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22 terms

37 Plant Nutrition

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mineral nutrients
essential chemical elements from the soil in form of inorganic ions
essential element
chemical element that is required for a plant to complete a life cycle & produce another generation
hydroponic culture
plants grown using mineral solutions & without soil
macronutrient
nine essential elements that plants require in large amounts
micronutrient
eight essential elements that plants need in small amounts
topsoil
mixture of particles derived from rock
humus
remains of partially decayed organic material
horizons
distinct soil layers that are visible in vertical profile where there is a deep hole
loams
most fertile soil made up of equal amounts of sand, silt, & clay
sustainable agriculture
farming methods that are conservation minded, environmentally safe, & profitable
phytoremediation
biological, nondestructive technology that seeks to reclaim contaminated ares by using plants to extract soil pollutants and concentrate them in portions of the plant
bacteroids
rhizobium bacteria's form inside a nodule
nodules
plant cells that have been infected by nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria in legumes
ectomycorrhizae
mycelium (mass of branching hyphae) form a dense sheath over the surface of the root
endomycorrhizae
no mantle forms around root, but microscopic fungal hyphae extend into the root
epiphyte
plant that nourishes itself but grows on another plant, usually anchored on trunks of trees
crop rotation
non legume is planted one year, then a legume is planted to restore the concentration of fixed nitrogen in the soil
nitrogen fixing bacteria
bacteria that restock nitrogenous minerals in soil
nitrogen fixation
nitrogen fixing bacteria that restock nitrogenous minerals in soil by converting N2 from atmosphere to to NH3
nitrogenase
catalyzes the entire reaction sequence, which reduces N2 to NH3 by adding electrons along with H+
parasitic plants
plants that absorb sugar & minerals from living hosts
carnivorous plants
plants that are photosynthetic but obtain some nitrogen & minerals by killing & digesting insects