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Chapter 6/Tech in Focus
Terms in this set (73)
Named after Gordon Moore. Describes the pace at which CPU's move. States that the number of transistors on a CPU will double every 2 years
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)
most common form of memory found in personal computers. Capacity of memory increases about 60% every year.
Laptops are often equipped with one. Can add a solid-state drive (SSD), new kinds of ports, and other capabilities to a system.
process looking at a computers subsystems, what they do and how they perform to determine whether the computer system has the right hardware components to do what the user ultimately wants it to do.
Core family from Intel
One of the dominant CPU's on the market
part of the CPU that coordinates the activities of all the other computer components.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
part of the CPU that is responsible for performing all the arithmetic calculations (add, subtract, divide, etc.). Also makes logic and comparison decisions such as comparing to determine if one is less, greater, equal.
series of steps a CPU goes through when it performs a program instruction. (Fetches, Decodes, Executes, Stored)
the pace at which a computer goes through machine cycles, how many instructions the CPU can process each second. measured in gigahertz (billions of steps/second).
Running the CPU at a speed faster than the manufacturer recommends.
on a CPU that contains the parts required for processing. embedded into one physical chip
two or more complete processors live on the same chip, enabling the execution of two sets of instructions at the same time.
permits quicker processing of info by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished. Allows two different programs to be processed at one time.
Acts as a holding place for recently used instructions or data that the CPU accesses the most. Much quicker than bringing the data from the computer's RAM (Level 1, Level 2 more storage, Level 3, RAM)
Measurements used to compare performance between processors.
percentage of time that your CPU is working
CPU Usage Graph
records your CPU usage for the past several seconds.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Computers short-term memory. Volatile storage, when the power is off the data stored is cleared out. Faster to retrieve data from here than from the hard drive.
The time it takes the CPU to grab data from RAM is measured in ____
Double Data Rate 3 (DDR3)
the type of RAM used in most current systems.
Memory Modules (or Memory Cards)
small circuit board that holds a series of RAM chips and fit into special slots on the motherboard.
Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)
small circuit board that holds several memory chips. Common in todays system's memory modules
amount of RAM installed on a computer
RAM Capacity is measured in ___
storage capacities exceeding 4 Terabytes, largest capacity of any storage device. measured in gigabytes or terabytes
Coated, round, thin plates of metal stacked on a spindle in a hard drive. When data is saved, a pattern of magnetized spots is created. (purpose is to store data on hard drive)
time is takes a storage device to locate its stored data and make it available for processing. Measured in milliseconds.
Solid-State Driver (SSD)
Storage device that uses same kind of memory as flash drives but can reach data in only a tenth of a time a flash drive requires.
a concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter
section of a hard drive platter, wedge-shaped from the center of the platter to the edge.
mechanism that retrieves (reads) and records (writes) the magnetic data to and from a data disk
The time it takes for the hard drive's read/write heads to move over the surface of the disk to the correct track.
Latency (rotational delay)
process that occurs after the read/write head of the hard drive locates the correct track and then waits for the correct sector to spin to the read/write head.
impact of the read/write head against the magnetic platter of the hard drive; often results in data loss.
use a laser to store and read data
portable storage devices (CDS, DVDs) that use a laser to read and write data.
Optical discs store data as tiny pits that are burned into the disc with a laser. pits and nonpits are called __
Read-only (ROM) meaning you can't save any data onto them
Recordable (R) format discs
allow you to write data to them only once.
Rewritable (RW) discs
let you write and rewrite as many times.
RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
set of strategies for using more than one drive in a system.
the strategy of running two hard drives in one system, cutting in half the time it takes to write a file. If either of these disks fail, you lose all of your data (for those most concerned with performance)
strategy of mirroring all the data written on one hard drive to a second hard drive, providing an instant backup of all data.
Video Card (Video Adapter)
expansion card installed inside the system unit to translate binary data into the images you view on your monitor. let you connect DVI, HDMI ports (computer gamers often install more than one)
RAM that is included as part of a video card
Graphics Double Data Rate 5 (GDDR5) memory
a standard of video memory. (Newer)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
processing chip specialized to handle 3-D graphics and image and video processing with incredible efficiency and speed. (shadows, textures, luminosity)
AMD Radeon Graphics Card
lets you merge six monitors to work as one big screen.
expansion card that attaches to the motherboard inside your system unit. Enables the computer to produce sounds by providing a connection for the speakers and microphone.
memory management technique used by Windows 7 that monitors applications you use the most and preloads them into your system memory so that they will be ready to use when you want them.
3-D sound card
an expansion card that enables a computer to produce omnidirectional (can't tell which direction) or three dimensional sounds
a type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sound as if it were coming from all directions.
Audio MIDI interface
interface technology that allows a user to connect guitars and microphones to their computer. (connects through USB and additional jacks) Ex: Garage Band
*Getting Rid of Old Computer: Before throwing away think of environmental impact. Mercury in LCD screen, cadmium in batteries, and flame retardants in plastic housings are all toxic. Recycle with manufactures, websites, recycle areas.
firm that offers a solution to retire computers. break down parts of computer until sand like substance.
the devices inside the computer that are flipped between the two states of 0 and 1 signifying "on" and "off"
Earliest (1st) generation of electronic computers used these as switches
first high-speed digital computer
2nd Generation electrical switches built out of layers of a special type of material called a semiconductor (Silicon)
Integrated Circuits (chips)
(3rd generation) tiny regions of semiconductor material that support a huge number of transistors. can hold a billion transistors
(4th generation) chips that contain a CPU. Intel 4004 was the first complete microprocessor to be located on a single integrated circuit.
Base-10 number system
system used to represent all of the numeric values you use each day 0-9. To represent a number you break the number down into groups of ones, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on. 6,954 (there are 6 thousands, 9 hundreds, 5 tens, and 4 sets of ones.
Base-2 number system (binary)
computers describe a number in powers of 2 because each switch can be in one of two positions:on or off. Describes a number as the sum of powers of 2- ones, twos, fours, eights. used to represent every piece of data stored in a computer. find the largest possible power of 2 that could be in the number. (ex: 67) 1 group of 64, that leaves 3 and 3 has 0 groups of 32, 0 groups of 16, 0 groups of 8, 0 groups of 4, 1 group of 2 that leaves 1, and 1 has one group of 1.
(binary number for 67 is 1000011.
a base-16 number system. uses 16 digits to represent it. 10 numeric digits (0-9) plus 6 extra (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) A=10, B=11. (16^0, 16^1, 16^2)
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
code used by most of today's personal computers. represent each letter or character as an 8-bit or 1 byte binary code. 26 uppercase and 26 lowercase letters.
use 16 bits and is able to represent the alphabets of all modern and historic languages and notational systems.
floating point standard
established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) that describes how numbers with fractional parts should be represented in the binary systems. using a 32-bit system
special memory storage built into the CPU which are most expensive, fastest memory in your computer.
the collection of commands a specific CPU can execute
easier for humans to work with than binary. translated into binary code
the number of bits a computer can work with at a time
technique that allows the CPU to work on more than one instruction at the same time.
process when there is a large network of computers with each computer working on a portion of the same problem simultaneously. Problem must be divided into a set of tasks that can be run simultaneously (Ex: comparing millions of faces to a target image)
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