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Communications Exam 1
Terms in this set (35)
Attacking the person
Attacking the arguer rather than his/her argument.
Appeal to ignorance
Arguing on the basis of what is not known and cannot be proven.
Appeal to authority
This fallacy tries to convince the listener by appealing to the reputation of a famous or respected person.
Affirming the consequent
An invalid form of the conditional argument.
A fallcy of syntactial ambiguity where the position of words in a sentence or the juxtaposition of two sentences conveys a mistaken idea.
Appeal to emotion
The arguer uses emotional appeals rather than logical reasons to persuade the listener.
An unsound form of inductive argument in which an argument relies heavily on a weak analogy to prove its point.
Begging the question/circular reasoning
The conclusion is implied or already assumed in the premises.
Slippery slope/black and white
A line of reasoning that argues against taking a step because it assumes that if you take the first step, you will inevitably follow through to the last.
Common Belief/ Appeal to the people
Asserting a statement to be true on the evidence that many other people allegedly believe it.
Past Belief/Appeal to tradition
Claim is for belief or support of the past.
Contrary to fact hypothesis
Stating with an unreasonable degree of certainty the results of an event that might have occurred but did not.
Denying the antecedent
The second premise denies the antecedent of the first premise, and the conclusion denies the consequent.
Concluding that any part of a particular whole must have a characteristic because the whole has that characteristic.
Concluding that a whole must have a characteristic because some part of it has that characteristic.
Accepting a particular hypothesis when a more acceptable hypothesis, or one more strongly based in fact, is available.
Assuming that we must choose one of two alternatives instead of allowing for other possibilities.
The arguer uses the ambiguous nature of a word or phrase to shift the meaning in such a way as to make the reason offered appear more convincing.
Using a legitimate but different senses by two or more persons involved in argumentation.
A generalization accepted on the support of a sample that is too small or biased to warrant it.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
A form of the falce cause fallacy in which it is inferred that because one event followed another it is necessarily caused by that event.
A discourse is inconsistent or self-contradicting if it contains, explicitly or implicitly, two assertions that are logically incompatible with each other.
Non sequitur/ irrelevant argument
The premises have no direct relationship to the conclusion.
The cause for an occurrence is identified on insufficient evidence.
Introduces an irrelevant issue into a discussion as a diversionary tactic.
A true statement is made, but made in such a way as to suggest that something is not true or to give a false description through the manipulation of connotation.
Misrepresent an opponent's position to make it easier to attack, usually by distorting his or her views to ridiculous extremes.
Two wrongs make a right
Committed when we try to justify an apparently wrong action by charges of a similar wrong.
Forcing a dichotomy
Places the listener in the position of having to Choose between an oversimplified either-or choice, phrased in such a way that it forces them to favor the arguer's preferred option.
Appeal to humor
Either fails to make a serious point of reduces another's claim to its absurd level.
Changes the subject for no apparent reason, or by passes a critical issue to divert the attention from the issues central to the argument.
Occurs when an arguer abandons his/her original position on a particular argument and adopts a new one.
Seizing on a trivial point
Occurs when a person locates another's weak or indefensible argument and magnifies it out f all proportion to discredit a person's entire position on the proposition.
Emotionally loaded language
Arises when we use terms that show more about our feeling on the issues than about the rational basis from which those feelings derive or when we use emotion as the sole means to alter the belief or behavior of others.
When the audience is overwhelmed with too many new terms or when it is used to impress the audience or replace sound reasoning.
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