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mineral nutrients

essential chemical elements from the soil in form of inorganic ions

essential element

chemical element that is required for a plant to complete a life cycle & produce another generation

hydroponic culture

plants grown using mineral solutions & without soil


nine essential elements that plants require in large amounts


eight essential elements that plants need in small amounts


mixture of particles derived from rock


remains of partially decayed organic material


distinct soil layers that are visible in vertical profile where there is a deep hole


most fertile soil made up of equal amounts of sand, silt, & clay

sustainable agriculture

farming methods that are conservation minded, environmentally safe, & profitable


biological, nondestructive technology that seeks to reclaim contaminated ares by using plants to extract soil pollutants and concentrate them in portions of the plant


rhizobium bacteria's form inside a nodule


plant cells that have been infected by nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria in legumes


mycelium (mass of branching hyphae) form a dense sheath over the surface of the root


no mantle forms around root, but microscopic fungal hyphae extend into the root


plant that nourishes itself but grows on another plant, usually anchored on trunks of trees

crop rotation

non legume is planted one year, then a legume is planted to restore the concentration of fixed nitrogen in the soil

nitrogen fixing bacteria

bacteria that restock nitrogenous minerals in soil

nitrogen fixation

nitrogen fixing bacteria that restock nitrogenous minerals in soil by converting N2 from atmosphere to to NH3


catalyzes the entire reaction sequence, which reduces N2 to NH3 by adding electrons along with H+

parasitic plants

plants that absorb sugar & minerals from living hosts

carnivorous plants

plants that are photosynthetic but obtain some nitrogen & minerals by killing & digesting insects

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