3. An increased availability of information due to exposure to specific stimuli is known as
4. An increased availability of information due to exposure to specific stimuli is known as
(schema's resistance to change even in light of contradictory information).
5. The academic performance of certain students dramatically improved when teachers were led to believe that those students were intellectually gifted, regardless of the true ability levels of the students. This result shows the importance of
(schemas and self-fulfilling prophecies).
7. Judging individuals based on their similarity to typical members of a group is known as
(the representative heuristic).
8. Those things that are easier to recall tend to have a greater impact on subsequent judgments and decisions. This fact is known as
(the availability heuristic).
10. The area of the brain that is most clearly involved in controlled evaluations is
(the prefrontal cortex).
11. Research has demonstrated that most people are more sensitive to negative information than to positive information. This is known as
(the negativity bias).
12. The tendency displayed by many people to expect things to turn out well in the long run is known as
(the optimism bias).
13. During finals week, Jonah tells his friend that he'll be able to write four term papers over the next few days. Jonah is shocked and upset when he is barely able to complete two of these four papers. Jonah's behavior is consistent with
(the planning fallacy).
14. The tendency to imagine outcomes in a situation other than what actually occurred is known as
15. We tend to remember facts and other information better when we are in the same mood as we were in when we learned the information. This is known as
(mood dependent memory).
16. Information that is consistent with our current affective state is more easily retrieved than is information that is inconsistent with our current affect. This is known as .
(the mood congruence effect)
17. On her way back to work one morning, Samantha was cut off by a driver who was weaving in and out of traffic., tailgating slower moving cars, racing through yellow lights, and generally driving more erratically. According to recent research, Samantha should probably
(avoid making eye contact with the driver) because (the driver might interpret Samantha's eye contact as an act of aggression).
18. Erin's boyfriend has taken her out to dinner at a very exclusive restaurant. Erin notices that he can't seem to sit still during the meal, and is constantly rubbing his left knee, scratching an itch, or pulling his earlobe. This type of body language usually indicates
19. Deborah has just spent a great deal of money on a new fur coat. When she showed it to her husband, she asked if he liked it. Without hesitation, her husband responded by saying "Yes. It is beautiful." Before he spoke, however, a slight frown appeared on his face for less than a second. This might indicate that he is concealing his true feelings from his wife and is known as
20. Jackie took longer to replay to certain questions, and the pitch of her voice rose considerably; these aspects of her _____ gave away that she was lying.
21. The process by which individuals seek to understand why others behave as they do is known as
23. One indication of possible deception occurs when inconsistencies exist between different types of nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and posture. These inconsistencies are known as
24. The theory of correspondent inference suggests that
(behaviors that are freely chosen are better indicators of our underlying personality traits than are behaviors that are caused by external factors).
25. The extent to which different people react to a given situation in the same general way is known as
26. The "fundamental attribution error" refers to our tendency to
(overestimate the role of dispositions in causing others' behavior).
27. The "fundamental attribution error" refers to our tendency to
(overestimate the role of disposition in causing other people's behavior reflects internal causes is known as (the actor-observer effect/bias).
28. One possible explanation for the self-serving bias is the motivation model, which states that the self-serving bias is caused by
(our need to protect and enhance our self-esteem, or our social desirability bias).
29. People who suffer from depression tend to attribute their failures to
(lasting internal causes) and their successes to (temporary external causes).
30. Early research conducted by Solomon Asch suggests the presence of central traits, which are
(traits that strongly color the way we interpret other aspects of another person).
31. Our personal beliefs about the way that certain traits occur together are known as
(implicit personality theories).
32. __________ consists of the efforts individuals make to create favorable first impressions on others.
33. Self-enhancement involves _________________ while other-enhancement involves _________________________
(efforts to increase an individual's appeal to others), (efforts to make the other person feel good).
34. Recent research suggests that impression management can work against an individual if
(impression management techniques are overused or ineffectively used).
35. According to Rotter's "locus of control" theory, which person is most likely to feel the greatest guilt and responsibility?
