Christian Heritage - Weaver - Test 2

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Confessions
Augustine
Cur Deus Homo
Anselm
Summa Theologica
Thomas Aquinas
In Defense of Icons
John of Damascus
Adoptionism
how does humanity relate to divinity. The man JESUS was adopted and becomes divine; at his baptism (rejected)
Modalism/Sabellianism
(famous advocate Sibellian) Jesus is God but God is 1 (3 successive modes)- rejected
Subordinationism
Father= God, Son=God, Spirit=God; but one has to be on top, why give allegiance to number 2. Rejected
Tertullian
trinity- attacks modalism = "patripassianism" father suffering; God suffered too, things that are perfect don't suffer. first to use the word trinity; trinities is one substantia- in three personae- 1 substance: East at first sees this as trithism (because of the language barrier)
Nicea
325
(council of nicea)
called by Constantine;
Nicean creed:
first time a christian heretic was condemned by secular ruler
Constantinople
in this sigh I will conquer wins battle; becomes emperor,
Edict of Milan-
whether someone's conversion is legit or not only God knows
Ephesus-
Nestorious 431,
Chalcedon-
451 Eutyches
Homoousios-
same substance - divinity of christ
Homoiousios-
rejected- God and the Son of God are not the same purpose but same person
Heteroousios-
of different essence
Arius -
church leader in Egypt, promotes subordinationism, father and son are heteroousious of different essence when the son did not exist; Father=unbegotten, son=begotten. Rejected! His views didn't affirm the divinity of God
Athanasius-
leader of orthodoxy
Apollinarius-
logos replaced human mind- condemned a creature
Pneumatomachians-
denied divinity of Holy Spirit (381)
Christology-
unless he's divine he cannot save you, how the divine relate to each other
381 Constantine's role in the conflicts-
made Christianity a legal religion; established council process combo of church and state.
Nesters-
condemned- affirmed Christotokos (mother of Christ) but not Theotokos (mother of God)
Theotokos-
mother of God
Christotokos-
mother of Christ
Eutyches- (monophysitism)-
2 nations (council of Chalcedoh 451) humanity is like a drop of honey in the ocean of divinity
Chalcedonian formula-
1 God+ 1 Christ+ 1 holy spirit= 1: fully human, fully divine with two natures
Conversion experience-
He heard a minister (Ambrose) in Milan and makes sense of his struggles
Tolle lege, tolle lege-
pick it up and read it
Monica-
his mother (christian)
Role of the pears in his understanding of sin-
he was in a web of sin- human depravity (sin nature)
Sin he had most trouble with-
lust
Bishop of ......
North Africa
Augustine believed
there was original sin;
Pelagius believed
there was no original sin he was a moralist.
Augustine=
restriction & God
Pelagius=
free human; irritable faith foreknowledge free will sin nature, grace predestination original sin
Roman Catholic Church
seven sacraments:
1.Baptism-
cleansing of original sin
2.conformation-
finishing childhood
3.Eucharist-
every week every time; transubstantiation(real presence) and accepted, communion in one kind (just bread no cup) cant drip the blood of Jesus sacrifice of Christ it is the central focus of mass
First communion
4th sacrement
5.Penance-
when you mess up you need forgiveness- needs to be done on a regular basis
6.marriage-
an unbreakable bond
7.
Extreme unction/ last rights upon death bed last words
Only difference in orthodoxy is
that they dunk babies and priest are allowed to get married
Authority =
Pope
Anthony-
founder of monastic life
Benedict of Nursia-
he wanted stability through the "rule of benedict" centered on corporate prayer
Divine Office-
life of prayer the focus of the monastic life / monks copied scripture. Vow of chastity, poverty and obedience
Meaning of word Pope-
Holy Father
Pope Boniface VII-
criticized the worldliness and riches of the church
Unam Sanctum-
holy pope is the head
Great Schism-
not refer to the breakup of east and west (1054)
Orthodoxy:
No pope but a patriarch of Constantinople
What is authoritative (how many councils; Bible and tradition for RCC and Orthodoxy)
7 councils
1054-
break up of east and west
John of Damascus
In Defense of Icons - main points- we venerate (destroy) and do not worship icons: three things: dont worship the images as much as God, what the book is to the literate is the image to the illiterate, 10 commandment obsolete
Second Council of Nicea (787)-
seventh council, they affirm his (John of Damascus) ideas on icons; and seven sacraments decided
Scholasticism
the theology and philosophy of the universities of the Middle Ages
Anselm of Canterbury
Faith precedes reason*: faith and reason, Atonement theory, existence of God
Ontological Argument -
the argument of Gods existence, because we can image it, he exists because things in reality are greater in though, so he has to be real
Gaunilo-
an island doesn't exist in his head
Satisfaction Theory of the Atonement -
we should pay the debt, but we can't, had to have a substitute but it's not required
Relation of Faith and Reason-
faith precedes reason/ I believe so I can understand
Cur Deus Homo-
Why God became man, Anselm
His criticism of Ransom Theory-
fish hook and mouse trap. God tricks Satan
Abelard-
second major figure most harsh about Anselm, life and example of Christ emphasized (romans 5:8) God didn't wait for us to be perfect to love us, He disagrees with Anselm (he believes opposite) in the life and death of Jesus . God's purpose was to show his love and his death was just an example (to awaken a reciprocal love) the cross as not a necessary "satisfaction" to placate the love of God; criticism- the debt can be ignored which makes Jesus just a martyr
Moral Influence Theory of the Atonement* -
love, aka: moral example theory
Aquinas
Greatest theologian of medieval era
Dumb Ox-
Aquinas looked like a dumb ox but he was a pretty smart guy
Cosmological Proofs (5)*-
1. First mover 2. First cause 3. Necessary being 4. Absolute perfection 5. Teleological arguement
Teleological Argument (# 5)-
most famous of the 5- rational designer
Relation of Reason and Revelation-
some knowledge of God comes from reason (natural general revaltion) faith goes beyond reason and completes it (special revaltion)
Thomas Aquinas
Summa Theologica- summary of theology-
View of Aristotle-
rediscovery of Aristotle in the Middle Ages
Natural theology (general revelation in relation to special revelation)-
natural order creation