environment through the action of their ________.
plasma membrane and extracellular matrix
Which of the following is characteristic of a steroid hormone action?
internal receptor binding
Chemical signals that act on the same cells that secrete them are called ________.
The force driving simple diffusion is ________, while the energy source for active transport is ________.
the concentration gradient; ATP
) Marine boney fish are ________ to their environment.
Among vertebrate animals, urea is ________.
made in the liver by combining ammonia molecules or amino groups.
The products of filtration in the renal corpuscle enter the renal tubule through which of the following structures?
Which of the following mechanisms contributes to osmoregulation in both marine & freshwater bony fish?
gain of water through food
Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid ________.
requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal, thus conserving water and reducing body mass
Urea is ________.
the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans
Ammonia is likely to be the primary nitrogenous waste in living conditions that include ________.
lots of freshwater flowing across the gills of a fish
When a cell is in equilibrium with its environment, which of the following occurs for substances that can diffuse through the cell?
There is random movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Most of the absorption surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with ________.
Tissues functioning together make up ________.
The large surface area in the small intestine directly facilitates ________.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about body size and physiology?
Small and large animals face different physiological challenges because an animal's body volume or mass increases as a function of body length cubed while surface area increases as a function of body length squared.
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has ________.
less surface area per unit of volume
When the mammalian brain compares the actual temperature of the body to the preferred temperature of the body, which component of a homeostatic control system is being used?
Panting by an overheated dog achieves cooling by ________.
Countercurrent heat exchangers are more useful for ________.
endotherms to allow the body's core temperature to remain stable
A woman standing and watching the stars on a cool, calm night will lose most of her body heat by ________.
Compared to ectotherms, endothermic animals are likely to be at the greatest disadvantage in ________.
environments with variable and limited food sources
Compared to most animals, the growth of most plant structure is best described as ________.
While walking a cornfield, you notice roots emerging from the corn stalks themselves, and you suspect that these roots are helping to hold the plants upright. These roots belong to a category of roots known as ________.
Pines have needlelike leaves, with the adaptive advantage of ________.
decreased surface area, reducing water loss
Plants contain meristems whose major function is to ________.
produce more cells
Which of the following describes secondary growth?
development of wood and bark
Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to ________.
cell elongation localized in each internode
Heartwood and sapwood consist of ________.
One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that ________.
a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots
Where are the youngest wood and the youngest bark in a tree trunk?
Youngest wood is toward the outside, near the vascular cambium; youngest bark is the inner part, next to the vascular cambium.
A potato is a type of ________ known as a ________.
modified stem; tuber
Homologous chromosomes ________.
carry information for the same traits
Somatic cells of roundworms have four individual chromosomes per cell. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in an ovum from a roundworm?
The egg of a fruit fly has 4 individual chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in a somatic (body) cell of a fruit fly?
Crossing over normally takes place during which of the following processes?
In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated during ________.
For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome ________.
consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere
If a cell has completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents?
It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
Sister chromatids separate from each other during ________.
mitosis and meiosis II
Which of the following can occur by the process of meiosis but not mitosis?
Diploid cells form haploid cells.
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT ________.
an endoplasmic reticulum
In a bacterium, we will find DNA in ________.
Which of the following is NOT found in a prokaryote?
Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in ________.
Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells have more intracellular organelles than prokaryotes.
When yeast cells are transferred from anaerobic to aerobic growth conditions, which of these organelles become much more numerous?
Which of these statements is Incorrect concerning homologous chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes have identical alleles before crossing over.
Which of the following happens during meiosis but not during mitosis?
Diploid cells become haploid cells.
Which of the following happens during meiosis II?
Sister chromatids are separated.
A diploid organism has 18 chromosomes. One gene, found on chromosome 11, has 6 known alleles in the population. What is the maximum number of alleles that ONE individual of this species can have for that gene?
Which of the following does NOT increase genetic variation in populations?
Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs during
meiosis I only.
Sister chromatids separate from each other during
mitosis and meiosis II.
