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A gap junction forms when opposing membrane-spanning proteins called __________ on two adjacent cells unite, creating a protein channel that is capable of opening and closing.
The __________ link membrane receptors to either ion channels or to membrane enzymes located on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane.
A home satellite dish receives signals from a satellite, allowing your television to display TV shows. Which part of a neuron is analogous to the satellite dish?
The all-or-none principle states that
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce action potentials of identical magnitude.
When two or more graded potentials arrive at the trigger zone, which of the following could happen?
An excitatory and inhibitory signal can cancel each other out; two excitatory stimuli may be additive, resulting in lower excitability and summation could occur.
Exocrine glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles are controlled by the
autonomic nervous system.
The brief period of time between the end of the action potential in the muscle and the beginning of contraction is referred to as
the latent period.
In smooth muscle, what is the small protein chain that regulates contraction and relaxation?
myosin light chain
The primary calcium release channel in smooth muscle sacroplasmic reticulum is
an IP3 receptor channel.
Smooth muscle cells contain stretch-activated calcium channels that open when pressure or other force distorts the cell membrane. This activity is called __________ contractions and are common in __________.
A cell's or tissue's response to a hormone primarily depends on __________ and __________.
signal transduction pathways,cell receptors
Hormones are not typically considered to be cytokines because hormones are __________ like cytokines.
synthesized in advance and stored, not
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