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primary bronchi

the upper respiratory tract includes of the following expect: nasal cavities, larynx, primary bronchi, nasopharynx


during swallowing, the larynx is covered by...

soft palate

during swallowing, the nasopharynx is covered by...


the trachea is kept by which tissues?

ciliated epithelium

in the nasal cavities and reachea, mucus and pathogens are swept to the pharynx by...


the of the oharynx that is a passageway for the air only is the..

primary bronchi

inhaled air passes from the trachea to the...


cartilage supports and keeps open all of these structures except the...

prevents friction

the serous fluid between the pleural membranes keeps the membranes together and...

hilus on the medial side

the primary bronchi and the pulmonary blood vessels enter the lung at...

premit diffusion

the tissue fluid that lines the alveoli is important to...

pulmonary surfactant

within the alveoli, surface tension is decreased and inflation is possible because of the presence of...

medulla and pons

the respiratory centers in the brain are located in....

diaphargm, which moves down

during inhalation, the thoratic cavity is enlarged from top to bottom by contraction of the...

high PO2 and high PCO2

in the alveoli, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are...

bronchial tree and alveoli

intrapulmonic pressure is the air pressure within the...

cough reflex

irritants on the muscosa of the larnyx are removed by...

bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs

most oxygen is transported in the blood

as bicarbonate ions in the plasma

most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood

systemic capillaries and bloody tissues

internal respiration is the exchange of gases between...

low temperature

the factors that increase the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in systemic capillaries include all of these except: high temperature, high PCO2, low PO2, low temperature

residual air

the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation...

CO2, because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids

the gas that is the most important chemical regulator of respiration

carotid and aortic bodies

the receptors that detect a decrease in the oxygen level of blood are located in...

respiratory acidosis

if pneumonia decreases the exchange of gases in the lungs, the resulting pH imbalance is...

increasing the oxygen content of the air

the nasal mucosa has all of these functions except: warming incoming air, moistening incoming air, increasing the oxygen content of the air, sweeping mucus and pathogens to the pharynx

stuffed-up sinuses

all of this will increase physiological dead space except: fractured ribs, asthma, stuffed-up sinuses, tuberculosis

potential pleural space

anatomic dead space includes all of the following except: bronchioles, larynx, potential plueral space, nasal cavities


the expansibility of the lungs and chest wall is called...

increase to exhale more CO2

the compensate for metabolic acidosis, respiations will...

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