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Psycology 1010 chapter 1, final exam
Terms in this set (28)
The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they:
examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.
The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________.
Systematically collecting data in real-world environments is the essence of which descriptive research method?
Surveys, as discussed in the text, are a form of:
In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behavior, psychology also attempts to ________these phenomena.
predict and control
Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from two goals of psychology-description and ________.
On a television talk show, an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a ________.
The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if the arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship?
frequency with which students ask questions
In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ________.
the number of collisions
Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?
Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate ________.
Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true?
The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.
A negative correlation means that ________.
high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with ________.
PET and MRI
Humanistic psychologists suggest that when people reach self-actualization, they:
develop to their fullest potential.
A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
The work of Freud was built around ________.
a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
A group of randomly selected subjects for a study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called ________.
a representative sample
Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. A more accurate title for this survey would be ________.
"The Sex Lives of Our Readers: <i>Desperate Wives</i> Women Respond"
The question "When will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
In studying the bystander effect, a researcher is interested in looking at differences between prison guards in China and the United Kingdom. The researcher is taking a ________perspective in this cross-cultural study.
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" is a statement associated with the perspective of ________.
Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________.
Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in________.
The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying:
how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.
Which of the following is an empirical question?
"Is there life on other planets?"