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_______cases/year; ______ deaths/yr

300-500 million; 1-2 million

majority of cases/deaths

Sub-Saharan Africa


fever, chills, flu-like, dizziness, coma, jaundice, renal failure

what causes malaria?

a bite for the Anopheles mosquito transmits the infection (Plasmodium)


species that causes malaria; 4 types

P. falciparum

causes severe malaria and has a mortality rate of 20%

describe the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite

Anopheles mosquito bites human and passes sporozoites of the malaria parasite - the sporozoites travel via blood to the liver where they infect liver cells & release morozoites into blood and they infect RBCs - infected RBCs lyse, more are infected and merozoites develop into gemetocytes that are ingested when another mosquito comes along - inside mosquitos gut gametocytes become gametes which are fertilized and zygote forms - meiosis - oocyst - oocyst releases sporozoites and cycle repeats


cell form of Plasmodium when it infects humans and enters the liver


formed by sporozoites in host; turn into gametocytes


become gametes

what causes the malarial symptoms and peaks in fever

the merosoties entering circulation

why is studying mosquito evolution important?

studying mosquito evolution is important because it helps us understand and deal with the emergence of insecticide resistance

Sickle Cell Anemia

HbS heterozygotes are less prone to infection which causes balanced polymorphism b/c it causes incs in homozygotes for HbS do to its heterozygote advantage

what causes sickle cell anemia

codon change w/in beta-globin gene from GAG to GTG (glutamine to valine) which causes the RBCs to "sickle"

how can sickle cell anemia cause arterial damage

the sickled cells bind to and activate vessel lining which attracts other cells that build up in vessel, this can lead to an obstruction which causes O2 starvation (i.e. stroke)


blood disorder; like sickle cell creates balanced polymorphism because people with this disease have some resistance to malaria

stagnant water

mosquitos like to breed in/near stagnant water

what steps were taken to eradicate malaria in the United States?

draining and oiling breeding areas, treating lg. pops w/quinines, screen installation, building dams to isolate mosquitos, improving cycle of poverty, and DDT


insecticide, freed 1/3 of victims worlwide from malaria by 1970; was eventually banned do to environmental concerns


diff drugs and drug combos for diff plasmodium species and diff stages of the disease; most drugs contain some type of quinine derivative however many strains have become resistant; also the symptoms can be treated via liquids, sponge bath with cool h2o, etc

True/False: most deaths occur in women

False; most deaths occur in young children

bed nets

important for prevention, esp in Subsaharan Africa;


current vaccine targets include 3 basic stages: sporo/merzoitc and gametocyte; there are also current clinical trials on prophylatic treatment (treating before it strikes)


current studies on treating the mosquitos with fungus so they cannot infect humans with plasmodium

how can plasmodium make humans more attractive to mosquitos?

by triggering changes in breath and body odors

what is the most common species in Subsharan Africa

Anopheles gambia

global warming and malaria

global warming may inc prevalence of malaria and cause outbreaks in previously eradicated areas

T/F: mosquitos are attracted to CO2


current goal is to reduce deaths by ____ by _____

1/2; 2015

Bill and Melinda Gates

campaign/goal for eradication; countries w/ wide use treated bed nets have seen great reductions in malaria deaths

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