Ions and small molecules travel directly from the cytoplasm of one plant cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
Which of the following is a second messenger used in signaling cascades?
In organs, like the lungs, it's important to prohibit movement of water out of the capillaries. To accomplish this the cells that line the capillaries would contain
Steroid hormones trigger changes in target cells by
binding to receptors in the cytoplasm, entering the nucleus, and regulating gene expression.
Different body cells can respond differently to the same peptide hormones because
a target cell's response is determined by the components of its signal transduction pathways.
In the liver epinephrine activates ________ leading to ________.
a cAMP signal cascade; increased glucose levels in the blood
Which of the following statements is (are) correct?
I. Hormones can regulate homeostasis.
II. Hormones of the same chemical class (e.g. peptide hormones) all have the same function.
III. Hormones are often regulated through feedback loops.
IV. Each hormone can only bind to one type of receptor and only produce one response.
only I and III
Integrins are integral membrane proteins that
help attach cytoskeletal proteins to collagen in the extracellular matrix.
Which of the following is NOT a chemical class of hormones?
When liver cells are stimulated by epinephrine the last enzyme activated is a phosphorylase that cleaves glucose from glycogen. This phosphorylase can also
turn off the signaling cascade through feedback inhibition.
One peptide hormone binding to a receptor in the cell membrane can cause production of dozens of copies of a second messenger. This is an example of
Plants contain meristems whose major function is to
produce more cells.
Which of the following describes secondary growth?
development and growth of bark and wood
Two examples of lateral meristems in plants are
vascular cambium, producing secondary xylem; cork cambium, producing cork
Which of the following arise, directly or indirectly, from meristematic activity?
all of the above
________ is to xylem as ________ is to phloem.
Vessel element; sieve-tube member
Which of the following plant structures is a bud?
Some animals have no gills when young, but then develop gills that grow larger as the animal grows. Which of the following statements best explains the reason for the increase in gill size?
The young have a higher skin surface area to body volume ratio, and they can transport the oxygen they need through their skin.
The thin horizontal arrows in the accompanying figure show that the
warmer arterial blood transfers heat to the cooler venous blood.
The example in the question above is a demonstration of
counter-current heat exchange
Which of the following is an example of a connective tissue?
A group of cells that function together make up a
Negative feedback is involved in regulating homeostasis in many physiological responses. Which of the following is an example of negative feedback?
An increase in blood glucose concentration causes release of insulin which reduces the concentration of glucose.
Which of the following statements Best describes homeostasis?
Maintaining a near-constant internal environment
Which structure in the mammalian kidney is responsible for maintaining the osmotic gradient in the medulla of the kidney?
loop of Henle
Diffusion is a passive process that's based on ________, and active transport is a process that requires ________.
the concentration gradient; ATP
A symporter in the mammalian kidney would
move more than one molecule through a membrane channel.
In the mammalian kidney waste products and nutrients are filtered from the blood by the
In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the breakdown of
proteins and nucleic acids.
Which of the following is a function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
ADH triggers the insertion of water channels called aquaporins, allowing water to flow out of the collecting duct.
Use the figure above to answer the following question.
If a person was deficient in potassium (K+), what would happen to movement of glucose from the tubule lumen into the cell?
There would be a decrease in glucose uptake from the tubule lumen into the cell.
Insects use active transport in their Malpighian tubules to set up a potassium ion gradient. As a result, potassium concentration is higher in the lumen of the tubules than in hemolymph (insect equivalent of blood). How would the potassium gradient affect osmosis?
Water would move into the lumen of the Malpighian tubules from the hemolymph due to the osmotic gradient.
Acetylcholine, a chemical resembling a modified amino acid, is a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors on skeletal muscle cells. The receptor-signal complex brings about a series of events that result in contraction of skeletal muscle. People who suffer from the condition Myasthenia Gravis produce an antibody that destroys the muscle cell receptor. Patients with this condition would suffer from which of these symptoms?
The patient's muscles would not be able to contract.
Other sets by this creator
BIO exam 2
Romeo and Juliet character's