The art style or art movement of the Counter-Reformation in the
seventeenth century. Although some features appear in Dutch
art, the Baroque style was limited mainly to Catholic countries. It
is a style in which painters, sculptors, and architects sought
emotion, movement, and variety in their works. (pr. broke)
The seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in the
visual arts by dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition,
and pronounced emotional expression. A dominant style of art
in Europe in the seventeenth century characterized by its
theatrical, or dramatic, use of light and color, by its ornate forms,
and by its disregard for classical principles of composition
An eighteenth century art style which placed emphasis on portraying the
carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs.
Love and romance were considered to be better subjects for art than historical
or religious subjects. The style was characterized by a free, graceful movement;
a playful use of line; and delicate colors.
Jean-Antoine Watteau (French, 1684-1721) is often referred to as the greatest
of the Rococo painters, and his picture of the Embarkation for Cythera
demonstrates the elegance of this style.
The Rococo is sometimes considered a final phase of the Baroque period.
From the French "rocaille" meaning "rock work." This late-Baroque (c. 1715-
1775) style used in interior decoration and painting was characteristically
playful, pretty, romantic, and visually loose or soft; it used small scale and
ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement of curves.
Rococo was popular in France and Southern Germany. Characterized by
curvilinear forms, pastel colors, and light, often frivolous subject matter
A twentieth century avant-garde art movement that originated in the nihilistic
ideas of the Dadaist and French literary figures, especially those of its founder,
French writer André Breton (1896-1966). At first a Dadaist, he wrote three
manifestos about Surrealism — in 1924, 1930, and 1934, and opened a studio
for "surrealist research."
Influenced by the theories of the pioneer of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud
(German, 1856-1939), the images found in surrealist works are as confusing
and startling as those of dreams. Surrealist works can have a realistic, though
irrational style, precisely describing dreamlike fantasies, as in the works of
René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967), Salvador Dalí (Spanish, 1904-1988), Yves
Tanguy (French, 1900-1955), and Alfred Pellan (Canadian, 1906-1988). These
artists were partly inspired by Symbolism, and partly the Metaphysical Painting
of Giorgio de Chirico (Italian, 1888-1978). Or, it could have a more abstract
style, as in the works of Joan Miró (Spanish, 1893-1983), Max Ernst (German,
1891-1976), and André Masson (French, 1896-1987), who invented
spontaneous techniques, modeled upon the psychotherapeutic procedure of
"free association" as a means to eliminate conscious control in order to
express the workings of the unconscious mind, such as exquisite corpse
Text based artwork where the font choices, imagery, colors, materials and
placement convey a message beyond the text, beyond mere communication.
The letterforms are often deconstructed as shapes. Minimal concrete poetry
presented as paintings and sculptures. The origins of Word Work lay with the
Cubists, Futurists, Dadaists, Surrealists and American Pop Art. Notable artists
working in this style include Donny Miller, Ed Ruscha, Jenny Holzer, Barbara
Kruger, Xu Bing, Robert Indiana, John Baldessari, Carey Young, Jonathan Monk,
Bob and Roberta Smith, among many others. In some ways we can date word
work or word art back to illuminated manuscripts of the 4th century. And it is
one of my favorite styles of art. And I would be remiss in failing to mention
Graffiti writers, both taggers and stencil approaches.
An art movement and style that had its origins in England in the 1950s
and made its way to the United States during the 1960s. Pop artists have
focused attention upon familiar images of the popular culture such as
billboards, comic strips, magazine advertisements, and supermarket
products. Leading exponents are Richard Hamilton (British, 1922-), Andy
Warhol (American, 1928?1930?-1987), Roy Lichtenstein (American,
1923-1997), Claes Oldenburg (American, 1929-), Jasper Johns
(American, 1930-), and Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925-).
In early Modernism, a French art movement that immediately followed
Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. The artists involved, usually meaning
Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906), Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890), Paul
Gauguin (French, 1848-1903), and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French, 1864-
1901) showed a greater concern for expression, structure and form than did
the Impressionist artists. Building on the works of the Neo-Impressionists,
these artists rejected the emphasis the Impressionists put on naturalism and
the depiction of fleeting effects of light.
The term was coined by the British art critic and painter, Roger Fry (1866-
1934), on the occasion of an exhibit of works by these artists, which he curated
in 1910 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Other artists who were involved in this movement during a portion of their
careers were Henri Matisse (French, 1869-1954), Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-
1973) and George Braque (French, 1882-1963).
( "land art") refers to a movement of artists with wide
ranging goals, but all created in nature, employing such materials as stones,
dirt, and leaves. "Earthworks" is the same movement. Most works are
sculptural. Earthworks often refer to phenomena such as the slow process of
erosion or to the movement of planets or stars, especially the sun. Many
earthworks are intended to help us to better understand nature. Some
demonstrate the inherent differences between nature and civilization, often
pointing out artists' desires to understand, conquer, and control natural
During the late 1960s and early 1970s art began to move outdoors from
galleries. Some earthworks have been small enough to be gallery pieces, but
many involve huge land masses, as did Michael Heizer's Nine Nevada
Depressions, 1968: big, curved and zigzagging trenches, like abstract doodles
on the earth, placed intermittently over a span of 520 miles. Another example
is the 1970 piece by Robert Smithson (American, 1938-1973) titled Spiral Jetty,
which extended 1500 feet into the Great Salt Lake, though today it can be
witnessed only through documentation.
A painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to
their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions, painting gesturally,
non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, sometimes dripping
or even throwing it onto canvas. Their work is characterized by a strong dependence
on what appears to be accident and chance, but which is actually highly planned.
Some Abstract Expressionist artists were concerned with adopting a peaceful and
mystical approach to a purely abstract image. Usually there was no effort to represent
subject matter. Not all work was abstract, nor was all work expressive, but it was
generally believed that the spontaneity of the artists' approach to their work would
draw from and release the creativity of their unconscious minds. The expressive
method of painting was often considered as important as the painting itself.
Artists who painted in this style include Hans Hoffman (German-American, 1880-
1966), Adolph Gottlieb (American, 1903-1974), Mark Rothko (American, 1903-1970),
Willem De Kooning (Dutch-American, 1904-1997), Clyfford Still (American, 1904-1980),
Barnett Newman (American, 1905-1970), Franz Kline (American, 1910-1962), William
Baziotes (American, 1912-1963), Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), Philip Guston
(American, 1913-1980), Ad Reinhardt (American, 1913-1967), Robert Motherwell
(American, 1915-1991), Sam Francis (American, 1923-1994), and Helen Frankenthaler
(American, 1928-). Abstract Expressionism originated in the 1940s, and became
popular in the 1950s.
The first phase of Cubism, from about 1907 to 1912.
Analytic cubists reduced natural forms to their basic
geometric parts and then tried to reconcile these
essentially three-dimensional parts with the twodimensional
picture plane. Color was greatly subdued, and
paintings were nearly monochromatic. The leading cubists,
Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973) and Georges Braque
(French, 1882-1963) initiated the movement when they
followed the advice of Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906),
who in 1904 said artists should treat nature "in terms of the
cylinder, the sphere and the cone." Within just a few years,
cubism as a method of investigation lost its intellectual rigor
and became decorative and thus stylized. Nonetheless, its
influence on the development of painting in the 20th
century was enormous.
is a term referring to styles of visual art and music
displaying pared-down design elements.
As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in
post-World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts
in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this
movement include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan
Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It derives from the
reductive aspects of Modernism and is often interpreted as a reaction
against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art
Minimalism in visual art, generally referred to as "minimal art", literalist
art  and ABC Art emerged in New York in the early 1960s as new
and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction; exploring via
painting in the cases of Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Al Held, Ellsworth
Kelly, Robert Ryman and others; and sculpture in the works of various
artists including David Smith, Anthony Caro, Tony Smith, Sol LeWitt, Carl
Andre, Dan Flavin, Donald Judd and others.
grew out of Analytic Cubism. It was developed by Pablo
Picasso and Georges Braque and then copied by the Salon Cubists. Picasso and
Braque discovered that through the repetition of "analytic" signs their work
became more generalized, more geometrically simplified and flatter.
Overlapping planes sometimes shared one color (passage). Real pieces of
paper replaced painted flat depictions of paper. Real scores of music replaced
drawn musical notation. Fragments of newspaper, playing cards, cigarette
packs, and advertisements that were either real or painted interacted on the
flat plane of the canvas as the artists tried to achieve a total interpenetration
of life and art. The invention of collage, which integrated signs and fragments
of real things, is one aspect of "Synthetic Cubism." Picasso's first collage Still
Life with Chair Caning was created in May of 1912 (Musée Picasso, Paris).
Braque's first papier collé (pasted paper) Fruit Dish with Glass was created in
September of 1912 (Boston Museum of Fine Arts). Synthetic Cubism lasted
well into the Post-World War I period, influencing later 20th-century artists
Jacob Lawrence, Romare Bearden and Hans Hoffman, among many others.
Synthetic Cubism's integration of "high" and "low" art (art made by an artist
combined with art made for commercial purposes, such as packaging) can be
considered the first Pop Art.
Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that
attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted by the
medium, renouncing the use of manipulation. The West Coast Photographic
Movement is best known for the use of this style.
Founded in 1932, Group f/64 who championed purist photography, had this to
say: Pure photography is defined as possessing no qualities of technique,
composition or idea, derivative of any other art form.
The term emerged in the 1880s to mean simply an unmanipulated
photographic print, in opposition to the composite prints of Henry Peach
Robinson or the soft focus painterly images of some pictorialist photographers.
At first, straight photography was a viable choice within pictorialism, as, for
example, the work of Henry Frederick Evans. Paul Strand's 1917
characterization of his work as "absolute unqualified objectivity" described a
change in the meaning of the term. It came to imply a specific aesthetic
typified by higher contrast, sharper focus, aversion to cropping, and emphasis
on the underlying abstract geometric structure of subjects. Some
photographers began to identify these formal elements as a language for
translating metaphysical or spiritual dimensions into visual terms