36. According to Baton & Byrne, which country is the LEAST likely to engage in the "fundamental attribution error" due to the "norm of internality"?
37. Your boss flatters you in front of others in the morning and then asks you for a big favor in the afternoon. You suspect that he only flattered you to get you to do the favor. This is an example of
38. Which of the following is NOT a "tendency" we bring with us in handling our social world when regarding "social cognition?"
(we tend to under-emphasize extreme situation(s)/information"
39. Under which condition would people most likely engage in the Human Cognitive Propensity?
(when there are two groups)
41. According to Kurt Lewin's formula in Social Psychology (1935), behavior is
(is a function of the person and their environment).
42. Which of the following is NOT an emotion which is "universal" according to your authors?
44. A the start of any research, there is an assumption made that "no difference exists between the variables of interest." The goal of research is to reject this idea which is known as the
45. A researcher conducts a study in which subjects interact with a person (an accomplice of the researcher). This person wears either perfume, garlic juice, or pine-scented aerosol. After interacting with the stranger, subjects indicate their liking for her. What is the independent variable in the study?
(the substance worn by the accomplisher)
46. Under the conditions of "normal distribution", which of the following is LEAST true?
(The distribution is either kurtosis or skewed)
47. According to the idea that we acquired knowledge that has "always been true" because it "feels right" refers to which of the following?
(tenacity and intuition)
48. Which of the following method of acquiring knowledge is based on logic and reason whereby premises are used to support a conclusion?
49. Which of the following statements is the MOST true regarding the scientific method of acquiring knowledge?
(It is a method of inquiry which is not topic/subject related but has more to do with the process of observing a phenomenon in an objective manner).
50. Why is it important to control for error?
a. It contaminates our results rendering them meaningless.
b. It provides an alternative plausible explanation for our study.
c. It is a threat to the validity of our study.
d. All of the above are true.
1. A form of social learning that occurs when responses to a particular stimulus lead to positive outcomes or allow the person to avoid negative outcomes:
2. We tend to think that viewing violent or pornographic materials will harm other people but not ourselves. This is known as:
3. Attitudes assist our interpretation of new information and influence our approach-avoidance responses. This aspect of our attitudes is:
5. Fishbein and Azjen's theory of planned behavior suggests that the choice of whether or not to engage in specific behavior is determined:
6. According to the theory of planned behavior, our behavioral intentions are determined in part by our perceptions of whether others will approve or disapprove of the behavior, our attitudes toward a particular behavior, and:
our perceptions of our ability to perform the behavior.
7. The source of a message has an effect on its effectiveness. To increase the effectiveness of a message, the communicator should be credible and:
8. One reason that distractions may increase the persuasiveness of a message is because distractions:
prevent systematic processing of message content.
9. The central route of persuasion involves:
careful consideration of the ideas contained by a message.
10. The heuristic-systematic model of persuasion suggests that:
we engage in less effortful processing when we lack ability or capacity for more careful processing.
12. Being forewarned of the persuasive intent of a message will frequently help people to resist the effects of the message. This is because:
forewarning allows us a greater opportunity to create counterarguments.
13. Cognitive dissonance is:
the negative internal state that results from noticing differences between our attitudes and our behaviors.
14. Arlene has always been adverse to physical contact with most aanimals and has been a little afraid of the germs animals might carry. Despite her concerns, she was induced to kiss a pig on the snout for $2.00 while appearing on a television game show. Arlene's attitude towards animals has changed dramatically since this experience. The most probable explanation for this change in attitude is:
the less-leads-to more effect.
16. The type of learning that is based on association of two or more stimuli is called:
18. When Jeremy was recently asked to describe himself to his classmates, he spoke about being a member of the football team and how this helped to make his experiences different from those of other students in his class. Jeremy was primarily making Blank comparisons:
19. Individuals who have many, different, relatively independent self-identities are said to have a:
high-level of self-complexity.
21. Identity inference occurs Blank and causes Blank:
when different aspects of the self are in conflict; stress.
