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a "learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way."


a consumer's subjective perception of how a product of brand performs on different attributes.

brand loyalty

a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.

consumer behavior

the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social consequences that come before and after these actions.

family life cycle

describes the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchase behaviors.


the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer.


refers to those behaviors that result from (1) repeated experience ad (2) reasoning


the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need

opinion leaders

Individuals who exert or direct social influence over others. They are considered to be knowledgeable about or users of particular products and services, so their opinions influence others' choices.

perceived risk

the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences.


the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.


refers to a person's consistent behaviors or responses to reoccurring situations.

purchase decision process

1. problem recognition
2. information search
3. alternative evaluation
4. purchase decision
5. post-purchase behavior

reference groups

people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.


subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes.

word of mouth

influencing people during conversations. most powerful and authentic information source for consumers because it typically involves friends viewed as trustworthy.

three reference groups

1. membership group
2. aspirational group
3. dissociative group

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