22. An independent self-concept emphasizes Blank cultural norms, while an interdependent self-concept emphasizes Blank cultural norms:
23. Juan is one of three Brazilian students currently attending a college in Indiana. His roommate, Eric, is one of seven thousand Hoosiers attending the same college. As a result, Juan is Blank to be aware of his racial status than Eric is of his at any given time:
25) The concept of existential terror refers to:
the anxiety that comes from the recognition of our own mortality
The ideas studied by Glass and Singer et al, introduced the notion that in some populations, individuals initially work hard at performance. However, if there is a differential (uneven) level of reward where the payoff is low, then the individual's motivation decreases ultimately resulting in reduced future performances. This formula is known as
27) The belief that we can achieve a particular goal by working with others is known as:
- collective self-efficacy
28) Self reference effect is
- people tend to refer to themselves when explaingin situations to others
29) The self evaluation maintenance model suggests that we will ________ others who perform more poorly than we do in an important area:
-move closer to
30) Jessica has worked her way up in her organization and is now a mid-level manager. She has treated her subordinates the same way her male couterparts treat theirs. Recently, Jessica has been passed over for several promotions. The jobs went to male coworkers who were possbilty not quite as well qualified as Jessica. This situation probably represents:
-the glass ceiling effect
32) Use of subjective measurement scales when making comparisions between members of different groups can result in:
- shifting standards
33) Our tendency to perceive members of an out-group as more similar to each other than to members of the in-group is known as:
- in-group homogeneity
34) In Sharif's (1961) "Robber's Cave" experiment researchers were able to reduce the tension between two groups by:
- giving the groups a goal that required cooperation to be achieved
35) The contact hypothesis is based on the idea that:
- increased contact between members of different social groups can help to reduce prejudice between the groups
36) Wilma, who is white, will likely show a greater concern about acting in a prejudiced manner if:
- she has a pleasant interaction with Black persons during high school
37) Propinquity is important to attraction because:
- repeated exposure tends to produce favorable evaluations
38) Mark is having lunch at a local diner with his friend, Jessica, who is extremely obese. Jason is having lunch at the same diner with her friend, Karen, who is of average weight. Both Mark and Jason are being interviewed for a job after lunch, and the interviewer, who is also having lunch, happens to notice both Mark and Jason in the diner. What impact, if any, may this situation have on the evaluations Mark and Jason receive from the interviewer, assuming all other factors are equal? Evaluations Mark and Jason receive from the interviewer, assuming all other factors are equal?
- Mark may be evaluated worse than Jason because of the negative sterotypes associated with Jessica's obesity
39) Distilling the studies on "social support" as presented by Cobb, Nuckolls, and others, which of the following statements is most true?
- Social support appears to play an important role in prolonging one's life, especially in married men
40) Social psychologist agree that there are two types of love. Most if not all romantic relationships begin with _______________ love which over time transmogrifies into _________ love:
- passionate; companionate
41) There were 8 reasons covered in lecture to explain how people "fall into life" with each other. The COmplmentary Needs theory is best described as people having:
- similarity of needs
42) There were various reasons why people do not life one another discussed in lecture which one of the following is NOT one of them?
- people with more resources than us
43) William Condon performed a micro-analysis of how people move when they are interacting with one another. Using high speed film (1000 pictures per second) and slowin them down, he noticed that people appear to engage in an intricate pattern of complementary movements during interaction. This phenomenon is based on ealier research known as:
- spiral of activation
44) According to Chodorow, the primary that men become individuated earlier than women is because:
- society treats males and females differently in their development
45) Terry Real talks about 5 levels of intimacy. Of the following, which is NOT one of them?
46) Which is the correct order of the three rings of Patriarchy according to Terry Real?
- Great Divide, Dance of Contempt, Code of Silence
47) Which of the following is NOT a precondition for intimacy/couples work according to Terry Real?
- healthy sex life
48) Terry Real describes 3 stages of love. Which of the following is NOT a part of that theory?
- Passionate & Companionate Love
49) Traditional Couples and Marital Therapy believed in maintaining this but Terry Real's theory does not. What is it?